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1.
Neuron ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045337

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex disease that leads to motor neuron death. Despite heritability estimates of 52%, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered relatively few loci. We developed a machine learning approach called RefMap, which integrates functional genomics with GWAS summary statistics for gene discovery. With transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), RefMap identified 690 ALS-associated genes that represent a 5-fold increase in recovered heritability. Extensive conservation, transcriptome, network, and rare variant analyses demonstrated the functional significance of candidate genes in healthy and diseased motor neurons and brain tissues. Genetic convergence between common and rare variation highlighted KANK1 as a new ALS gene. Reproducing KANK1 patient mutations in human neurons led to neurotoxicity and demonstrated that TDP-43 mislocalization, a hallmark pathology of ALS, is downstream of axonal dysfunction. RefMap can be readily applied to other complex diseases.

2.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 7, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex, late-onset, neurodegenerative disease with a genetic contribution to disease liability. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ten risk loci to date, including the TNIP1/GPX3 locus on chromosome five. Given association analysis data alone cannot determine the most plausible risk gene for this locus, we undertook a comprehensive suite of in silico, in vivo and in vitro studies to address this. METHODS: The Functional Mapping and Annotation (FUMA) pipeline and five tools (conditional and joint analysis (GCTA-COJO), Stratified Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (S-LDSC), Polygenic Priority Scoring (PoPS), Summary-based Mendelian Randomisation (SMR-HEIDI) and transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) analyses) were used to perform bioinformatic integration of GWAS data (Ncases = 20,806, Ncontrols = 59,804) with 'omics reference datasets including the blood (eQTLgen consortium N = 31,684) and brain (N = 2581). This was followed up by specific expression studies in ALS case-control cohorts (microarray Ntotal = 942, protein Ntotal = 300) and gene knockdown (KD) studies of human neuronal iPSC cells and zebrafish-morpholinos (MO). RESULTS: SMR analyses implicated both TNIP1 and GPX3 (p < 1.15 × 10-6), but there was no simple SNP/expression relationship. Integrating multiple datasets using PoPS supported GPX3 but not TNIP1. In vivo expression analyses from blood in ALS cases identified that lower GPX3 expression correlated with a more progressed disease (ALS functional rating score, p = 5.5 × 10-3, adjusted R2 = 0.042, Beffect = 27.4 ± 13.3 ng/ml/ALSFRS unit) with microarray and protein data suggesting lower expression with risk allele (recessive model p = 0.06, p = 0.02 respectively). Validation in vivo indicated gpx3 KD caused significant motor deficits in zebrafish-MO (mean difference vs. control ± 95% CI, vs. control, swim distance = 112 ± 28 mm, time = 1.29 ± 0.59 s, speed = 32.0 ± 2.53 mm/s, respectively, p for all < 0.0001), which were rescued with gpx3 expression, with no phenotype identified with tnip1 KD or gpx3 overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: These results support GPX3 as a lead ALS risk gene in this locus, with more data needed to confirm/reject a role for TNIP1. This has implications for understanding disease mechanisms (GPX3 acts in the same pathway as SOD1, a well-established ALS-associated gene) and identifying new therapeutic approaches. Few previous examples of in-depth investigations of risk loci in ALS exist and a similar approach could be applied to investigate future expected GWAS findings.

3.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 24, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic clocks use DNA methylation (DNAm) levels of specific sets of CpG dinucleotides to accurately predict individual chronological age. A popular application of these clocks is to explore whether the deviation of predicted age from chronological age is associated with disease phenotypes, where this deviation is interpreted as a potential biomarker of biological age. This wide application, however, contrasts with the limited insight in the processes that may drive the running of epigenetic clocks. RESULTS: We perform a functional genomics analysis on four epigenetic clocks, including Hannum's blood predictor and Horvath's multi-tissue predictor, using blood DNA methylome and transcriptome data from 3132 individuals. The four clocks result in similar predictions of individual chronological age, and their constituting CpGs are correlated in DNAm level and are enriched for similar histone modifications and chromatin states. Interestingly, DNAm levels of CpGs from the clocks are commonly associated with gene expression in trans. The gene sets involved are highly overlapping and enriched for T cell processes. Further analysis of the transcriptome and methylome of sorted blood cell types identifies differences in DNAm between naive and activated T and NK cells as a probable contributor to the clocks. Indeed, within the same donor, the four epigenetic clocks predict naive cells to be up to 40 years younger than activated cells. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of epigenetic clocks to predict chronological age involves their ability to detect changes in proportions of naive and activated immune blood cells, an established feature of immuno-senescence. This finding may contribute to the interpretation of associations between clock-derived measures and age-related health outcomes.

