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1.
Lung Cancer ; 142: 90-97, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether combining stability and discriminability criteria in building radiomic classifiers will improve the prognosis of cancer recurrence in early stage non-small cell lung cancer on non-contrast computer tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT scans of 610 patients with early stage (IA, IB, IIA) NSCLC from four independent cohorts were evaluated. A total of 350 patients from Cleveland Clinic Foundation and University of Pennsylvania were divided into two equal sets for training (D1) and validation set (D2). 80 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma and 195 patients from The Cancer Imaging Archive, were used as independent second (D3) and third (D4) validation sets. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was built based on the most stable and discriminate features. In addition, a radiomic risk score (RRS) was generated by using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, Cox regression model to predict time to progression (TTP) following surgery. RESULTS: A feature selection strategy focusing on both feature discriminability and stability resulted in the classifier having a higher discriminability on validation datasets compared to the discriminability alone criteria in discriminating cancer recurrence (D2, AUC of 0.75 vs. 0.65; D3, 0.74 vs. 0.62; D4, 0.76 vs. 0.63). The RRS generated by most stable-discriminating features was significantly associated with TTP compared to discriminating alone criteria (HR = 1.66, C-index of 0.72 vs. HR = 1.04, C-index of 0.62). CONCLUSION: Accounting for both stability and discriminability yielded a more generalizable classifier for predicting cancer recurrence and TTP in early stage NSCLC.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902551, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083997

RESUMO

Activating receptor tyrosine kinase RET (rarranged during transfection) gene alterations have been identified as oncogenic in multiple malignancies. RET gene rearrangements retaining the kinase domain are oncogenic drivers in papillary thyroid cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and multiple other cancers. Activating RET mutations are associated with different phenotypes of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 as well as sporadic medullary thyroid cancer. RET is thus an attractive therapeutic target in patients with oncogenic RET alterations. Multikinase inhibitors with RET inhibitor activity, such as cabozantinib and vandetanib, have been explored in the clinic for tumors with activating RET gene alterations with modest clinical efficacy. As a result of the nonselective nature of these multikinase inhibitors, patients had off-target adverse effects, such as hypertension, rash, and diarrhea. This resulted in a narrow therapeutic index of these drugs, limiting ability to dose for clinically effective RET inhibition. In contrast, the recent discovery and clinical validation of highly potent selective RET inhibitors (pralsetinib, selpercatinib) demonstrating improved efficacy and a more favorable toxicity profile are poised to alter the landscape of RET-dependent cancers. These drugs appear to have broad activity across tumors with activating RET alterations. The mechanisms of resistance to these next-generation highly selective RET inhibitors is an area of active research. This review summarizes the current understanding of RET alterations and the state-of-the-art treatment strategies in RET-dependent cancers.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 10(2): 270-287, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744829

RESUMO

Despite substantial progress in lung cancer immunotherapy, the overall response rate in patients with KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains low. Combining standard immunotherapy with adjuvant approaches that enhance adaptive immune responses-such as epigenetic modulation of antitumor immunity-is therefore an attractive strategy. To identify epigenetic regulators of tumor immunity, we constructed an epigenetic-focused single guide RNA library and performed an in vivo CRISPR screen in a Kras G12D/Trp53 -/- LUAD model. Our data showed that loss of the histone chaperone Asf1a in tumor cells sensitizes tumors to anti-PD-1 treatment. Mechanistic studies revealed that tumor cell-intrinsic Asf1a deficiency induced immunogenic macrophage differentiation in the tumor microenvironment by upregulating GM-CSF expression and potentiated T-cell activation in combination with anti-PD-1. Our results provide a rationale for a novel combination therapy consisting of ASF1A inhibition and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE: Using an in vivo epigenetic CRISPR screen, we identified Asf1a as a critical regulator of LUAD sensitivity to anti-PD-1 therapy. Asf1a deficiency synergized with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy by promoting M1-like macrophage polarization and T-cell activation. Thus, we provide a new immunotherapeutic strategy for this subtype of patients with LUAD.See related commentary by Menzel and Black, p. 179.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 161.

