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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The education of civilians and first responders in prehospital tourniquet (PT) utilization has spread rapidly. We aimed to describe trends in emergency medical services (EMS) and non-EMS PT utilization, and their ability to identify proper clinical indications and to appropriately apply tourniquets in the field. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate all adult patients with PTs who presented at two Level I trauma centers between January 2015 and December 2019. Data were collected via an electronic patient query tool and cross-referenced with institutional Trauma Registries. Medically trained abstractors determined if PTs were clinically indicated (limb amputation, vascular hard signs, injury requiring hemostasis procedure, or significant documented blood loss). PTs were further designated as appropriately or inappropriately applied (based on tourniquet location, venous tourniquet, greater than 2-h ischemic time). Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: 146 patients met inclusion criteria. The incidence of yearly PT placements increased between 2015 and 2019, with an increase in placement by non-EMS personnel (police, firefighter, bystander, and patient). Improvised PTs were frequently utilized by bystanders and patients, whereas first responders had high rates of commercial tourniquet use. A high proportion of tourniquets were placed without indication (72/146, 49%); however, the proportion of PTs placed without a proper indication across applier groups was not statistically different (p = 0.99). Rates of inappropriately applied PTs ranged from 21 to 46% across all groups applying PTs. CONCLUSIONS: PT placement was increasingly performed by non-EMS personnel. Present data indicate that non-EMS persons applied PTs at a similar performance level of those applied by EMS. Study LevelLevel III.

3.
Am Surg ; : 31348221101577, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal wall hernias represent a common problem that can present as surgical emergencies with increased morbidity and mortality. The data examining outcomes in elderly patients with hernia emergencies is scant. METHODS: The 2007-2017 ACS-NSQIP database was queried. Patients ≥65 years old with a diagnosis of acute complicated abdominal wall hernia were included. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality and surgical site infection (SSI). RESULTS: Main predictors of 30-day mortality were admission from nursing home or chronic care facility (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10-2.38, P = .014), transfer from outside ED (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.31-2.51, P < .001), days from admission to operation (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, P = .002), recent significant weight loss (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.12-3.37, P = .018), pre-operative septic shock (OR = 4.13, 95% CI: 2.44-6.99, P < .001), ventilator dependence (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.29-4.81, P = .006), and ASA status. When compared to open repair, laparoscopic repair emerged as protective against SSI (OR = .34, 95% CI: .17-.66, P = .001). Bowel resection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.63-2.84, P < .001) and increasing wound class were risk factors for SSI. CONCLUSION: In the elderly patient presenting with an acute complicated abdominal wall hernia, time to surgery is crucial for survival, and comorbidities influence outcome. Laparoscopy is an option in management due to its decreased risk of surgical site infection without increased mortality, whenever patient factors are favorable for this approach.

4.
Surgery ; 172(1): 470-475, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in admitting high-risk emergency surgery patients to the intensive care unit result in worse outcomes and increased health care costs. We aimed to use interpretable artificial intelligence technology to create a preoperative predictor for postoperative intensive care unit need in emergency surgery patients. METHODS: A novel, interpretable artificial intelligence technology called optimal classification trees was leveraged in an 80:20 train:test split of adult emergency surgery patients in the 2007-2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory values were used to develop, train, and then validate optimal classification tree algorithms to predict the need for postoperative intensive care unit admission. The latter was defined as postoperative death or the development of 1 or more postoperative complications warranting critical care (eg, unplanned intubation, ventilator requirement ≥48 hours, cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and septic shock). An interactive and user-friendly application was created. C statistics were used to measure performance. RESULTS: A total of 464,861 patients were included. The mean age was 55 years, 48% were male, and 11% developed severe postoperative complications warranting critical care. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application was created as the user-friendly interface of the complex optimal classification tree algorithms. The number of questions (ie, tree depths) needed to predict intensive care unit admission ranged from 2 to 11. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application had excellent discrimination for predicting the need for intensive care unit admission (C statistics: 0.89 train, 0.88 test). CONCLUSION: We recommend the Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application as an accurate, artificial intelligence-based tool for predicting severe complications warranting intensive care unit admission after emergency surgery. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application can prove useful to triage patients to the intensive care unit and to potentially decrease failure to rescue in emergency surgery patients.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Smartphone , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Am Surg ; 88(6): 1054-1058, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465697