4.
Circ Res ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886679

RESUMO

Background: Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is a severe congenital heart defect which affects approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. While there are several reports of D-TGA patients with rare variants in individual genes, the majority of D-TGA cases remain genetically elusive. Familial recurrence patterns and the observation that most cases with D-TGA are sporadic suggest a polygenic inheritance for the disorder, yet this remains unexplored. Methods: We sought to study the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in risk for D-TGA. We conducted a genome-wide association study in an international set of 1,237 patients with D-TGA and identified a genome-wide significant susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3, which was subsequently replicated in an independent case-control set (rs56219800, meta-analysis P=8.6x10-10, OR=0.69 per C allele). Results: SNP-based heritability analysis showed that 25% of variance in susceptibility to D-TGA may be explained by common variants. A genome-wide polygenic risk score derived from the discovery set was significantly associated to D-TGA in the replication set (P=4x10-5). The genome-wide significant locus (3p14.3) co-localizes with a putative regulatory element that interacts with the promoter of WNT5A, which encodes the Wnt Family Member 5A protein known for its role in cardiac development in mice. We show that this element drives reporter gene activity in the developing heart of mice and zebrafish and is bound by the developmental transcription factor TBX20. We further demonstrate that TBX20 attenuates Wnt5a expression levels in the developing mouse heart. Conclusions: This work provides support for a polygenic architecture in D-TGA and identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3 near WNT5A. Genomic and functional data support a causal role of WNT5A at the locus.

5.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708205

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that common variants found in genome-wide association studies increase risk of disease through gene regulation via expression Quantitative Trait Loci. Using multiple genome-wide methods, we examined if Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci expression is consistent across people who had Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and those who did not. In combining public expression Quantitative Trait Loci data with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genome-wide association studies, we used Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization to confirm that SCFD1 was the only gene that was genome-wide significant in mediating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk via expression Quantitative Trait Loci (Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization beta = 0.20, standard error = 0.04, P-value = 4.29 × 10-6). Using post-mortem motor cortex, we tested whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (n = 76) and controls (n = 25), genome-wide. Of 20 757 genes analysed, the two most significant expression Quantitative Trait Loci to show differential in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls involve two known Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genes (SCFD1 and VCP). Cis-acting SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci downstream of the gene showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls (top expression Quantitative Trait Loci beta = 0.34, standard error = 0.063, P-value = 4.54 × 10-7). These SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci also significantly modified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis survival (number of samples = 4265, hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.17, P-value = 2.06 × 10-4) and act as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot for a wider network of genes enriched for SCFD1 function and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis pathways. Using gene-set analyses, we found the genes that correlate with this trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot significantly increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (beta = 0.247, standard deviation = 0.017, P = 0.001) and schizophrenia (beta = 0.263, standard deviation = 0.008, P-value = 1.18 × 10-5), a disease that genetically correlates with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In summary, SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci are a major factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, not only influencing disease risk but are differentially expressed in post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci show distinct expression profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis that correlate with a wider network of genes that also confer risk of the disease and modify the disease's duration.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate sensitivity of brain MRI and neurological examination for detection of upper motor neuron (UMN) degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We studied 192 patients with ALS and 314 controls longitudinally. All patients visited our centre twice and underwent full neurological examination and brain MRI. At each visit, we assessed UMN degeneration by measuring motor cortex thickness (CT) and pyramidal tract fibre density (FD) corresponding to five body regions (bulbar region and limbs). For each body region, we measured degree of clinical UMN and lower motor neuron (LMN) symptom burden using a validated scoring system. RESULTS: We found deterioration over time of CT of motor regions (p≤0.0081) and progression of UMN signs of bulbar region and left arm (p≤0.04). FD was discriminative between controls and patients with moderate/severe UMN signs (all regions, p≤0.034), but did not change longitudinally. Higher clinical UMN burden correlated with reduced CT, but not lower FD, for the bulbar region (p=2.2×10-10) and legs (p≤0.025). In the arms, we found that severe LMN signs may reduce the detectability of UMN signs (p≤0.043). With MRI, UMN degeneration was detectable before UMN signs became clinically evident (CT: p=1.1×10-10, FD: p=6.3×10-4). Motor CT, but not FD, deteriorated more than UMN signs during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Motor CT is a more sensitive measure of UMN degeneration than UMN signs. Motor CT and pyramidal tract FD are discriminative between patients and controls. Brain MRI can monitor UMN degeneration before signs become clinically evident. These findings promote MRI as a potential biomarker for UMN progression in clinical trials in ALS.

