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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4556, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917883

RESUMO

Previous genetic studies have identified local population structure within the Netherlands; however their resolution is limited by use of unlinked markers and absence of external reference data. Here we apply advanced haplotype sharing methods (ChromoPainter/fineSTRUCTURE) to study fine-grained population genetic structure and demographic change across the Netherlands using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data (1,626 individuals) with associated geography (1,422 individuals). We identify 40 haplotypic clusters exhibiting strong north/south variation and fine-scale differentiation within provinces. Clustering is tied to country-wide ancestry gradients from neighbouring lands and to locally restricted gene flow across major Dutch rivers. North-south structure is temporally stable, with west-east differentiation more transient, potentially influenced by migrations during the middle ages. Despite superexponential population growth, regional demographic estimates reveal population crashes contemporaneous with the Black Death. Within Dutch and international data, GWAS incorporating fine-grained haplotypic covariates are less confounded than standard methods.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Emigração e Imigração , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 220, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in human development and disease, yet there is limited understanding of its highly coordinated regulation. Here, we identify 818 genes that affect DNA methylation patterns in blood using large-scale population genomics data. RESULTS: By employing genetic instruments as causal anchors, we establish directed associations between gene expression and distant DNA methylation levels, while ensuring specificity of the associations by correcting for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy among neighboring genes. The identified genes are enriched for transcription factors, of which many consistently increased or decreased DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites. In addition, we show that a substantial number of transcription factors affected DNA methylation at their experimentally determined binding sites. We also observe genes encoding proteins with heterogenous functions that have widespread effects on DNA methylation, e.g., NFKBIE, CDCA7(L), and NLRC5, and for several examples, we suggest plausible mechanisms underlying their effect on DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: We report hundreds of genes that affect DNA methylation and provide key insights in the principles underlying epigenetic regulation.

3.
Ann Neurol ; 88(4): 796-806, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rs12608932 single nucleotide polymorphism in UNC13A is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) susceptibility, and may underlie differences in treatment response. We aimed to characterize the clinical, cognitive, behavioral, and neuroimaging phenotype of UNC13A in patients with ALS. METHODS: We included 2,216 patients with ALS without a C9orf72 mutation to identify clinical characteristics associated with the UNC13A polymorphism. A subcohort of 428 patients with ALS was used to study cognitive and behavioral profiles, and 375 patients to study neuroimaging characteristics. Associations were analyzed under an additive genetic model. RESULTS: Genotyping rs12608932 resulted in 854 A/A, 988 A/C, and 374 C/C genotypes. The C allele was associated with a higher age at symptom onset (median years A/A 63.5, A/C 65.6, and C/C 65.5; p < 0.001), more frequent bulbar onset (A/A 29.6%, A/C 31.8%, and C/C 43.1%; p < 0.001), higher incidences of ALS-FTD (A/A 4.3%, A/C 5.2%, and C/C 9.5%; p = 0.003), lower forced vital capacity at diagnosis (median percentage A/A 92.0, A/C 90.0, and C/C 86.5; p < 0.001), and a shorter survival (median in months A/A 33.3, A.C 30.7, and C/C 26.6; p < 0.001). UNC13A was associated with lower scores on ALS-specific cognition tests (means A/A 79.5, A/C 78.1, and C/C 76.6; p = 0.037), and more frequent behavioral disturbances (A/A 16.7%, A/C 24.4%, and C/C 27.7%; p = 0.045). Thinner left inferior temporal and right fusiform cortex were associated with the UNC13A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; p = 0.045 and p = 0.036). INTERPRETATION: Phenotypical distinctions associated with UNC13A make it an important factor to take into account in clinical trial design, studies on cognition and behavior, and prognostic counseling. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:796-806.

4.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(8): 867-875, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and prognostic value of weight loss (WL) prior to diagnosis in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We enrolled patients diagnosed with ALS between 2010 and 2018 in a population-based setting. At diagnosis, detailed information was obtained regarding the patient's disease characteristics, anthropological changes, ALS-related genotypes and cognitive functioning. Complete survival data were obtained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association between WL and the risk of death during follow-up. RESULTS: The data set comprised 2420 patients of whom 67.5% reported WL at diagnosis. WL occurred in 71.8% of the bulbar-onset and in 64.2% of the spinal-onset patients; the mean loss of body weight was 6.9% (95% CI 6.8 to 6.9) and 5.5% (95% CI 5.5 to 5.6), respectively (p<0.001). WL occurred in 35.1% of the patients without any symptom of dysphagia. WL is a strong independent predictor of survival, with a dose response relationship between the amount of WL and the risk of death: the risk of death during follow-up increased by 23% for every 10% increase in WL relative to body weight (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.51, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study shows that two-thirds of the patients with ALS have WL at diagnosis, which also occurs independent of dysphagia, and is related to survival. Our results suggest that WL is a multifactorial process that may differ from patient to patient. Gaining further insight in its underlying factors could prove essential for future therapeutic measures.