RESUMO

As hospital systems plan for health care utilization surges and stress, understanding the necessary resources of a trauma system is essential for planning capacity. We aimed to describe trends in high-intensity resource utilization (operating room [OR] usage and intensive care unit [ICU] admissions) for trauma care during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma registry data (2019 pre-COVID-19 and 2020 COVID-19) were collected retrospectively from 4 level I trauma centers. Direct emergency department (ED) disposition to the OR or ICU was used as a proxy for high-intensity resource utilization. No change in the incidence of direct ED to ICU or ED to OR utilization was observed (2019: 24%, 2020 23%; P = .62 and 2019: 11%, 2020 10%; P = .71, respectively). These results suggest the need for continued access to ICU space and OR theaters for traumatic injury during national health emergencies, even when levels of trauma appear to be decreasing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
6.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221094506, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437045

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether the outcomes of postoperative patients admitted directly to an intensive care unit (ICU) differ based on the academic status of the institution and the total operative volume of the unit. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis using the eICU Collaborative Research Database v2.0, a national database from participating ICUs in the United States. All patients admitted directly to the ICU from the operating room were included. Transfer patients and patients readmitted to the ICU were excluded. Patients were stratified based on admission to an ICU in an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMC, and to ICUs with different operative volume experience, after stratification in quartiles (high, medium-high, medium-low, and low volume). Primary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during ICU stay, ICU length of stay (LOS), and 30-day ventilator free days. Results: Our analysis included 22,180 unique patients; the majority of which (15,085[68%]) were admitted to ICUs in non-AMCs. Cardiac and vascular procedures were the most common types of procedures performed. Patients admitted to AMCs were more likely to be younger and less likely to be Hispanic or Asian. Multivariable logistic regression indicated no meaningful association between academic status and ICU mortality, hospital mortality, initiation of CRRT, duration of ICU LOS, or 30-day ventilator-free-days. Contrarily, medium-high operative volume units had higher ICU mortality (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.10-1.91, p-value = 0.040), higher hospital mortality (OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.07-1.66, p-value = 0.033), longer ICU LOS (Coefficient = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.07-0.39, p-value = 0.038), and fewer 30-day ventilator-free-days (Coefficient = -0.30, 95%CI = -0.48 - -0.13, p-value = 0.015) compared to their high operative volume counterparts. Conclusions: This study found that a volume-outcome association in the management of postoperative patients requiring ICU level of care immediately after a surgical procedure may exist. The academic status of the institution did not affect the outcomes of these patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency physicians and trauma surgeons are increasingly confronted with pre-injury direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). The objective of this study was to assess if pre-injury DOACs, compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), or no oral anticoagulants is independently associated with differences in treatment, mortality and inpatient rehabilitation requirement. METHODS: We performed a review of the prospectively maintained institutional trauma registry at an urban academic level 1 trauma center. We included all geriatric patients (aged ≥ 65 years) with tICH after a fall, admitted between January 2011 and December 2018. Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, and tICH types were performed to identify the association between pre-injury anticoagulants and reversal agent use, neurosurgical interventions, inhospital mortality, 3-day mortality, and discharge to inpatient rehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 1453 tICH patients were included (52 DOAC, 376 VKA, 1025 control). DOAC use was independently associated with lower odds of receiving specific reversal agents [odds ratio (OR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.54] than VKA patients. DOAC use was independently associated with requiring neurosurgical intervention (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.36-7.28). VKA use, but not DOAC use, was independently associated with inhospital mortality, or discharge to hospice care (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27) compared to controls. VKA use was independently associated with higher odds of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.87) compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Despite the higher neurosurgical intervention rates, patients with pre-injury DOAC use were associated with comparable rates of mortality and discharge to inpatient rehabilitation as patients without anticoagulation exposure. Future research should focus on risk assessment and stratification of DOAC-exposed trauma patients.