7.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343141

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an archetypal complex disease wherein disease risk and severity are, for the majority of patients, the product of interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. We are in a period of unprecedented discovery with new large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) and accelerating discovery of risk genes. However, much of the observed heritability of ALS is undiscovered and we are not yet approaching elucidation of the total genetic architecture, which will be necessary for comprehensive disease subclassification. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarize recent developments and discuss the future. New machine learning models will help to address nonlinear genetic interactions. Statistical power for genetic discovery may be boosted by reducing the search-space using cell-specific epigenetic profiles and expanding our scope to include genetically correlated phenotypes. Structural variation, somatic heterogeneity and consideration of environmental modifiers represent significant challenges which will require integration of multiple technologies and a multidisciplinary approach, including clinicians, geneticists and pathologists. SUMMARY: The move away from fully penetrant Mendelian risk genes necessitates new experimental designs and new standards for validation. The challenges are significant, but the potential reward for successful disease subclassification is large-scale and effective personalized medicine.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829936

RESUMO

The kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) motor domain variants are typically associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2 (CMT2), while KIF5A tail variants predispose to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neonatal intractable myoclonus. Variants within the stalk domain of KIF5A are relatively rare. We describe a family of three patients with a complex HSP phenotype and a likely pathogenic KIF5A stalk variant. More family members were reported to have walking difficulties. When reviewing the literature on KIF5A stalk variants, we found 22 other cases. The phenotypes varied with most cases having (complex) HSP/CMT2 or ALS. Symptom onset varied from childhood to adulthood and common additional symptoms for HSP are involvement of the upper limbs, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and foot deformities. We conclude that KIF5A variants lead to a broad clinical spectrum of disease. Phenotype distribution according to variants in specific domains occurs often in the motor and tail domain but are not definite. However, variants in the stalk domain are not bound to a specific phenotype.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(2): 147-157, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842068

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: To improve our clinical understanding of facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN). Recent Findings: We identified 29 new cases and 71 literature cases, resulting in a cohort of 100 patients with FOSMN. During follow-up, cognitive and behavioral changes became apparent in 8 patients, suggesting that changes within the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are a part of the natural history of FOSMN. Another new finding was chorea, seen in 6 cases. Despite reports of autoantibodies, there is no consistent evidence to suggest an autoimmune pathogenesis. Four of 6 autopsies had TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP) 43 pathology. Seven cases had genetic mutations associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Summary: FOSMN is a rare disease with a highly characteristic onset and pattern of disease progression involving initial sensory disturbances, followed by bulbar weakness with a cranial to caudal spread of pathology. Although not conclusive, the balance of evidence suggests that FOSMN is most likely to be a TDP-43 proteinopathy within the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-FTD spectrum.

11.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(5): 373-384, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The causal cascade is, however, not known. We aimed to assess lifestyle during the presymptomatic phase of ALS, stratified by C9orf72 mutation, and examine evidence supporting causality of lifestyle factors. METHODS: This study was a longitudinal, population-based, case-control study that used data from the Prospective ALS study the Netherlands. We included patients with a C9orf72 mutation (C9+ group), patients without a C9orf72 mutation (C9- group), and controls. Patients fulfilled the revised El Escorial criteria and were recruited through neurologists and rehabilitation physicians in the Netherlands as well as the Dutch Neuromuscular Patient Association and ALS Centrum website. 1322 population-based controls, matched for age and sex, were enrolled via the patients' general practitioners. Blood relatives or spouses of patients were not eligible as controls. We studied the relationship between ALS risk and smoking, alcohol, physical activity, body-mass index (BMI), and energy intake by the use of structured questionnaires. Smoking, physical activity, and BMI were longitudinally assessed up to 50 years before onset (defined as the period before onset of muscle weakness or bulbar symptoms for cases, or age at completing the questionnaire for controls). We calculated posterior probabilities (P(θ|x)) for causal effects of smoking, alcohol, and BMI, using Bayesian instrumental variable analyses. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2006 and Jan 27, 2016, we included 143 patients in the C9+ group, 1322 patients in the C9- group, and 1322 controls. Compared with controls, cigarette pack-years (C9+ group mean difference from control 3·15, 95% CI 0·36 to 5·93, p=0·027; C9- group 3·20, 2·02 to 4·39, p<0·0001) and daily energy intake at symptom onset (C9+ group 712 kJ, 95% CI 212 to 1213, p=0·0053; C9- group 497, 295 to 700, p<0·0001) were higher in the C9+ and C9- groups, whereas current BMI (C9+ group -2·01 kg/m2, 95% CI -2·73 to -1·29, p<0·0001; C9- group -1·35, -1·64 to -1·06, p<0·0001) and lifetime alcohol consumption (C9+ group -5388 units, 95% CI -9113 to -1663, p=0·0046; C9- group -2185, -3748 to -622, p=0·0062) were lower in the C9+ and C9- groups. Median BMI during the presymptomatic phase for the C9+ group was lower (-0·69 kg/m2, 95% CI -1·24 to -0·13, p=0·015) and physical activity was similar (-348 metabolic equivalent of task [MET], 95% CI -966 to 270, p=0·27) to controls, whereas both the median BMI during the presymptomatic phase (0·27 kg/m2, 95% CI 0·04 to 0·50, p=0·022) and physical activity (585 MET, 291 to 878, p=0·0001) were higher in the C9- group than controls. Longitudinal analyses showed more cigarette pack-years in the C9- (starting 47 years pre-onset) and C9+ (starting 24 years pre-onset) groups, and higher physical activity over time in the C9- group (starting >30 years pre-onset). BMI of the C9+ group increased more slowly and was significantly lower (starting at 36 years pre-onset) than in controls, whereas the BMI of the C9- group was higher than controls (23-49 years pre-onset, becoming lower 10 years pre-onset). Instrumental variable analyses supported causal effects of alcohol consumption (P(θ|x)=0·9347) and smoking (P(θ|x)=0·9859) on ALS in the C9- group. We found evidence supporting a causal effect of increased BMI at younger age (mean 33·8 years, SD 11·7) in the C9- group (P[θ|x]=0·9272), but not at older ages. INTERPRETATION: Lifestyle during the presymptomatic phase differs between patients with ALS and controls decades before onset, depends on C9- status, and is probably part of the presymptomatic causal cascade. Identification of modifiable disease-causing lifestyle factors offers opportunities to lower risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. FUNDING: Netherlands ALS Foundation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Estilo de Vida , Mutação/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(4): 604-614, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414559