5.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2592-e2604, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the progressive nature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by investigating differential brain patterns of gray and white matter involvement in clinically or genetically defined subgroups of patients using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and multimodal MRI. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and white matter connectivity from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI in 292 patients with ALS (follow-up: n = 150) and 156 controls (follow-up: n = 72). Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in structural brain measurements over time in patients compared to controls. RESULTS: Patients with a C9orf72 mutation (n = 24) showed widespread gray and white matter involvement at baseline, and extensive loss of white matter integrity in the connectome over time. In C9orf72-negative patients, we detected cortical thinning of motor and frontotemporal regions, and loss of white matter integrity of connections linked to the motor cortex. Patients with spinal onset displayed widespread white matter involvement at baseline and gray matter atrophy over time, whereas patients with bulbar onset started out with prominent gray matter involvement. Patients with unaffected cognition or behavior displayed predominantly motor system involvement, while widespread cerebral changes, including frontotemporal regions with progressive white matter involvement over time, were associated with impaired behavior or cognition. Progressive loss of gray and white matter integrity typically occurred in patients with shorter disease durations (<13 months), independent of progression rate. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity of phenotype and C9orf72 genotype relates to distinct patterns of cerebral degeneration. We demonstrate that imaging studies have the potential to monitor disease progression and early intervention may be required to limit cerebral degeneration.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Comportamento , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
7.
Circulation ; 142(4): 324-338, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder and a major preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. A causal rare genetic variant with large effect size is identified in up to 80% of probands (genotype positive) and cascade family screening shows incomplete penetrance of genetic variants. Furthermore, a proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for LQTS remain genetically elusive despite genetic testing of established genes (genotype negative). These observations raise the possibility that common genetic variants with small effect size contribute to the clinical picture of LQTS. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the contribution of common genetic variation to LQTS disease susceptibility. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies followed by transethnic meta-analysis in 1656 unrelated patients with LQTS of European or Japanese ancestry and 9890 controls to identify susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms. We estimated the common variant heritability of LQTS and tested the genetic correlation between LQTS susceptibility and other cardiac traits. Furthermore, we tested the aggregate effect of the 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population using a polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Genome-wide association analysis identified 3 loci associated with LQTS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5×10-8) near NOS1AP, KCNQ1, and KLF12, and 1 missense variant in KCNE1(p.Asp85Asn) at the suggestive threshold (P<10-6). Heritability analyses showed that ≈15% of variance in overall LQTS susceptibility was attributable to common genetic variation (h2SNP 0.148; standard error 0.019). LQTS susceptibility showed a strong genome-wide genetic correlation with the QT-interval in the general population (rg=0.40; P=3.2×10-3). The polygenic risk score comprising common variants previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population was greater in LQTS cases compared with controls (P<10-13), and it is notable that, among patients with LQTS, this polygenic risk score was greater in patients who were genotype negative compared with those who were genotype positive (P<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This work establishes an important role for common genetic variation in susceptibility to LQTS. We demonstrate overlap between genetic control of the QT-interval in the general population and genetic factors contributing to LQTS susceptibility. Using polygenic risk score analyses aggregating common genetic variants that modulate the QT-interval in the general population, we provide evidence for a polygenic architecture in genotype negative LQTS.

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 92: 153.e1-153.e5, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409253

RESUMO

Because hyper-excitability has been shown to be a shared pathophysiological mechanism, we used the latest and largest genome-wide studies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 36,052) and epilepsy (n = 38,349) to determine genetic overlap between these conditions. First, we showed no significant genetic correlation, also when binned on minor allele frequency. Second, we confirmed the absence of polygenic overlap using genomic risk score analysis. Finally, we did not identify pleiotropic variants in meta-analyses of the 2 diseases. Our findings indicate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and epilepsy do not share common genetic risk, showing that hyper-excitability in both disorders has distinct origins.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Resultados Negativos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Risco
9.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 102, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345345

RESUMO

Repeat expansions are responsible for over 40 monogenic disorders, and undoubtedly more pathogenic repeat expansions remain to be discovered. Existing methods for detecting repeat expansions in short-read sequencing data require predefined repeat catalogs. Recent discoveries emphasize the need for methods that do not require pre-specified candidate repeats. To address this need, we introduce ExpansionHunter Denovo, an efficient catalog-free method for genome-wide repeat expansion detection. Analysis of real and simulated data shows that our method can identify large expansions of 41 out of 44 pathogenic repeats, including nine recently reported non-reference repeat expansions not discoverable via existing methods.