8.
Injury ; 53(6): 1979-1986, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from single-region studies suggest that stay at home orders (SAHOs) had unforeseen consequences on the volume and patterns of traumatic injury during the initial months of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe, using a multi-regional approach, the effects of COVID-19 SAHOs on trauma volume and patterns of traumatic injury in the US. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at four verified Level I trauma centers spanning three geographical regions across the United States (US). The study period spanned from April 1, 2020 - July 31, 2020 including a month-matched 2019 cohort. Patients were categorized into pre-COVID-19 (PCOV19) and first COVID-19 surge (FCOV19S) cohorts. Patient demographic, injury, and outcome data were collected via Trauma Registry queries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total 5,616 patients presented to participating study centers during the PCOV19 (2,916) and FCOV19S (2,700) study periods.  Blunt injury volume decreased (p = 0.006) due to a significant reduction in the number of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) (p = 0.003). Penetrating trauma experienced a significant increase, 8% (246/2916) in 2019 to 11% (285/2,700) in 2020 (p = 0.007), which was associated with study site (p = 0.002), not SAHOs. Finally, study site was significantly associated with changes in nearly all injury mechanisms, whereas SAHOs accounted for observed decreases in calculated weekly averages of blunt injuries (p < 0.02) and MVCs (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that COVID-19 and initial SAHOs had variable consequences on patterns of traumatic injury, and that region-specific shifts in traumatic injury ensued during initial SAHOs. These results suggest that other factors, potentially socioeconomic or cultural, confound trauma volumes and types arising from SAHOs. Future analyses must consider how regional changes may be obscured with pooled cohorts, and focus on characterizing community-level changes to aid municipal preparation for future similar events.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ferimentos Penetrantes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 21-29, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced blood component administration during massive transfusion is standard of care. Most literature focuses on the impact of red blood cell (RBC)/fresh frozen plasma (FFP) ratio, while the value of balanced RBC:platelet (PLT) administration is less established. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the independent impact of RBC:PLT on 24-hour mortality in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. METHODS: Using the 2013 to 2018 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, adult patients who received massive transfusion (≥10 U of RBC/24 hours) and ≥1 U of RBC, FFP, and PLT within 4 hours of arrival were retrospectively included. To mitigate survival bias, only patients with consistent RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP ratios between 4 and 24 hours were analyzed. Balanced FFP or PLT transfusions were defined as having RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP of ≤2, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the independent relationship between RBC:FFP, RBC:PLT, balanced transfusion, and 24-hour mortality. RESULTS: A total of 9,215 massive transfusion patients were included. The number of patients who received transfusion with RBC:PLT >2 (1,942 [21.1%]) was significantly higher than those with RBC:FFP >2 (1,160 [12.6%]) (p < 0.001). Compared with an RBC:PLT ratio of 1:1, a gradual and consistent risk increase was observed for 24-hour mortality as the RBC:PLT ratio increased (p < 0.001). Patients with both FFP and PLT balanced transfusion had the lowest adjusted risk for 24-hour mortality. Mortality increased as resuscitation became more unbalanced, with higher odds of death for unbalanced PLT (odds ratio, 2.48 [2.18-2.83]) than unbalanced FFP (odds ratio, 1.66 [1.37-1.98]), while patients who received both FFP and PLT unbalanced transfusion had the highest risk of 24-hour mortality (odds ratio, 3.41 [2.74-4.24]). CONCLUSION: Trauma patients receiving massive transfusion significantly more often have unbalanced PLT rather than unbalanced FFP transfusion. The impact of unbalanced PLT transfusion on 24-hour mortality is independent and potentially more pronounced than unbalanced FFP transfusion, warranting serious system-level efforts for improvement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.