4.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(1): 108-119, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719058

RESUMO

No predictive biomarkers can robustly identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who will benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies. Here, in a machine learning setting, we compared changes ("delta") in the radiomic texture (DelRADx) of CT patterns both within and outside tumor nodules before and after two to three cycles of ICI therapy. We found that DelRADx patterns could predict response to ICI therapy and overall survival (OS) for patients with NSCLC. We retrospectively analyzed data acquired from 139 patients with NSCLC at two institutions, who were divided into a discovery set (D1 = 50) and two independent validation sets (D2 = 62, D3 = 27). Intranodular and perinodular texture descriptors were extracted, and the relative differences were computed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was trained with 8 DelRADx features to predict RECIST-derived response. Association of delta-radiomic risk score (DRS) with OS was determined. The association of DelRADx features with tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density on the diagnostic biopsies (n = 36) was also evaluated. The LDA classifier yielded an AUC of 0.88 ± 0.08 in distinguishing responders from nonresponders in D1, and 0.85 and 0.81 in D2 and D3 DRS was associated with OS [HR: 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.21; P = 0.0011; C-index = 0.72). Peritumoral Gabor features were associated with the density of TILs on diagnostic biopsy samples. Our results show that DelRADx could be used to identify early functional responses in patients with NSCLC.

5.
Cancer Cell ; 37(1): 37-54.e9, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883968

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is a central regulator of the cell cycle and gene transcription. However, little is known about its impact on genomic instability and cancer immunity. Using a selective CDK7 inhibitor, YKL-5-124, we demonstrated that CDK7 inhibition predominately disrupts cell-cycle progression and induces DNA replication stress and genome instability in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) while simultaneously triggering immune-response signaling. These tumor-intrinsic events provoke a robust immune surveillance program elicited by T cells, which is further enhanced by the addition of immune-checkpoint blockade. Combining YKL-5-124 with anti-PD-1 offers significant survival benefit in multiple highly aggressive murine models of SCLC, providing a rationale for new combination regimens consisting of CDK7 inhibitors and immunotherapies.

6.
Lung Cancer ; 138: 124-130, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite improved outcomes associated with immunotherapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many patients do not respond to treatment. Therefore, there is still an unmet need for molecularly targeted therapies in this patient population. Fusions of the RET oncogene have been identified as driver alterations in patients with NSCLC. Lenvatinib is a multityrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-4, RET, and other targets. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of lenvatinib in patients with RET fusion-positive lung adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this phase 2, multicenter, open-label study (NCT01877083), patients with RET-positive lung adenocarcinoma received oral lenvatinib 24 mg/day. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by investigator review per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors v1.1 criteria. The secondary end points included safety and tolerability, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 536 patients who screened for study inclusion and exclusion, 25 patients with RET translocations (KIF5B-RET [n = 13] and CCDC6-RET [n = 12]) were identified and received lenvatinib. The overall ORR was 16% (95% CI: 4.5%-36.1%). At data cutoff (February 3, 2016), the median PFS was 7.3 months (95% CI: 3.6-10.2) and the median OS was not reached. Duration of response was not estimable at the time of data cutoff. All patients experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE); 23 (92%) patients experienced a TEAE of ≥ grade 3, and 6 (24%) patients discontinued lenvatinib due to a TEAE. The most common TEAEs were hypertension (68%), nausea (60%), decreased appetite (52%), diarrhea (52%), and proteinuria (48%). CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib demonstrated activity in patients with RET fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas; although the response rate was relatively low, the median PFS supports the activity of lenvatinib in these patients.

