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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genomic landscape of gallbladder disease remains poorly understood. We sought to examine the association between genetic variants and the development of cholecystitis. METHODS: The Biobank of a large multi-institutional healthcare system was utilized. All patients with cholecystitis were identified using ICD-10 codes and genotyped across 6 batches. To control for population stratification, data was restricted to that from individuals of European genomic ancestry using a multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cholecystitis was evaluated with a mixed linear model-based analysis, controlling for age, sex and obesity. The threshold for significance was set at 5 × 10. RESULTS: Out of 24,635 patients (mean age 60.1 ± 16.7 years, 13,022 [52.9%] females), 900 had cholecystitis (mean age 65.4 ± 14.3 years, 496 [55.1%] females). After meta-analysis, 3 SNPs on chromosome 5p15 exceeded the threshold for significance (p < 5 × 10). The phenotypic variance of cholecystitis explained by genetics and controlling for gender and obesity was estimated to be 17.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Using a multi-institutional genomic Biobank, we report a region on chromosome 5p15 is associated with the development of cholecystitis that can be used to identify patients at risk.Prognostic and Epidemiological LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control study.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for Emergency General Surgery (EGS). We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk non-trauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an EAST multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (age >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. ESS was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: 1) 30-day mortality, 2) 30-day complications (e.g. respiratory/renal failure, infection), and 3) postoperative ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. ESS gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0% and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12 and 17 died after surgery, respectively with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1% and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6 and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. ESS also accurately predicted which patients required ICU admission (c-statistic 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. ESS can prove useful for 1) perioperative patient and family counseling, 2) triaging patients to the ICU and 3) benchmarking the quality of EGS care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.

3.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has a wide range of technical difficulty. Preoperative risk stratification is essential for adequate planning and patient counseling. We hypothesized that gallbladder wall thickness (GWT) is more objective marker than symptom duration in predicting complexity, as determined by operative time (OT), intraoperative events (IE), and postoperative complications. METHODS: All adult patients who underwent LC during 2010-2018 were included. GWT, measured on imaging and on the histopathologic exam, was divided into three groups: <3 mm (normal), 3-7 mm and >7 mm. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the association between GWT and 1) operative time, 2) the incidence of IE and 3) postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1089 patients, subjects to LC, were included in the study. GWT was positively correlated with median OT (p < 0.001), the incidence of IE (p < 0.001) and median length of hospital stay (p < 0.001). GWT independently predicted IE (OR = 2.1 95% CI: 1.3-3.4) and outperformed symptom duration, which was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes (p = 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: GWT independently predicted IE and may serve as an objective marker of LC complexity.

4.
Psychosomatics ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in surgical trauma patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Benzodiazepines, commonly used for withdrawal management, pose unique challenges in this population given the high prevalence of head trauma and delirium. Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that offers a viable alternative to benzodiazepines for AWS treatment. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients with active alcohol use disorder who presented to a level 1 trauma center over a 4-year period and required medication-assisted management for AWS. The primary outcome variable examined was the development of AWS and associated complications. Additional outcomes measured included hospital length of stay, mortality, and medication-related adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 85 patients in the study sample, 52 received a fixed-dose benzodiazepine-based protocol and 33 received phenobarbital-based protocol. In the benzodiazepine-based protocol group, 25 patients (48.2%) developed AWD and 38 (73.1%) developed uncomplicated AWS, as compared to 0 patients in the phenobarbital-based protocol (P = 0.0001). There were 10 (19.2%) patients with medication adverse side effects in the benzodiazepine-based protocol group versus 0 patients in the phenobarbital-based protocol group. There were no statically significant differences between the 2 groups as pertains to rates of other AWS-related complications, patient mortality, or length of stay. CONCLUSION: The use of a phenobarbital-based protocol in trauma patients with underlying active alcohol use disorder resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AWD and uncomplicated AWS secondary to AWS when compared to patients treated with a fixed-dose benzodiazepine-based protocol.

