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1.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(6): 1137-1146, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging literature suggests that measures of social vulnerability should be incorporated into surgical risk calculators. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) is a measure designed by the CDC that encompasses 15 socioeconomic and demographic variables at the census tract level. We examined whether adding the SVI into a parsimonious surgical risk calculator would improve model performance. STUDY DESIGN: The eight-variable Surgical Risk Preoperative Assessment System (SURPAS), developed using the entire American College of Surgeons (ACS) NSQIP database, was applied to local ACS-NSQIP data from 2012 to 2018 to predict 12 postoperative outcomes. Patient addresses were geocoded and used to estimate the SVI, which was then added to the model as a ninth predictor variable. Brier scores and c-indices were compared for the models with and without the SVI. RESULTS: The analysis included 31,222 patients from five hospitals. Brier scores were identical for eight outcomes and improved by only one to two points in the fourth decimal place for four outcomes with addition of the SVI. Similarly, c-indices were not significantly different (p values ranged from 0.15 to 0.96). Of note, the SVI was associated with most of the eight SURPAS predictor variables, suggesting that SURPAS may already indirectly capture this important risk factor. CONCLUSION: The eight-variable SURPAS prediction model was not significantly improved by adding the SVI, showing that this parsimonious tool functions well without including a measure of social vulnerability.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Vulnerabilidade Social , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Surg Res ; 279: 72-76, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The American Medical Association recently declared homicides of transgender individuals an epidemic. However, transgender homicide victims are often classified as nontransgender. Our objective was to describe existing data and coding of trans (i.e., transgender) victims and to examine the risk factors for homicides of trans people relative to nontrans people across the United States. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Violent Death Reporting System for the years 2003-2018 identified victims defined as transgender either through the "transgender" variable or narrative reports. Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression models were run to compare the demographics of trans victims to those not identified as trans. RESULTS: Of the 147 transgender victims identified, 14.4% were incorrectly coded as nontrans despite clear indication of trans status in the narrative description, and 6% were coded as hate crimes. Relative to nontrans victims, trans victims were more frequently Black (54.4% versus 40.7%, P = 0.001), had a mental health condition (26.5% versus 11.3%, P < 0.001), or reported being a sex worker (9.5% versus 0.2%, P < 0.001). There were disproportionately few homicides of transgender people in the South (13.6% of trans victims versus 29.1% of nontrans victims, P < 0.001). Conversely, the West and Midwest accounted for a higher-than-expected proportion of trans victims relative to nontrans victims (23.1% of trans victims versus 16.2% of nontrans victims, P = 0.03; 24.5% of trans victims versus 16.8% of nontrans victims, P = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Though the murder of transgender individuals is a known public health crisis, inconsistencies still exist in the assessment and reporting of transgender status. Further, these individuals were more likely to have multiple distinct vulnerabilities. These findings provide important information for injury and violence prevention researchers to improve reporting of transgender status in the medical record and local trauma registries.

3.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Screening colonoscopy is one of the few procedures that can prevent cancer. While the majority of colonoscopies in the USA are performed by gastroenterologists, general surgeons play a key role in at-risk, rural populations. The aim of this study was to examine geographic practice patterns in colonoscopy using a nationwide Medicare claims database. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The 2017 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment database was used to identify physicians performing colonoscopy. Providers were classified as gastroenterologists, surgeons, ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), or other. Rural-Urban Commuting Area classification at the zip code level was used to determine whether the practice location for an individual provider was in a rural area/small town (< 10,000 people), micropolitan area (10-50,000 people), or metropolitan area (> 50,000 people). RESULTS: Claims data from 3,861,187 colonoscopy procedures on Medicare patients were included. The majority of procedures were performed by gastroenterologists (57.2%) and ASCs (32.1%). Surgeons performed 6.8% of cases overall. When examined at a zip code level, surgeons performed 51.6% of procedures in small towns/rural areas and 21.7% of procedures in micropolitan areas. Individual surgeons performed fewer annual procedures as compared to gastroenterologists (median 51 vs. 187, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons perform the majority of colonoscopies in rural zip codes on Medicare patients. High-quality, surgical training in endoscopy is essential to ensure access to colonoscopy for patients outside of major metropolitan areas.