10.
J Card Surg ; 37(4): 808-817, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic gastrointestinal complications (IGIC) following cardiac surgery are associated with high morbidity and mortality and remain difficult to predict. We evaluated perioperative risk factors for IGIC in patients undergoing open cardiac surgery. METHODS: All patients that underwent an open cardiac surgical procedure at a tertiary academic center between 2011 and 2017 were included. The primary outcome was IGIC, defined as acute mesenteric ischemia necessitating a surgical intervention or postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding that was proven to be of ischemic etiology and necessitated blood product transfusion. A backward stepwise regression model was constructed to identify perioperative predictors of IGIC. RESULTS: Of 6862 patients who underwent cardiac surgery during the study period, 52(0.8%) developed IGIC. The highest incidence of IGIC (1.9%) was noted in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery, valvular, and aortic procedures. The multivariable regression identified hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 5.74), preoperative renal failure requiring dialysis (OR = 3.62), immunocompromised status (OR = 2.64), chronic lung disease (OR = 2.61), and history of heart failure (OR = 2.03) as independent predictors for postoperative IGIC. Pre- or intraoperative utilization of intra-aortic balloon pump or catheter-based assist devices (OR = 4.54), intraoperative transfusion requirement of >4 RBC units(OR = 2.47), and cardiopulmonary bypass > 180 min (OR = 2.28) were also identified as independent predictors for the development of IGIC. CONCLUSIONS: We identified preoperative and intraoperative risk factors that independently increase the risk of developing postoperative IGIC after cardiac surgery. A high index of suspicion must be maintained and any deviation from the expected recovery course in patients with the above-identified risk factors should trigger an immediate evaluation with the involvement of the acute care surgical team.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Gastroenteropatias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Surgery ; 172(1): 421-426, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35184891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In military combat settings, noncompressible closed cavity exsanguination is the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths, with no effective treatment available at point of injury. The aim of this study was to assess whether an expanding foam based on hydrophobically modified chitosan (hm-chitosan) may be used as a locally injectable hemostatic agent for the treatment of noncompressible bleeding in a swine model. METHODS: A closed-cavity, grade V hepato-portal injury was created in all animals resulting in massive noncoagulopathic, noncompressible bleeding. Animals received either fluid resuscitation alone (control, n = 8) or fluid resuscitation plus intraperitoneal hm-chitosan agent through an umbilical port (experimental, n = 18). The experiment was terminated at 180 minutes or death (defined as end-tidal CO2 <8mmHg or mean arterial pressure [MAP] <15mmHg), whichever came first. RESULTS: All animals had profound hypotension and experienced a near-arrest from hypovolemic shock (mean MAP = 24 mmHg at 10 minutes). Mean survival time was higher than 150 minutes in the experimental arm versus 27 minutes in the control arm (P < .001). Three-hour survival was 72% in the experimental group and 0% in the control group (P = .002). Hm-chitosan stabilized rising lactate, preventing acute lethal acidosis. MAP improved drastically after deployment of the hm-chitosan and was preserved at 60 mmHg throughout the 3 hours. Postmortem examination was performed in all animals and the hepatoportal injuries were anatomically similar. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal administration of hm-chitosan-based foam for massive, noncompressible abdominal bleeding improves survival in a lethal, closed-cavity swine model. Chronic safety and toxicity studies are required.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Hemostáticos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Suínos
12.
J Surg Res ; 269: 94-102, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced blood product transfusion improves the outcomes of trauma patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage, but it remains unclear whether administering cryoprecipitate improves mortality. We aimed to examine the impact of early cryoprecipitate transfusion on the outcomes of the trauma patients needing massive transfusion (MT). METHODS: All MT patients 18 years or older in the 2017 Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) were retrospectively reviewed. MT was defined as the transfusion of ≥10 units of blood within 24 hours. Propensity score analysis (PSA) was used to 1:1 match then compare patients who received and those who did not receive cryoprecipitate in the first 4 hours after injury. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, 1-day mortality, in-hospital complications and transfusion needs at 24 hours. RESULTS: Of 1,004,440 trauma patients, 1,454 MT patients received cryoprecipitate and 2,920 did not. After PSA, 877 patients receiving cryoprecipitate were matched to 877 patients who did not. In-hospital mortality was lower among patients who received cryoprecipitate (49.4% v. 54.9%, P = 0.022), as was 1-day mortality. Sub-analyses showed that mortality was lower with cryoprecipitate in patients with penetrating (37.5% versus. 48%, adjusted P = 0.008), but not blunt trauma (58.5% versus. 59.8%, adjusted P = 1.000). In penetrating trauma, the cryoprecipitate group also had lower 1-day mortality (21.8% versus. 38.6%, P <0.001) and a higher rate of hemorrhage control surgeries performed within 24 hours (71.4% versus. 63.3%, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Cryoprecipitate in MT is associated with improved survival in penetrating, but not blunt, trauma. Randomized trials are needed to better define the role of cryoprecipitate in MT.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia
13.
Am J Surg ; 223(2): 417-422, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-operative blood transfusion (BT) may lead to transfusion-induced immunomodulation. We aimed to investigate the association between peri-operative BT and infectious complications in patients undergoing intestinal-cutaneous fistulas (ICF) repair. METHODS: We queried the ACS-NSQIP 2006-2017 database to include patients who underwent ICF repair. The main outcome was 30-day infectious complications. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of post-operative infections. RESULTS: Of 4,197 patients included, 846 (20.2%) received peri-operative BT. Transfused patients were generally older, sicker and had higher ASA (III-V). After adjusting for relevant covariates, patients who received intra and/or post-operative (and not pre-operative) BT had higher odds of infectious complications compared (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48). Specifically, they had higher odds of organ-space surgical site infection (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.21-2.13), but not other infectious complications. CONCLUSIONS: Intra and/or post-operative (and not pre-operative) BT is an independent predictor of infectious complications in ICF repair.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea , Fístula Intestinal , Transfusão de Sangue , Fístula Cutânea/cirurgia , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/complicações , Fístula Intestinal/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
14.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 46(1): 130-140, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in critically ill patients on vasoactive medications remain unclear. We aimed to compare in-hospital outcomes for EEN vs late EN (LEN) in mechanically ventilated patients receiving vasopressor support. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using the national eICU Collaborative Research Database. Adult patients requiring vasopressor support and mechanical ventilation within 24 h of admission and for ≥2 days were included. Patients with an admission diagnosis that could constitute a contraindication for EEN (eg, gastrointestinal [GI] perforation, GI surgery) and patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) <72 h were excluded. EEN and LEN were defined as tube feeding within 48 h and between 48 h and 1 week (nothing by mouth during the first 48 h) of admission, respectively. Propensity score matching was performed to derive two cohorts receiving EEN and LEN that were comparable for baseline patient characteristics. RESULTS: Among 1701 patients who met the inclusion criteria (EEN: 1001, LEN: 700), 1148 were included in propensity score-matched cohorts (EEN: 574, LEN: 574). Median time to EN was 29 vs 79 h from admission in the EEN and LEN groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality or hospital LOS between the two nutrition strategies. EEN was associated with shorter ICU LOS, lower need for renal replacement therapy, and lower incidence of electrolyte abnormalities. CONCLUSION: This study showed no difference in 28-day mortality between EEN and LEN in critically ill patients receiving vasopressor support.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , Adulto , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(6): 728-735, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little research evaluating outcomes from sepsis in intensive care units (ICUs) with lower sepsis patient volumes as compared to ICUs with higher sepsis patient volumes. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of septic patients admitted to ICUs with different sepsis patient volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients from the eICU-CRD database admitted for the management of sepsis with blood lactate ≥ 2mmol/L within 24 hours of admission. Our primary outcome was ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, 30-day ventilator free days, and initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). ICUs were grouped in quartiles based on the number of septic patients treated at each unit. RESULTS: 10,716 patients were included in our analysis; 272 (2.5%) in low sepsis volume ICUs, 1,078 (10.1%) in medium-low sepsis volume ICUs, 2,608 (24.3%) in medium-high sepsis volume ICUs, and 6,758 (63.1%) in high sepsis volume ICUs. On multivariable analyses, no significant differences were documented regarding ICU and hospital mortality, and ventilator days in patients treated in lower versus higher sepsis volume ICUs. Patients treated at lower sepsis volume ICUs had lower rates of RRT initiation as compared to high volume units (medium-high vs. high: OR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.66-0.91, P-value = 0.002 and medium-low vs. high: OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.73, P-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The previously described volume-outcome association in septic patients was not identified in an intensive care setting.