10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(1): 33-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a pooled analysis of population-based case-control studies and explored the independent effects of intensity, duration and time-since-quitting. METHODS: ALS cases and controls, matched by age, sex and region, were recruited in the Netherlands, Italy and Ireland (*Euro-MOTOR project). Demographics and detailed lifetime smoking histories were collected through questionnaires. Effects of smoking status, intensity (cigarettes/day), duration (years), pack-years and time-since-quitting (years) on ALS risk were estimated using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, alcohol, education and centre. We further investigated effect modification of the linear effects of pack-years by intensity, duration and time-since-quitting using excess OR (eOR) models. RESULTS: Analyses were performed on 1410 cases and 2616 controls. Pack-years were positively associated with ALS risk; OR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.54) for the highest quartile compared with never smokers. This association appeared to be predominantly driven by smoking duration (ptrend=0.001) rather than intensity (ptrend=0.86), although the trend for duration disappeared after adjustment for time-since-quitting. Time-since-quitting was inversely related to ALS (ptrend<0.0001). The eOR decreased with time-since-quitting smoking, until about 10 years prior to disease onset. High intensity smoking with shorter duration appeared more deleterious than lower intensity for a longer duration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further support for the association between smoking and ALS. Pack-years alone may be insufficient to capture effects of different smoking patterns. Time-since-quitting appeared to be an important factor, suggesting that smoking may be an early disease trigger.

11.
Stroke ; 51(1): 268-274, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795902

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Interventional treatment of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) has become increasingly controversial. Because medical therapy is still lacking, we aimed to obtain insight into the disease mechanisms implicated in BAVMs and to identify potential targets for medical treatment to prevent rupture of a BAVM. Methods- We used next-generation RNA sequencing to identify differential expression on a transcriptome-wide level comparing tissue samples of 12 BAVMs to 16 intracranial control arteries. We identified differentially expressed genes by negative binominal generalized log-linear regression (false discovery rate corrected P<0.05). We selected 10 genes for validation using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. We performed functional pathway analysis accounting for potential gene-length bias, to establish enhancement of biological pathways involved in BAVMs. We further assessed which Gene Ontology terms were enriched. Results- We found 736 upregulated genes in BAVMs including genes implicated in the cytoskeletal machinery and cell-migration and genes encoding for inflammatory cytokines and secretory products of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, we found 498 genes downregulated including genes implicated in extracellular matrix composition, the binary angiopoietin-TIE system, and TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß signaling. We confirmed the differential expression of top 10 ranked genes. Functional pathway analysis showed enrichment of the protein digestion and absorption pathway (false discovery rate-adjusted P=1.70×10-2). We identified 47 enriched Gene Ontology terms (false discovery rate-adjusted P<0.05) implicated in cytoskeleton network, cell-migration, endoplasmic reticulum, transmembrane transport, and extracellular matrix composition. Conclusions- Our genome-wide RNA-sequencing study points to involvement of inflammatory mediators, loss of cerebrovascular quiescence, and impaired integrity of the vascular wall in the pathophysiology of BAVMs. Our study may lend support to potential receptivity of BAVMs to medical therapeutics, including those promoting vessel maturation, and anti-inflammatory and immune-modifying drugs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/metabolismo , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(2): 220-226, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624333

RESUMO

Genetic mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) act through distinct pathophysiological pathways, which may lead to varying treatment responses. Here we assess the genetic interaction between C9orf72, UNC13A, and MOBP with creatine and valproic acid treatment in two clinical trials. Genotypic data was available for 309 of the 338 participants (91.4%). The UNC13A genotype affected mortality (p = 0.012), whereas C9orf72 repeat-expansion carriers exhibited a faster rate of decline in overall (p = 0.051) and bulbar functioning (p = 0.005). A dose-response pharmacogenetic interaction was identified between creatine and the A allele of the MOBP genotype (p = 0.027), suggesting a qualitative interaction in a recessive model (HR 3.96, p = 0.015). Not taking genetic information into account may mask evidence of response to treatment or be an unrecognized source of bias. Incorporating genetic data could help investigators to identify critical treatment clues in patients with ALS.