5.
In Vivo ; 34(2): 503-509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We present a novel multi-faceted, internationally adaptable course curriculum blueprint, which provides holistic surgical education at the undergraduate level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Integrated Generation 4 (iG4) course (Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases - ESMSC Marathon course) curriculum consists of four essential learning components: core skills-based learning, case-based discussions, basic science workshops and soft-skills. These are all clustered in a specialty-led network architecture. Every cluster consists of modules from the four learning cores, while network nodes are modules that are mutually shared by more than one clusters. RESULTS: We produced a standardized blueprint of 50 modules based on the 4 learning cores, covering 9 surgical specialties. This resulted in a curriculum map where every module is described using 3 parameters: χ axis (skills component), y axis (knowledge component), z axis (specialty component). CONCLUSION: iG4 proof of concept sets the ground for a novel, reproducible and standardised effort to produce a portfolio of undergraduate surgical skills serving the vision of holistic surgical education.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e033181, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Faced with a costly and demanding learning curve of surgical skills acquisition, the growing necessity for improved surgical curricula has now become irrefutable. We took this opportunity to formulate a teaching framework with the capacity to provide holistic surgical education at the undergraduate level. SETTING: Data collection was conducted in all the relevant healthcare centres the participants worked in. Where this was not possible, interviews were held in quiet public places. PARTICIPANTS: We performed an in-depth retrospective evaluation of a proposed curriculum, through semi-structured interviews with 10 participants. A targeted sampling technique was employed in order to identify senior academics with specialist knowledge in surgical education. Recruitment was ceased on reaching data saturation after which thematic data analysis was performed using NVivo 11. RESULTS: Thematic analysis yielded a total of 4 main themes and 29 daughter nodes. Majority of study participants agreed that the current landscape of basic surgical education is deficient at multiple levels. While simulation cannot replace surgical skills acquisition taking place in operating rooms, it can be catalytic in the transition of students to postgraduate training. Our study concluded that a standardised format of surgical teaching is essential, and that the Integrated Generation 4 (IG4) framework provides an excellent starting point. CONCLUSIONS: Through expert opinion, IG4 has been validated for its capacity to effectively accommodate learning in a safer and more efficacious environment. Moreover, we support that through dissemination of IG4, we can instil a sense of motivation to students as well as develop robust data sets, which will be amenable to data analysis through the application of more sophisticated methodologies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between total transfusion volume and infection in the trauma patient remains unclear, especially at lower volumes of transfusion. We sought to quantify the cumulative, independent impact of transfusion within 24 hours of admission on the risk of infection in trauma patients. METHODS: Using the Trauma Quality Improvement Program 2013-2016 database, we included all patients who received blood transfusions in the first 4 hours. Patients who were transferred or had incomplete/wrongly coded information on transfusion volume were excluded. Patients were divided into 20 cohorts based on the total blood product volume transfused in the first 24 hours. A composite infection variable (INF) was created, including surgical site infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, central line associated blood stream infection, and sepsis. Univariate and stepwise multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between blood transfusion and INF, controlling for demographics (e.g. age, gender), co-morbidities (e.g. cirrhosis, diabetes, steroid use), severity of injury [e.g. vital signs on arrival, mechanism, injury severity scale (ISS)], and operative and angiographic interventions. RESULTS: Of 1,002,595 patients, 37,568 were included. The mean age was 42±18.6 years, 74.6% were males, 68% had blunt trauma, and median ISS was 25 [17-34]. Adjusting for all available confounders, odds of INF increased incrementally from 1.00 (reference, 0-2 units) to 1.23 (95% CI: 1.11-1.37) for 4 units transfused to 4.89 (95% CI: 2.72-8.80) for 40 units transfused. Each additional unit increased the odds of INF by 7.6%. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of the bleeding trauma patient was associated with a dose dependent increased risk of infectious complications. Trauma surgeons and anesthesiologists should resuscitate the trauma patient until prompt hemorrhage control while avoiding overtransfusion.Retrospective cohort study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

8.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) is an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery (EGS). We sought to assess whether ESS can accurately predict 30-day morbidity, mortality, and requirement for postoperative Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care in patients with missing data variables. METHODS: All EGS patients with one or more missing ESS variables in the 2007-2015 ACS-NSQIP database were included. ESS was calculated assuming that a missing variable is normal (i.e. no additional ESS points). The correlation between ESS and morbidity, mortality, and postoperative ICU level of care was assessed using the c-statistics methodology. RESULTS: Out of a total of 4,456,809 patients, 359,849 were EGS, and of those 256,278 (71.2%) patients had at least one ESS variable missing. ESS correlated extremely well with mortality (c-statistic = 0.94) and postoperative requirement of ICU care (c-statistic = 0.91) and well with morbidity (c-statistic = 0.77). CONCLUSION: ESS performs well in predicting outcomes in EGS patients even when one or more data elements are missing and remains a useful bedside tool for counseling EGS patients and for benchmarking the quality of EGS care.