16.
JAMA Surg ; 157(2): e216356, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910098

RESUMO

Importance: Pulmonary clots are seen frequently on chest computed tomography performed after trauma, but recent studies suggest that pulmonary thrombosis (PT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) after trauma are independent clinical events. Objective: To assess whether posttraumatic PT represents a distinct clinical entity associated with the nature of the injury, different from the traditional venous thromboembolic paradigm of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PE. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study was conducted by the Consortium of Leaders in the Study of Traumatic Thromboembolism (CLOTT) study group. The study was conducted at 17 US level I trauma centers during a 2-year period (January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020). Consecutive patients 18 to 40 years of age admitted for a minimum of 48 hours with at least 1 previously defined trauma-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factor were followed up until discharge or 30 days. Exposures: Investigational imaging, prophylactic measures used, and treatment of clots. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes of interest were the presence, timing, location, and treatment of any pulmonary clots, as well as the associated injury-related risk factors. Secondary outcomes included DVT. We regarded pulmonary clots with DVT as PE and those without DVT as de novo PT. Results: A total of 7880 patients (mean [SD] age, 29.1 [6.4] years; 5859 [74.4%] male) were studied, 277 with DVT (3.5%), 40 with PE (0.5%), and 117 with PT (1.5%). Shock on admission was present in only 460 patients (6.2%) who had no DVT, PT, or PE but was documented in 11 (27.5%) of those with PE and 30 (25.6%) in those with PT. Risk factors independently associated with PT but not DVT or PE included shock on admission (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg) (odds ratio, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.72-4.39; P < .001) and major chest injury with Abbreviated Injury Score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.16-2.56; P = .007). Factors associated with the presence of PT on admission included major chest injury (14 patients [50.0%] with or without major chest injury with an Abbreviated Injury Score >3; P = .04) and major venous injury (23 [82.1%] without major venous injury and 5 [17.9%] with major venous injury; P = .02). No deaths were attributed to PT or PE. Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this CLOTT study is the largest prospective investigation in the world that focuses on posttraumatic PT. The study suggests that most pulmonary clots are not embolic but rather result from inflammation, endothelial injury, and the hypercoagulable state caused by the injury itself.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
17.
Surgery ; 171(6): 1687-1694, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Trauma Outcomes Predictor tool was recently derived using a machine learning methodology called optimal classification trees and validated for prediction of outcomes in trauma patients. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor is available as an interactive smartphone application. In this study, we sought to assess the performance of the Trauma Outcomes Predictor in the elderly trauma patient. METHODS: All patients aged 65 years and older in the American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program 2017 database were included. The performance of the Trauma Outcomes Predictor in predicting in-hospital mortality and combined and specific morbidity based on incidence of 9 specific in-hospital complications was assessed using the c-statistic methodology, with planned subanalyses for patients 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years. RESULTS: A total of 260,505 patients were included. Median age was 77 (71-84) years, 57% were women, and 98.8% had a blunt mechanism of injury. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor accurately predicted mortality in all patients, with excellent performance for penetrating trauma (c-statistic: 0.92) and good performance for blunt trauma (c-statistic: 0.83). Its best performance was in patients 65 to 74 years (c-statistic: blunt 0.86, penetrating 0.93). Among blunt trauma patients, the Trauma Outcomes Predictor had the best discrimination for predicting acute respiratory distress syndrome (c-statistic 0.75) and cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (c-statistic 0.75). Among penetrating trauma patients, the Trauma Outcomes Predictor had the best discrimination for deep and organ space surgical site infections (c-statistics 0.95 and 0.84, respectively). CONCLUSION: The Trauma Outcomes Predictor is a novel, interpretable, and highly accurate predictor of in-hospital mortality in the elderly trauma patient up to age 85 years. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor could prove useful for bedside counseling of elderly patients and their families and for benchmarking the quality of geriatric trauma care.