13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(5): 246-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931869

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have uncovered hundreds of loci associated with psychiatric disorders. Cross-disorder studies are among the prime ramifications of such research. Here, we discuss the methodology of the most widespread methods and their clinical utility with regard to diagnosis, prediction, disease aetiology and treatment in psychiatry.

14.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(523)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852800

RESUMO

Motor neuron-specific microRNA-218 (miR-218) has recently received attention because of its roles in mouse development. However, miR-218 relevance to human motor neuron disease was not yet explored. Here, we demonstrate by neuropathology that miR-218 is abundant in healthy human motor neurons. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) motor neurons, miR-218 is down-regulated and its mRNA targets are reciprocally up-regulated (derepressed). We further identify the potassium channel Kv10.1 as a new miR-218 direct target that controls neuronal activity. In addition, we screened thousands of ALS genomes and identified six rare variants in the human miR-218-2 sequence. miR-218 gene variants fail to regulate neuron activity, suggesting the importance of this small endogenous RNA for neuronal robustness. The underlying mechanisms involve inhibition of miR-218 biogenesis and reduced processing by DICER. Therefore, miR-218 activity in motor neurons may be susceptible to failure in human ALS, suggesting that miR-218 may be a potential therapeutic target in motor neuron disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neuropatologia/métodos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo
15.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(12): 1354-1364, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606302

RESUMO

Exposure to traumatic stress increases the odds of developing a broad range of psychiatric conditions. Genetic studies targeting multiple stress-related quantitative phenotypes may shed light on mechanisms underlying vulnerability to psychopathology in the aftermath of stressful events. We applied a multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) to a unique military cohort (N = 583) in which we measured biochemical and behavioral phenotypes. The availability of pre- and post-deployment measurements allowed to capture changes in these phenotypes in response to stress. For genome-wide significant loci, we performed functional annotation, phenome-wide analysis and quasi-replication in PTSD case-control GWASs. We discovered one genetic variant reaching genome-wide significant association, surviving permutation and sensitivity analyses (rs10100651, p = 9.9 × 10-9). Functional annotation prioritized the genes INTS8 and TP53INP1. A phenome-wide scan revealed a significant association of these same genes with sleeping problems, hypertension and subjective well-being. Finally, a targeted lookup revealed nominally significant association of rs10100651 in a PTSD case-control GWAS in the UK Biobank (p = 0.02). We provide comprehensive evidence from multiple resources hinting at a role of the highlighted genetic variant in the human stress response, marking the power of multivariate genome-wide analysis of quantitative measures in stress research. Future genetic and functional studies can target this locus to further assess its effects on stress mediation and its possible role in psychopathology or resilience.