4.
J Trauma Nurs ; 29(3): 105-110, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma programs are required to collect a uniform set of trauma variables and submit data to regional, state, and or national registries. Programs may also collect unique data elements to support hospital-specific initiatives. OBJECTIVE: This study explored what additional data elements are being collected by U.S. trauma programs and the impact of having a hospital-specific data dictionary. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional survey exploring what additional data are being collected, and the impact of having a hospital-specific data dictionary, was distributed by the Society of Trauma Nurses, Trauma System News, and the American College of Surgeons. The survey was open from July 2020 to September, 2020. RESULTS: There were 693 respondents from approximately 368 Level I/II trauma programs. The estimated trauma center response rate was 59.4% (n = 368/620). Level I programs had a higher response rate than Level II programs (66.9% and 53.4%, respectively).In our sample, 85.5% of responding centers collect additional data. The most common additional data collected at Level I/II programs concerned quality improvement initiatives (70.3% and 66.1%, respectively). Other commonly collected data pertained to deaths (60.6%) and complications (50.3%).Only 43% of responding centers (n = 161/368) have a hospital-specific data dictionary. Hospitals that collect additional data were more likely to have such a resource compared with those that do not (n = 147/315, 46.7% vs. n = 14/53, 26.4%, p = .01). CONCLUSION: Most trauma programs collect data outside required fields. Fewer than half define these data in a data dictionary. Centers should consider establishing a data dictionary to define data collected.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Centros de Traumatologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Am J Surg ; 224(1 Pt A): 100-105, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood measures of social vulnerability encompassing multiple sociodemographic factors can be used to quantify disparities in outcomes. We hypothesize patients with high Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) are at increased risk of morbidity following colectomy. METHODS: We used local 2012-2017 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data to study colectomy patients, examining associations between SVI and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: We included 976 patients from five hospitals. High SVI (>75th percentile) was associated with increased postoperative morbidity on unadjusted analysis (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.35-2.52, p < 0.001); this association persisted after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.15-2.31, p = 0.005). The association with SVI was not significant after adjusting for perioperative risk modifiers such as emergent presentation (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.95-1.98, p = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: High social vulnerability is associated with increased postoperative complications. This effect appears mediated by perioperative risk factors, suggesting potential to improve outcomes by facilitating timely surgical intervention.

6.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
7.
J Surg Res ; 276: A1-A6, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314073