RESUMO

Genetic isolates are compelling tools for mapping genes of inherited disorders. The archipelago of Malta, a sovereign microstate in the south of Europe is home to a geographically and culturally isolated population. Here, we investigate the epidemiology and genetic profile of Maltese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), identified throughout a 2-year window. Cases were largely male (66.7%) with a predominant spinal onset of symptoms (70.8%). Disease onset occurred around mid-age (median age: 64 years, men; 59.5 years, female); 12.5% had familial ALS (fALS). Annual incidence rate was 2.48 (95% CI 1.59-3.68) per 100,000 person-years. Male-to-female incidence ratio was 1.93:1. Prevalence was 3.44 (95% CI 2.01-5.52) cases per 100,000 inhabitants on 31st December 2018. Whole-genome sequencing allowed us to determine rare DNA variants that change the protein-coding sequence of ALS-associated genes. Interestingly, the Maltese ALS patient cohort was found to be negative for deleterious variants in C9orf72, SOD1, TARDBP or FUS genes, which are the most commonly mutated ALS genes globally. Nonetheless, ALS-associated repeat expansions were identified in ATXN2 and NIPA1. Variants predicted to be damaging were also detected in ALS2, DAO, DCTN1, ERBB4, SETX, SCFD1 and SPG11. A total of 40% of patients with sporadic ALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene, whilst the genetic cause of two thirds of fALS cases could not be pinpointed to known ALS genes or risk loci. This warrants further studies to elucidate novel genes that cause ALS in this unique population isolate.

14.
Neurology ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess time trends in MND incidence, prevalence and mortality and investigate geographical clustering of MND cases in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2017, we analyzed data from the Netherlands Personal Records database, the Netherlands MND Center and the Netherlands Patient Association of Neuromuscular Diseases. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, Poisson regression was used to assess time trends in MND risk. We calculated age- and sex-standardized, observed and expected cases for 1,694 areas. Bayesian smoothed risk mapping was used to investigate geographical MND risk. RESULTS: We identified 7,992 MND cases, reflecting an incidence of 2.64 (95% CI 2.62-2.67) per 100,000 person-years and a prevalence of 9.5 (95% CI 9.1-10.0) per 100,000 persons. Highest age-standardized prevalence and mortality rates occurred at a later age in men than in women (p<0.001). Unadjusted mortality rates increased by 53.2% from 2.57 in 1998 to 3.86 per 100,000 person-years in 2017. After adjustment for age and sex, an increase in MND mortality rate of 14.1% (95% CI 5.7%-23.2%, p<0.001) remained. MND relative risk ranged from 0.78 to 1.43 between geographical areas; multiple urban and rural high-risk areas were identified. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant national increase in MND mortality from 1998 through 2017, only partly explained by an ageing Dutch population, and also a geographic variability in MND risk, suggesting a role for environmental or demographic risk factors.