7.
Immunotherapy ; 11(18): 1541-1554, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774363

RESUMO

Aim: To determine real-world outcomes with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with PD-L1 tumor expression ≥50%. Methods: This retrospective study included adults with ECOG 0-1 initiating first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy on/after 24 October 2016 (EHR cohort) or from 1 December 2016 through 30 November 2017 (spotlight cohort) with ≥6-month follow-up. We estimated Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS, both cohorts), and, for spotlight, real-world progression-free survival (rwPFS) by Kaplan-Meier and real-world tumor response (rwTR). Results: For 423 patients in the EHR cohort and 188 in spotlight, median OS was 18.9 months (95% CI: 14.9-25.5) and 19.1 months (12.6-not reached), respectively. For spotlight, median rwPFS was 6.8 months (5.3-8.1); rwTR of complete/partial response was 48% (41-56%). Conclusion: Observed OS, rwPFS and rwTR were consistent with clinical trial findings.

10.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 16(11): 703-715, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399699

RESUMO

In the past decade, advances in precision oncology have resulted in an increased demand for predictive assays that enable the selection and stratification of patients for treatment. The enormous divergence of signalling and transcriptional networks mediating the crosstalk between cancer, stromal and immune cells complicates the development of functionally relevant biomarkers based on a single gene or protein. However, the result of these complex processes can be uniquely captured in the morphometric features of stained tissue specimens. The possibility of digitizing whole-slide images of tissue has led to the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning tools in digital pathology, which enable mining of subvisual morphometric phenotypes and might, ultimately, improve patient management. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate various AI-based computational approaches for digital pathology, focusing on deep neural networks and 'hand-crafted' feature-based methodologies. We aim to provide a broad framework for incorporating AI and machine learning tools into clinical oncology, with an emphasis on biomarker development. We discuss some of the challenges relating to the use of AI, including the need for well-curated validation datasets, regulatory approval and fair reimbursement strategies. Finally, we present potential future opportunities for precision oncology.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Oncologia/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Humanos
11.
Lung Cancer ; 135: 1-9, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of a neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery in patients with stage IIIA NSCLC is controversial and the benefit of surgery is limited. There are currently no clinically validated biomarkers to select patients for such an approach. In this study we evaluate computed tomography (CT) derived intratumoral and peritumoral texture and nodule shape features in their ability to predict major pathological response (MPR). MPR being defined as ≤10% of residual viable tumor, assessed at the time of surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with stage III NSCLC treated with chemoradiation prior to surgical resection were selected. The patients were divided randomly into two equal sets, one for training and one for independent testing. The radiomic texture and shape features were extracted from within the nodule (intra) and from the parenchymal regions immediately surrounding the nodule (peritumoral). A univariate regression analysis was performed on the image and clinicopathologic variables and then included into a multivariable logistic regression (MLR) for binary outcome prediction of MPR. The radiomic signature risk-score was generated by using a multivariate Cox regression model and association of the signature with OS and DFS was also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirteen stable and predictive intratumoral and peritumoral radiomic texture features were found to be predictive of MPR. The MLR classifier yielded an AUC of 0.90 ±â€¯0.025 within the training set and a corresponding AUC = 0.86 in prediction of MPR within the test set. The radiomic signature was also significantly associated with OS (HR = 11.18, 95% CI = 3.17, 44.1; p-value = 0.008) and DFS (HR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.11, 4.12; p-value = 0.0042) in the testing set. CONCLUSION: Texture features extracted within and around the lung tumor on CT images appears to be associated with the likelihood of MPR, OS and DFS to chemoradiation.