9.
J Adv Nurs ; 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090371

RESUMO

AIM: To decrease hospital length of stay in acute care surgery patients. DESIGN: An observational cohort quality improvement project at a single tertiary referral centre. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, case managers, and physical and occupational therapists was created to identify patients at risk for prolonged length of stay and implement weekly multidisciplinary rounding, with a systematic method of tracking progress in real time. The main outcome measure was hospital length of stay. The observed/expected ratios for length of stay 2 years before (2012-2014) and after (2014-2016) the intervention were compared. RESULTS: A total of 6,120 patients was analysed. Early identification and action on barriers to discharge created a significant decrease in risk-adjusted acute care surgery patient days per year (96 days) with limited added cost (1-2 hr per week). Patients discharged to home with or without services benefited most. CONCLUSION: Decreasing length of stay in acute care surgery patients is possible without adding a significant burden to healthcare providers. IMPACT: We describe a comprehensive, multidisciplinary initiative to decrease the length of stay of acute care surgery patients. Institutions can use existing resources in a sustainable manner to create a significant decrease in patient days per year with limited added cost. REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/zfc3t.

10.
Int J Surg ; 76: 88-92, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are frequently transferred to level 1 trauma centers (L1TC) if they have minor findings on a computerized tomographic scan of the head due to the absence of continuous neurosurgical coverage in community hospitals (CH). We hypothesized that such patients can be safely managed at community hospitals with a qualified Trauma team. METHODS: This is a multicentered Retrospective Cohort Study. Patients with mild Traumatic Brain Injury (defined as Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] 13-15 at presentation) and with minor findings on head Computerized Tomography (CT) presenting at a L1TC or 4 Community Hospitals between March 1st, 2012 and February 28th, 2014 were included. All these community hospitals are Level III Trauma center with a well-organized trauma team. Minor CT findings were defined as 1) epidural hematoma<2 mm; 2) subarachnoid hemorrhage<2 mm; 3) subdural hematoma<4 mm; 4) intraparenchymal hemorrhage<5 mm; 5) minor pneumocephalus; or 6) linear or minimally depressed skull fracture. Our primary end point was the need for TBI specific interventions in 3 groups of patients: 1) direct admission to the L1TC (L1TC group), 2) those admitted at one of the 4 CH (CH group), and 3) those transferred from CH to L1TC (TRANSFER group). TBI-specific interventions were defined as intracranial pressure monitor (ICP) placement, hyperosmolar therapy, or neurosurgical operation. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate that these patients can be safely managed in Community Hospitals with qualified Trauma teams. We also sought to identify the clinical outcomes in these three groups of patients - in terms of mortality and complications. RESULTS: A total of 191 patients were included - 39 CH, 64 L1TC and 88 TRANSFER. There was no difference among the groups in terms of TBI-specific interventions: one TRANSFER, four L1TC, and no CH patients required hyperosmolar therapy (p = 0.277). None of the patients required placement of an intracranial pressure monitoring device (ICP) or a neurosurgical operation and complications and mortality rates were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild TBI and minor findings on head CT can be safely managed at CH with qualified Trauma Teams. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management Study, Level IVhbv.

11.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The performance of the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS), a validated risk calculator, in the elderly emergency general surgery (EGS) patient remains unclear. We hypothesized that ESS accurately predicts outcomes in elderly EGS patients, including octogenarians and nonagenarians. METHODS: Using the 2007-2017 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, we included all EGS patients ≥65 years old. The correlation between ESS, mortality and morbidity was assessed in the 3 patient cohorts (>65, octogenarians and nonagenarians), using the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: A total of 124,335 patients were included, of which 34,215 (28%) were octogenarians and 7239 (6%) were nonagenarians. In patients ≥65 years, ESS accurately predicted mortality (AUC 0.81). For octogenarians and nonagenarians, ESS predicted mortality moderately well (AUC 0.77 and 0.69, respectively. CONCLUSION: ESS accurately predicts mortality and morbidity in the elderly EGS patient, but its accuracy in predicting morbidity decreases for nonagenarians.