16.
Neurology ; 93(17): e1605-e1617, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the natural history of the C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9ALS) patient population, develop disease biomarkers, and characterize patient pathologies. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical and demographic data from 116 symptomatic C9ALS and 12 non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) full expansion carriers across 7 institutions in the United States and the Netherlands. In addition, we collected blood samples for DNA repeat size assessment, CSF samples for biomarker identification, and autopsy samples for dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) size determination. Finally, we collected retrospective clinical data via chart review from 208 individuals with C9ALS and 450 individuals with singleton ALS. RESULTS: The mean age at onset in the symptomatic prospective cohort was 57.9 ± 8.3 years, and median duration of survival after onset was 36.9 months. The monthly change was -1.8 ± 1.7 for ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised and -1.4% ± 3.24% of predicted for slow vital capacity. In blood DNA, we found that G4C2 repeat size correlates positively with age. In CSF, we observed that concentrations of poly(GP) negatively correlate with DNA expansion size but do not correlate with measures of disease progression. Finally, we found that size of poly(GP) dipeptides in the brain can reach large sizes similar to that of their DNA repeat derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: We present a thorough investigation of C9ALS natural history, providing the basis for C9ALS clinical trial design. We found that clinical features of this genetic subset are less variant than in singleton ALS. In addition, we identified important correlations of C9ALS patient pathologies with clinical and demographic data.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Idade de Início , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/urina , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101984, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease characterized by both upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. While neuroimaging studies of the brain can detect upper motor neuron degeneration, these brain MRI scans also include the upper part of the cervical spinal cord, which offers the possibility to expand the focus also towards lower motor neuron degeneration. Here, we set out to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal disease effects in the upper cervical spinal cord in patients with ALS, progressive muscular atrophy (PMA: primarily lower motor neuron involvement) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS: primarily upper motor neuron involvement), and their relation to disease severity and grey and white matter brain measurements. METHODS: We enrolled 108 ALS patients without C9orf72 repeat expansion (ALS C9-), 26 ALS patients with C9orf72 repeat expansion (ALS C9+), 28 PLS patients, 56 PMA patients and 114 controls. During up to five visits, longitudinal T1-weighted brain MRI data were acquired and used to segment the upper cervical spinal cord (UCSC, up to C3) and individual cervical segments (C1 to C4) to calculate cross-sectional areas (CSA). Using linear (mixed-effects) models, the CSA differences were assessed between groups and correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, a relationship between CSA and brain measurements was examined in terms of cortical thickness of the precentral gyrus and white matter integrity of the corticospinal tract. RESULTS: Compared to controls, CSAs at baseline showed significantly thinner UCSC in all groups in the MND spectrum. Over time, ALS C9- patients demonstrated significant thinning of the UCSC and, more specifically, of segment C3 compared to controls. Progressive thinning over time was also observed in C1 of PMA patients, while ALS C9+ and PLS patients did not show any longitudinal changes. Longitudinal spinal cord measurements showed a significant relationship with disease severity and we found a significant correlation between spinal cord and motor cortex thickness or corticospinal tract integrity for PLS and PMA, but not for ALS patients. DISCUSSION: Our findings demonstrate atrophy of the upper cervical spinal cord in the motor neuron disease spectrum, which was progressive over time for all but PLS patients. Cervical spinal cord imaging in ALS seems to capture different disease effects than brain neuroimaging. Atrophy of the cervical spinal cord is therefore a promising additional biomarker for both diagnosis and disease progression and could help in the monitoring of treatment effects in future clinical trials.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280677

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting one in 350 people. The aim of Project MinE is to elucidate the pathophysiology of ALS through whole-genome sequencing at least 15,000 ALS patients and 7500 controls at 30× coverage. Here, we present the Project MinE data browser ( databrowser.projectmine.com ), a unique and intuitive one-stop, open-access server that provides detailed information on genetic variation analyzed in a new and still growing set of 4366 ALS cases and 1832 matched controls. Through its visual components and interactive design, the browser specifically aims to be a resource to those without a biostatistics background and allow clinicians and preclinical researchers to integrate Project MinE data into their own research. The browser allows users to query a transcript and immediately access a unique combination of detailed (meta)data, annotations and association statistics that would otherwise require analytic expertise and visits to scattered resources.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Acesso à Informação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Mineração de Dados/tendências , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/tendências
19.
Bioinformatics ; 35(22): 4754-4756, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134279

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We describe a novel computational method for genotyping repeats using sequence graphs. This method addresses the long-standing need to accurately genotype medically important loci containing repeats adjacent to other variants or imperfect DNA repeats such as polyalanine repeats. Here we introduce a new version of our repeat genotyping software, ExpansionHunter, that uses this method to perform targeted genotyping of a broad class of such loci. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: ExpansionHunter is implemented in C++ and is available under the Apache License Version 2.0. The source code, documentation, and Linux/macOS binaries are available at https://github.com/Illumina/ExpansionHunter/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134825

RESUMO

Background: Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare motor neuron disease characterized by progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons, resulting in spasticity and disability. There is, however, mounting evidence that the disease is not limited to upper motor neurons alone and that cognitive and behavioral changes within the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are part of the clinical phenotype. Objectives: To provide an in-depth classification of the cognitive and behavioral profiles of PLS by using the golden standard, a full neuropsychological evaluation, as well as a comprehensive behavioral assessment in a cohort of 30 cases. Results: Only 7 out of 30 PLS patients scored within normal range on all of the tests within our battery. The neuropsychological profile of PLS consists of deficits in social cognition (affective theory of mind (ToM) in particular), fluency, executive functions and memory. Using the revised Strong criteria, we could classify 57% of patients within the FTD spectrum (of which 17% had behavioral variant FTD). An additional 20% of patients had deficits which were not characteristic of FTD. Conclusions: This study confirms that PLS is not a restricted phenotype (only affecting upper motor neurons) and that behavioral and cognitive changes are common. Therefore, clinicians treating PLS patients should routinely assess cognition and behavior as part of routine care as cognitive and behavioral changes impact management, decision-making and care-giver burden. This assessment should be sensitive to the neuropsychological profile of PLS (social cognition (affective ToM in particular), fluency, executive functions and memory) and behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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