12.
Immunotherapy ; 11(10): 889-901, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181973

RESUMO

Aim: To determine real-world time on treatment (rwToT) with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥50%. Methods: The Kaplan-Meier rwToT was estimated from electronic health record data for adults who initiated first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy for stage IV, PD-L1 TPS ≥50% NSCLC, with negative/unknown EGFR/ALK aberrations, and ≥6 months' follow-up until database cutoff. Results: A total of 386 patients with ECOG 0-1 had a median rwToT of 6.9 months (95% CI: 5.6-8.3) and 12-month on-treatment rate of 36.4% (31.2-41.6) versus 40.3% (32.5-47.9) and 37.6% (31.9-43.4) in KEYNOTE-024 (KN024) and KN042 (stage IV/TPS ≥50% subpopulation), respectively. The 24-month restricted-mean rwTOT (extrapolated) was 10.5 months (9.4-11.7), versus 11.0 (9.5-12.5) and 10.4 (9.3-11.5) in KN024 and KN042, respectively. Conclusion: First-line pembrolizumab monotherapy rwToT in metastatic PD-L1 TPS ≥50% NSCLC for trial-matched patients is similar to treatment duration in KN024 and KN042.

13.
Nat Med ; 25(5): 759-766, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036879

RESUMO

Modulating T cell homeostatic mechanisms with checkpoint blockade can efficiently promote endogenous anti-tumor T cell responses1-11. However, many patients still do not benefit from checkpoint blockade12, highlighting the need for targeting of alternative immune pathways13. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) is an attractive target for immunotherapy, owing to its capacity to promote effector T cell (Teff) functions14,15 and hamper regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression16-20. On the basis of the potent preclinical anti-tumor activity of agonist anti-GITR antibodies, reported by us and others16,21,22, we initiated the first in-human phase 1 trial of GITR agonism with the anti-GITR antibody TRX518 ( NCT01239134 ). Here, we report the safety profile and immune effects of TRX518 monotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and provide mechanistic preclinical evidence to rationally combine GITR agonism with checkpoint blockade in future clinical trials. We demonstrate that TRX518 reduces circulating and intratumoral Treg cells to similar extents, providing an easily assessable biomarker of anti-GITR activity. Despite Treg reductions and increased Teff:Treg ratios, substantial clinical responses were not seen. Similarly, in mice with advanced tumors, GITR agonism was not sufficient to activate cytolytic T cells due to persistent exhaustion. We demonstrate that T cell reinvigoration with PD-1 blockade can overcome resistance of advanced tumors to anti-GITR monotherapy. These findings led us to start investigating TRX518 with PD-1 pathway blockade in patients with advanced refractory tumors ( NCT02628574 ).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/agonistas , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Desenho de Drogas , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/imunologia , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(15): 4663-4673, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053602

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the tumor tissue/cell distribution, functional associations, and clinical significance of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 protein expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence, we performed localized measurements of CD3, PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 protein in >800 clinically annotated NSCLCs from three independent cohorts represented in tissue microarrays. Associations between the marker's expression and major genomic alterations were studied in The Cancer Genome Atlas NSCLC dataset. Using mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis of leukocytes collected from 20 resected NSCLCs, we determined the levels, coexpression, and functional profile of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 expressing immune cells. Finally, we measured the markers in baseline samples from 90 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 axis blockers and known response to treatment. RESULTS: PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 were detected in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from 55%, 41.5%, and 25.3% of NSCLC cases, respectively. These markers showed a prominent association with each other and limited association with major clinicopathologic variables and survival in patients not receiving immunotherapy. Expression of the markers was lower in EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas and displayed limited association with tumor mutational burden. In single-cell CyTOF analysis, PD-1 and LAG-3 were predominantly localized on T-cell subsets/NKT cells, whereas TIM-3 expression was higher in NK cells and macrophages. Coexpression of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 was associated with prominent T-cell activation (CD69/CD137), effector function (Granzyme-B), and proliferation (Ki-67), but also with elevated levels of proapoptotic markers (FAS/BIM). LAG-3 and TIM-3 were present in TIL subsets lacking PD-1 expression and showed a distinct functional profile. In baseline samples from 90 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 axis blockers, elevated LAG-3 was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 have distinct tissue/cell distribution, functional implications, and genomic correlates in human NSCLC. Expression of these immune inhibitory receptors in TILs is associated with prominent activation, but also with a proapoptotic T-cell phenotype. Elevated LAG-3 expression is associated with insensitivity to PD-1 axis blockade, suggesting independence of these immune evasion pathways.