12.
World J Surg ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of immunosuppression on the outcomes of emergent surgery remains poorly described. We aimed to quantify the impact of chronic immunosuppression on outcomes of patients undergoing emergent colectomy (EC). METHODS: The Colectomy-Targeted ACS-NSQIP database 2012-2016 was queried for patients who underwent colectomy for an emergent indication. As per NSQIP, chronic immunosuppression was defined as the use of corticosteroid or immunosuppressant medication within the prior 30 days. Patients undergoing EC for any indication were divided into two groups: immunosuppressant use (IMS) and no immunosuppressant use (NIS). Patients were propensity-score-matched on demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative variables in a 1:1 ratio to control for confounding factors. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included overall 30-day morbidity, individual postoperative complications (e.g., wound dehiscence, anastomotic leak, and sepsis), and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: Out of a total of 130,963 patients, 17,707 patients underwent an EC, of which 15,422 were NIS and 2285 were IMS. Totally, 2882 patients were matched (1441 NIS; 1441 IMS). The median age was 66 [IQR 56-76]; 56.8% were female; patients more frequently underwent a diversion procedure rather than primary anastomosis (68.4% vs 31.6%). Overall, as compared to NIS, IMS patients had higher 30-day mortality (21.4% vs 18.5%, p = 0.045) and overall morbidity (79.7% vs 75.7%, p = 0.011). Particularly, IMS patients had increased rates of unplanned intubations (11.5% vs 7.9%, p = 0.001), wound dehiscence (5.7% vs 3.5%, p = 0.006), progressive renal insufficiency 2.2% vs 1.2%, p = 0.042), pneumonia (12.6% vs 10.0%, p = 0.029), and longer median hospital length of stay [12.0 (8.0-21.0) vs 11.0 (7.0-19.0), p < 0.001] as compared to NIS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic immunosuppression is independently associated with a significant and quantifiable increase in 30-day mortality and complications for patients undergoing EC. Our results provide the emergency surgeon with quantifiable risk estimates that can help guide better patient counseling while setting reasonable expectations.

13.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15: 3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921329

RESUMO

Background: Peptic ulcer disease is common with a lifetime prevalence in the general population of 5-10% and an incidence of 0.1-0.3% per year. Despite a sharp reduction in incidence and rates of hospital admission and mortality over the past 30 years, complications are still encountered in 10-20% of these patients. Peptic ulcer disease remains a significant healthcare problem, which can consume considerable financial resources. Management may involve various subspecialties including surgeons, gastroenterologists, and radiologists. Successful management of patients with complicated peptic ulcer (CPU) involves prompt recognition, resuscitation when required, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and timely surgical/radiological treatment. Methods: The present guidelines have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. To create these guidelines, a panel of experts was designed and charged by the board of the WSES to perform a systematic review of the available literature and to provide evidence-based statements with immediate practical application. All the statements were presented and discussed during the 5th WSES Congress, and for each statement, a consensus among the WSES panel of experts was reached. Conclusions: The population considered in these guidelines is adult patients with suspected complicated peptic ulcer disease. These guidelines present evidence-based international consensus statements on the management of complicated peptic ulcer from a collaboration of a panel of experts and are intended to improve the knowledge and the awareness of physicians around the world on this specific topic. We divided our work into the two main topics, bleeding and perforated peptic ulcer, and structured it into six main topics that cover the entire management process of patients with complicated peptic ulcer, from diagnosis at ED arrival to post-discharge antimicrobial therapy, to provide an up-to-date, easy-to-use tool that can help physicians and surgeons during the decision-making process.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In hospitalized patients, malnutrition is associated with adverse outcomes. However, the consequences of malnutrition in trauma patients are still poorly understood. This study aims to review the current knowledge about the pathophysiology, prevalence, and effects of malnutrition in severely injured patients. METHODS: A systematic literature review in PubMed and Embase was conducted according to PRISMA-guidelines. RESULTS: Nine review articles discussed the hypermetabolic state in severely injured patients in relation to malnutrition. In these patients, malnutrition negatively influenced the metabolic response, and vice versa, thereby rendering them susceptible to adverse outcomes and further deterioration of nutritional status. Thirteen cohort studies reported on prevalences of malnutrition in severely injured patients; ten reported clinical outcomes. In severely injured patients, the prevalence of malnutrition ranged from 7 to 76%, depending upon setting, population, and nutritional assessment tool used. In the geriatric trauma population, 7-62.5% were malnourished at admission and 35.6-60% were at risk for malnutrition. Malnutrition was an independent risk factor for complications, mortality, prolonged hospital length of stay, and declined quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread belief about the importance of nutrition in severely injured patients, the quantity and quality of available evidence is surprisingly sparse, frequently of low-quality, and outdated. Based on the malnutrition-associated adverse outcomes, the nutritional status of trauma patients should be routinely and carefully monitored. Trials are required to better define the optimal nutritional treatment of trauma patients, but a standardized data dictionary and reasonable outcome measures are required for meaningful interpretation and application of results.