16.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 128-134, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495596

RESUMO

The heart muscle diseases hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies are leading causes of sudden death and heart failure in young, otherwise healthy, individuals. We conducted genome-wide association studies and multi-trait analyses in HCM (1,733 cases), DCM (5,521 cases) and nine left ventricular (LV) traits (19,260 UK Biobank participants with structurally normal hearts). We identified 16 loci associated with HCM, 13 with DCM and 23 with LV traits. We show strong genetic correlations between LV traits and cardiomyopathies, with opposing effects in HCM and DCM. Two-sample Mendelian randomization supports a causal association linking increased LV contractility with HCM risk. A polygenic risk score explains a significant portion of phenotypic variability in carriers of HCM-causing rare variants. Our findings thus provide evidence that polygenic risk score may account for variability in Mendelian diseases. More broadly, we provide insights into how genetic pathways may lead to distinct disorders through opposing genetic effects.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética
17.
Cell Rep ; 33(9): 108456, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264630

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. CAV1 and CAV2 organize membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) important for cell signaling and neuronal survival, and overexpression of CAV1 ameliorates ALS phenotypes in vivo. Genome-wide association studies localize a large proportion of ALS risk variants within the non-coding genome, but further characterization has been limited by lack of appropriate tools. By designing and applying a pipeline to identify pathogenic genetic variation within enhancer elements responsible for regulating gene expression, we identify disease-associated variation within CAV1/CAV2 enhancers, which replicate in an independent cohort. Discovered enhancer mutations reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression and disrupt MLRs in patient-derived cells, and CRISPR-Cas9 perturbation proximate to a patient mutation is sufficient to reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression in neurons. Additional enrichment of ALS-associated mutations within CAV1 exons positions CAV1 as an ALS risk gene. We propose CAV1/CAV2 overexpression as a personalized medicine target for ALS.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4556, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917883

RESUMO

Previous genetic studies have identified local population structure within the Netherlands; however their resolution is limited by use of unlinked markers and absence of external reference data. Here we apply advanced haplotype sharing methods (ChromoPainter/fineSTRUCTURE) to study fine-grained population genetic structure and demographic change across the Netherlands using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data (1,626 individuals) with associated geography (1,422 individuals). We identify 40 haplotypic clusters exhibiting strong north/south variation and fine-scale differentiation within provinces. Clustering is tied to country-wide ancestry gradients from neighbouring lands and to locally restricted gene flow across major Dutch rivers. North-south structure is temporally stable, with west-east differentiation more transient, potentially influenced by migrations during the middle ages. Despite superexponential population growth, regional demographic estimates reveal population crashes contemporaneous with the Black Death. Within Dutch and international data, GWAS incorporating fine-grained haplotypic covariates are less confounded than standard methods.


Assuntos
/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Emigração e Imigração , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , /genética
19.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa064, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954321

RESUMO

Increasingly, repeat expansions are being identified as part of the complex genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To date, several repeat expansions have been genetically associated with the disease: intronic repeat expansions in C9orf72, polyglutamine expansions in ATXN2 and polyalanine expansions in NIPA1. Together with previously published data, the identification of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with a family history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, caused by polyglutamine expansions in ATXN1, suggested a similar disease association for the repeat expansion in ATXN1. We, therefore, performed a large-scale international study in 11 700 individuals, in which we showed a significant association between intermediate ATXN1 repeat expansions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (P = 3.33 × 10-7). Subsequent functional experiments have shown that ATXN1 reduces the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of TDP-43 and enhances amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in Drosophila, further emphasizing the role of polyglutamine repeat expansions in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

20.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 220, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in human development and disease, yet there is limited understanding of its highly coordinated regulation. Here, we identify 818 genes that affect DNA methylation patterns in blood using large-scale population genomics data. RESULTS: By employing genetic instruments as causal anchors, we establish directed associations between gene expression and distant DNA methylation levels, while ensuring specificity of the associations by correcting for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy among neighboring genes. The identified genes are enriched for transcription factors, of which many consistently increased or decreased DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites. In addition, we show that a substantial number of transcription factors affected DNA methylation at their experimentally determined binding sites. We also observe genes encoding proteins with heterogenous functions that have widespread effects on DNA methylation, e.g., NFKBIE, CDCA7(L), and NLRC5, and for several examples, we suggest plausible mechanisms underlying their effect on DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: We report hundreds of genes that affect DNA methylation and provide key insights in the principles underlying epigenetic regulation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Endopeptidases/genética , Expressão Gênica , Pleiotropia Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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