15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1447-1457, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063862

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite high tumor mutationburden, immune checkpoint blockade has limited efficacy in SCLC. We hypothesized that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition could render SCLC more susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. METHODS: A single-arm, phase II trial (NCT02484404) enrolled patients with relapsed SCLC who received durvalumab, 1500 mg every 4 weeks, and olaparib, 300 mg twice a day. The primary outcome was objective response rate. Correlative studies included mandatory collection of pretreatment and during-treatment biopsy specimens, which were assessed to define SCLC immunephenotypes: desert (CD8-positive T-cell prevalence low), excluded (CD8-positive T cells in stroma immediately adjacent/within tumor), and inflamed (CD8-positive T cells in direct contact with tumor). RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 64 years, and most patients (60%) had platinum-resistant/refractory disease. Of 19 evaluable patients, two were observed to have partial or complete responses (10.5%), including a patient with EGFR-transformed SCLC. Clinical benefit was observed in four patients (21.1% [95% confidence interval: 6.1%-45.6%]) with confirmed responses or prolonged stable disease (≥8 months). The most common treatment-related adverse events were anemia (80%), lymphopenia (60%), and leukopenia (50%). Nine of 14 tumors (64%) exhibited an excluded phenotype; 21% and 14% of tumors exhibited the inflamed and desert phenotypes, respectively. Tumor responses were observed in all instances in which pretreatment tumors showed an inflamed phenotype. Of the five tumors without an inflamed phenotype at baseline, no during-treatment increase in T-cell infiltration or programmed death ligand 1 expression on tumor-infiltrating immune cells was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The study combination did not meet the preset bar for efficacy. Pretreatment and during-treatment biopsy specimens suggested that tumor immune phenotypes may be relevant for SCLC responses to immune checkpoint blockade combinations. The predictive value of preexisting CD8-positive T-cell infiltrates observed in this study needs to be confirmed in larger cohorts.

16.
Cancer Discov ; 9(4): 472-475, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936220

RESUMO

Even in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a cancer of professional antigen-presenting cells, response rates to immune checkpoint blockade therapy have been limited. One reason for DLBCL immune evasion is epigenetic repression instead of activation of the antigen-presenting MHC-a dissection of mechanisms underlying this repression suggests an opening for restoring B-cell maturation and, along the way, MHC expression as a novel modality of cytoreducing DLBCL and simultaneously augmenting possibilities for immunotherapy.See related article by Ennishi et al., p. 546.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Adulto , Criança , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 65, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 10-15% of all lung malignancies and its prognosis is dismal. Although early studies have shown promising clinical activity of immune checkpoint blockers, the immune composition and expression of potentially actionable immunostimulatory targets in this malignancy are poorly understood. METHODS: Using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF), we measured the levels of 3 different B7 family ligands PD-L1, B7-H3, B7-H4 and major tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) subsets in 90 SCLC samples represented in tissue microarray format. Associations between the marker levels, clinicopathological variables and survival were studied. RESULTS: PD-L1 protein was detected in 7.3%, B7-H3 in 64.9% and B7-H4 in 2.6% of SCLC cases. The markers showed limited co-expression and were not associated with the level of TILs, age, gender and stage. Elevated B7-H4 was associated with shorter 5-year overall survival. The levels of CD3+, CD8+ and CD20+ TILs and the ratio of total/effector T-cells were significantly lower in SCLC than in non-small cell lung cancer. High levels of CD3+, but not CD8+ or CD20+ TILs were significantly associated with longer survival. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study indicate variable expression and clinical role of B7-family ligands in SCLC with predominant expression of the candidate target B7-H3 and the presence of a limited cytotoxic anti-tumor immune response. These results support the evaluation of B7-H3 blockers and/or pro-inflammatory therapies in SCLC.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(5): 1526-1534, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The presence of a high degree of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been proven to be associated with outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, recent evidence indicates that tissue architecture is also prognostic of disease-specific survival and recurrence. We show a set of descriptors (spatial TIL, SpaTIL) that capture density, and spatial colocalization of TILs and tumor cells across digital images that can predict likelihood of recurrence in early-stage NSCLC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The association between recurrence in early-stage NSCLC and SpaTIL features was explored on 301 patients across four different cohorts. Cohort D1 (n = 70) was used to identify the most prognostic SpaTIL features and to train a classifier to predict the likelihood of recurrence. The classifier performance was evaluated in cohorts D2 (n = 119), D3 (n = 112), and D4 (n = 112). Two pathologists graded each sample of D1 and D2; intraobserver agreement and association between manual grading and likelihood of recurrence were analyzed. RESULTS: SpaTIL was associated with likelihood of recurrence in all test sets (log-rank P < 0.02). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed an HR of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 2.1-4.5, P = 7.3 × 10-5). In contrast, agreement among expert pathologists using tumor grade was moderate (Kappa = 0.5), and the manual TIL grading was only prognostic for one reader in D2 (P = 8.0 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: A set of features related to density and spatial architecture of TILs was found to be associated with a likelihood of recurrence of early-stage NSCLC. This information could potentially be used for helping in treatment planning and management of early-stage NSCLC.See related commentary by Peled et al., p. 1449.