15.
Injury ; 51(1): 32-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Indications for nonoperative management (NOM) after penetrating renal injury remain ill-defined. Using a national database, we sought to describe the experience of operative and nonoperative management in the United States and retrospectively examine risk factors for failure of NOM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TQIP database 2010-2016 was used to identify patients with penetrating renal trauma. Outcomes of patients treated with an immediate operation (IO) and NOM are described. Failure of NOM was defined as the need for a renal operation after 4 h from arrival. Univariate then multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of NOM failure. RESULTS: Out of 8139 patients with kidney trauma, 1,842 had a penetrating mechanism of injury and were included. Of those, 89% were male, median age was 28 years, and 330 (18%) were offered NOM. Compared to IO, NOM patients were less likely to have gunshot wound (59% vs 89% p < 0.001) or high-grade renal injuries [AAST 4-5] (48% vs 76%, p < 0.001). Lower rates of in-hospital complications and shorter ICU and hospital stays were observed in the NOM group. NOM failed in 26 patients (8%). Independent predictors of NOM failure included a concomitant abdominal injury (OR = 3.99, 95% CI 1.03-23.23, p = 0.044), and every point increase in AAST grade (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.27-5.21, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: NOM is highly successful in selected patients. Concomitant abdominal injuries and higher grade AAST injuries predict NOM failure and should be considered when selecting patients for IO or NOM.

16.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798673

RESUMO

The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.

17.
World J Surg ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to describe and compare the timing of cervical spine clearance in trauma patients with an unreliable physical examination. METHODS: We prospectively included adult trauma patients admitted with a cervical collar and an unreliable clinical examination (as defined by the NEXUS criteria) at two level 1 trauma centers: one in the USA (US) and one in Denmark (DK). We excluded patients with cervical spine injuries requiring a collar or surgery as treatment and patients with a collar placed after hospital arrival. The primary outcome was time from emergency department (ED) arrival to collar removal. Secondary outcomes included time to CT of the cervical spine (CTCS). At the US trauma center, an institutional protocol allowing cervical spine clearance exclusively by CTCS was in place. At the Danish trauma center, cervical spine clearance was based on a clinical evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon, usually after CTCS. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were included (US: n = 56; DK: n = 57). The median age was 47 years, and 68% were males. The main reasons for an unreliable physical examination were a Glasgow Coma Scale score below 14 (35%), distracting injuries (26%), cervical spine tenderness (13%) and intoxication (13%). The injury severity score at the US trauma center was higher than at the DK trauma center (median: 17 vs. 11, p = 0.03). Both time to CTCS (median: 41 vs. 18 min, p < 0.0001) and time to collar removal (median: 1042 vs. 49 min, p < 0.0001) were significantly greater at the US trauma center. CONCLUSIONS: Time to collar removal was significantly greater in a trauma center utilizing a cervical spine clearance protocol based on CTCS. As patients may develop complications related to the collar, future studies should clarify how early removal can be implemented without increasing the risk of morbidity.