Assuntos
Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Benchmarking , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia
18.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the rates and variability in substance screening among adult trauma patients in the U.S. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Emergency Department trauma visits provide a unique opportunity to identify patients with substance use disorders. Despite the existence of screening guidelines, underscreening and variability in screening practices remain. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including adult trauma patients (18-64-year-old) from the ACS-TQIP 2017-18 database. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to adjust for demographics, clinical, and facility factors, and marginal probabilities were calculated using these multivariable models. The primary outcomes were substance screening and positivity, which were defined relative to the observation-weighted grand mean. RESULTS: 2,048,176 patients were contained in the TQIP dataset, 809,878 (39.5%) were screened for alcohol (20.8% positive), and 617,129 (30.1%) were screened for drugs (37.3% positive). After all exclusion criteria were applied, 765,897 patients were included in the analysis, 394,391 (52.9%) were screened for alcohol (22.1% tested positive), and 279,531 (36.5%) were screened for drugs (44.3% tested positive). Among the patients included in our study, significant variability in screening rates existed with respect to demographic, trauma mechanism, injury severity, and facility factors. Furthermore, in several cases, patient subpopulations who were less likely to be screened were in fact more likely to screen positive or vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Effective substance screening guidelines should be predicated on achieving universal screening. Current lapses in screening, along with the observed variability likely affect different patient populations in disparate manners and lead to both under-detection as well as waste of valuable resources.

19.
Am Surg ; 87(12): 1893-1900, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a deadly multisystemic disease, and bowel ischemia, the most consequential gastrointestinal manifestation, remains poorly described. Our goal is to describe our institution's surgical experience with management of bowel ischemia due to COVID-19 infection over a one-year period. METHODS: All patients admitted to our institution between March 2020 and March 2021 for treatment of COVID-19 infection and who underwent exploratory laparotomy with intra-operative confirmation of bowel ischemia were included. Data from the medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included. Eighty percent had a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, 70% had abdominal distension, and 50% had increased gastric residuals. Intra-operatively, ischemia affected the large bowel in 80% of cases, the small bowel in 60%, and both in 40%. Sixty five percent had an initial damage control laparotomy. Most of the resected bowel specimens had a characteristic appearance at the time of surgery, with a yellow discoloration, small areas of antimesenteric necrosis, and very sharp borders. Histologically, the bowel specimens frequently have fibrin thrombi in the small submucosal and mucosal blood vessels in areas of mucosal necrosis. Overall mortality in this cohort was 33%. Forty percent of patients had a thromboembolic complication overall with 88% of these developing a thromboembolic phenomenon despite being on prophylactic pre-operative anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Bowel ischemia is a potentially lethal complication of COVID-19 infection with typical gross and histologic characteristics. Suspicious clinical features that should trigger surgical evaluation include a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, abdominal distension, and intolerance of gastric feeds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Enteropatias/cirurgia , Enteropatias/virologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Isquemia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am Surg ; : 31348211050585, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate from mesenteric ischemia is reported to be as high as 80%. The goal of our study was to identify demographic and clinical predictors of post-operative mortality and discharge disposition among elderly patients with mesenteric ischemia. METHODS: All patients 65 years and older who underwent emergency surgery (ES) for the management of mesenteric ischemia in the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2007 to 2017 were included. Univariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to identify independent predictors of mortality and discharge disposition. RESULTS: A total of 2438 patients met inclusion criteria, with a median age of 77 years and 60.8% being female. The 30-day mortality of the overall cohort was 31.5% and the 30-day morbidity was 65.3%. The following were the major predictors of 30-day mortality: pre-operative diagnosis of septic shock [OR: 2.46, (95% CI: 1.94-3.13)], dialysis dependence [OR: 2.05, (95% CI: 1.45-2.90)], recent weight loss [OR: 1.80, (95% CI: 1.16-2.79)], age ≥80 years [OR: 1.67, (95% CI: 1.25-2.23)], and ventilator dependence [OR: 1.65, (95% CI: 1.23-2.23)]. In the absence of these predictors, survival rate was 84%. The major predictors of discharge to post-acute care (PAC) included age ≥80 years [OR: 3.70, (95% CI: 2.50-5.47)] and pre-operative septic shock [OR: 2.20, (95% CI: 1.42-3.41)]. CONCLUSION: In the geriatric patient, a diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia does not equate to an automatic death sentence. The presence of certain pre-operative risk factors confers a high risk of mortality, whereas their absence is associated with a high chance of survival.

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