19.
Oncologist ; 24(1): 4-8, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355774

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment paradigms for a broad spectrum of malignancies. Because immune checkpoint inhibitors rely on immune reactivation to eliminate cancer cells, they can also lead to the loss of immune tolerance and result in a wide range of phenomena called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). At our institution, the management of irAEs is based on multidisciplinary input obtained at an irAE tumor board that facilitates expedited opinions from various specialties and allows for a more uniform approach to these patients. In this article, we describe a case of a patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who developed a maculopapular rash while being treated with a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor. We then describe the approach to management of dermatologic toxicities with ICIs based on the discussion at our irAE Tumor Board. KEY POINTS: Innocuous symptoms such as pruritis or a maculopapular rash may herald potentially fatal severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs); therefore, close attention must be paid to the symptoms, history, and physical examination of all patients.Consultation with dermatology should be sought for patients with grade 3 or 4 toxicity or SCARs and prior to resumption of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with grade 3 or higher toxicity.A multidisciplinary immune-related adverse events (irAE) tumor board can facilitate timely input and expertise from various specialties, thereby ensuring a streamlined approach to management of irAEs.

20.
Radiology ; 290(3): 783-792, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561278

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate ability of radiomic (computer-extracted imaging) features to distinguish non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinomas from granulomas at noncontrast CT. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, screening or standard diagnostic noncontrast CT images were collected for 290 patients (mean age, 68 years; range, 18-92 years; 125 men [mean age, 67 years; range, 18-90 years] and 165 women [mean age, 68 years; range, 33-92 years]) from two institutions between 2007 and 2013. Histopathologic analysis was available for one nodule per patient. Corresponding nodule of interest was identified on axial CT images by a radiologist with manual annotation. Nodule shape, wavelet (Gabor), and texture-based (Haralick and Laws energy) features were extracted from intra- and perinodular regions. Features were pruned to train machine learning classifiers with 145 patients. In a test set of 145 patients, classifier results were compared against a convolutional neural network (CNN) and diagnostic readings of two radiologists. Results Support vector machine classifier with intranodular radiomic features achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.75 on the test set. Combining radiomics of intranodular with perinodular regions improved the AUC to 0.80. On the same test set, CNN resulted in an AUC of 0.76. Radiologist readers achieved AUCs of 0.61 and 0.60, respectively. Conclusion Radiomic features from intranodular and perinodular regions of nodules can distinguish non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinomas from benign granulomas at noncontrast CT. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Nishino in this issue.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
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