18.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prompt surgical control of hemorrhage is crucial in penetrating trauma patients. We aimed to study the impact of prehospital response time (PreRespT) and scene time (SceneT) on hospital mortality. METHODS: Using the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) 2010-2016 database, we identified all adults with penetrating injury. We defined PreRespT as time from EMS dispatch to scene arrival, and SceneT as time spent on scene. Univariate then multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to study the independent correlation between PreRespT and SceneT on hospital mortality, adjusting for several covariates. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1,403,470 patients, 43,467 patients were included. Multivariable analyses suggested that: 1) every minute increase in PreRespT independently correlates with a 2% increase in mortality (OR 1.02, p < 0.0001), and 2) every minute increase in SceneT independently correlates with a 1% increase in mortality (OR 1.01, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the penetrating injury trauma patient, PreRespT and SceneT independently correlate with hospital mortality. This data suggests that a faster PreRespT and a "scoop and run" strategy may be more beneficial in this population.

19.
J Am Coll Surg ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the presence of highly reliable data, studies on packed red blood cells (pRBC):fresh frozen plasma (FFP) ratio suffer from limited sample size and the presence of survivor bias. We sought to study the association between FFP:pRBC and early mortality in the hemorrhaging trauma patient. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective nationwide cohort that included all TQIP participating hospitals (2013 to 2016). We included all trauma patients who were transfused ≥10 pRBCs and ≥1 FFP within 24 hours. We excluded transferred patients and those who died in the emergency department or had missing/inaccurate transfusion data. Patients were assigned to 7 FFP:pRBC cohorts (range 1:1 to 1:6, and 1:6+) only if the ratio was similar at 4 and 24 hours and, to avoid survival bias, were excluded otherwise. Multivariable analyses correcting for all available confounders (age, demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, Injury Severity Score [ISS] and mechanism, procedures performed) were derived to study the independent relationship between FFP:pRBC and 24-hour mortality. RESULTS: Of 1,002,595 patients, 4,427 patients were included. Mean age was 41 years, 79% were males, 61% had blunt trauma, and median ISS was 29. Most patients were transfused in a 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3 ratio (31%, 41%, and 11%, respectively); mortality ranged between 28% for 1:1 and 62% for 1:4. In multivariable analyses, the odds of mortality independently and incrementally increased to 1.23 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.48) for a 1:2 ratio, 2.11 (95% CI 1.42 to 3.13) for 1:4, and as high as 4.11 (95% CI 2.31 to 7.31) for 1:5 (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A 1:1 FFP:pRBC ratio is associated with the lowest mortality in the hemorrhaging trauma patient, and mortality increases with decreasing ratios.

20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(4): 782-789, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resilience, or the ability to cope with difficulties, influences an individual's response to life events including unexpected injury. We sought to assess the relationship between patient self-reported resilience traits and functional and psychosocial outcomes 6 months after traumatic injury. METHODS: Adult trauma patients 18 years to 64 years of age with moderate to severe injuries (Injury Severity Score, ≥9) admitted to one of three Level I trauma centers between 2015 and 2017 were contacted by phone at 6 months postinjury and asked to complete a validated Trauma Quality of Life (T-QoL) survey and PTSD screen. Patients were classified into "low" and "high" resilience categories. Long-term outcomes were compared between groups. Adjusted logistic regression models were built to determine the association between resilience and each of the long-term outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 305 patients completed the 6-month interview. Two hundred four (67%) of the 305 patients were classified as having low resilience. Mean age was 42 ± 14 years, 65% were male, 91% suffering a blunt injury, and average Injury Severity Score was 15.4 ± 7.9. Patients in the low-resilience group had significantly higher odds of functional limitations in activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR], 4.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48-9.34). In addition, patients in the lower resilience group were less likely to have returned to work/school (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.71-6.19), more likely to report chronic pain (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.54-4.30) and more likely to screen positive for PTSD (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.58-5.54). CONCLUSION: Patients with low resilience demonstrated worse functional and psychosocial outcomes 6 months after injury. These data suggest that screening for resilience and developing and deploying early interventions to improve resilience-associated traits as soon as possible after injury may hold promise for improving important long-term functional outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level II.

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