RESUMO

2020 was a significant year because of the occurrence of two simultaneous public health crises: the coronavirus pandemic and the public health crisis of racism brought into the spotlight by the murder of George Floyd. The coronavirus pandemic has affected all aspects of health care, particularly the delivery of surgical care, surgical education, and academic productivity. The concomitant public health crisis of racism and health inequality during the viral pandemic highlighted opportunities for action to address gaps in surgical care and the delivery of public health services. At the 2021 Academic Surgical Congress Hot Topics session on flexibility and leadership, we also explored how our military surgeon colleagues can provide guidance in leadership during times of crisis. The following is a summary of the issues discussed during the session and reflections on the important lessons learned in academic surgery over the past year.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Racismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
8.
J Surg Res ; 270: 394-404, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defining a "high risk" surgical population remains challenging. Using the Surgical Risk Preoperative Assessment System (SURPAS), we sought to define "high risk" groups for adverse postoperative outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the 2009-2018 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. SURPAS calculated probabilities of 12 postoperative adverse events. The Hosmer Lemeshow graphs of deciles of risk and maximum Youden index were compared to define "high risk." RESULTS: Hosmer-Lemeshow plots suggested the "high risk" patient could be defined by the 10th decile of risk. Maximum Youden index found lower cutoff points for defining "high risk" patients and included more patients with events. This resulted in more patients classified as "high risk" and higher number needed to treat to prevent one complication. Some specialties (thoracic, vascular, general) had more "high risk" patients, while others (otolaryngology, plastic) had lower proportions. CONCLUSIONS: SURPAS can define the "high risk" surgical population that may benefit from risk-mitigating interventions.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Surg Res ; 270: 522-529, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates for sexual minorities are higher than the heterosexual population. The purpose of this study is to explore circumstances surrounding suicide completion to inform future intervention strategies for suicide among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We completed a retrospective analysis of data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) from 2013-2017. Victims identified as transgender were considered separately. We stratified analysis by identified sex of the victim for the LGB population. RESULTS: Of the 16,831 victims whose sexual orientation or transgender status was known: 3886 (23.1%) were identified as female, 12,945 (76.9%) were identified as male. 479 (2.8%) were identified as LGBT; of these, 53 (11%) were transgender. LGBT victims were younger than non-LGBT victims. Male LGB victims were more likely to have a history of prior suicide attempts, past or current mental illness diagnosis, and were less likely to use firearms than male heterosexual victims. Female LGB victims were more likely to have problems in an intimate partner relationship than heterosexual women, while LGB men were more likely to have problems in family or other relationships. Transgender victims were again more likely to have mental health problems and a history of prior attempts, but less likely to have intimate partner problems and more likely to have a history of child abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of promoting suicide interventions that recognize the complex intersection between stated gender, sex, and sexuality and the different cultural impacts these identities can have.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual
10.
Am J Surg ; 223(1): 112-119, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural factors limiting access to surgical care require elucidation. We hypothesize transportation time to hospitals with surgical capacity disproportionately burdens minority populations. METHODS: We identified hospitals with surgical capacity within a 20-mile radius of our city center. Using geocoding, we estimated travel times from each census tract to the nearest facility by car or public bus. RESULTS: For 143 tracts within the county, drive time was 13 ± 4 min and bus time was 33 ± 15 min. Only 41.2% of the population had a facility within 30 min by bus; access was further diminished for those with minority race/ethnicity and/or no insurance. Bus time was associated with percent minority population in a census tract: for each 10% increase in minority population there was a 4.3-min increase in bus time (p < 0.001) when controlling for socioeconomic status and other characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic information systems analysis has potential to identify communities with disproportionate burden to access surgical services.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Transportes/economia , Transportes/métodos
11.
J Surg Res ; 269: 234-240, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to characterize trauma-associated deaths in the United States prison system. We hypothesize that incarcerated victims are less likely to receive appropriate medical care compared to the non-incarcerated. METHODS: We utilized 2015-2017 National Violent Death Reporting System data. Victims were classified by whether they were seen by emergency medical services, in the emergency room, or hospitalized prior to death, with the latter considered higher levels of care. Propensity score matching was used to compare highest level of care received by incarcerated versus non-incarcerated victims with similar age, sex, race/ethnicity, weapon type, and state where the incident occurred. RESULTS: Of 101,054 victims, 1229 (1.2%) were incarcerated at the time of fatal injury; 64.4% died by suicide. For suicide, the proportion of minority victims was higher in the incarcerated compared to the non-incarcerated population, but the opposite was true of homicide. Firearms were more commonly used in the non-incarcerated population. After Propensity score matching, we found that incarcerated victims received higher levels of medical care following suicide (P < 0.001) while there was no difference for homicide (P = 0.28). However, when only victims injured in public settings were included, we found that incarcerated homicide victims were less likely to receive hospital-based medical care. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, overall, incarcerated victims received similar levels of medical care as compared to non-incarcerated victims following lethal injury. However, this fails to account for the highly supervised setting of prisons. Our findings reinforce that violence prevention methods should be tailored to specific populations.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Prisioneiros , Causas de Morte , Homicídio , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência
12.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313543

RESUMO

Objective: EMS use of lights and sirens has long been employed in EMS systems, despite an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions associated with their use. The specific aims of this study were to assess the current use of lights and sirens during the transport of trauma patients in a busy metropolitan area and to subsequently develop a novel tool, the Critical Intervention Screen, to aid EMS professionals tasked with making transport decisions in the presence of acute injury.Methods: This single-center, retrospective study included all patients transported to an academic Level One trauma center by ground ambulance from the scene of presumed or known injury. A subset of patients was identified as being most likely to benefit from shorter transport times if they received one of the following critical interventions within 20 minutes of emergency department arrival: intubation, thoracotomy, chest tube, blood products, central line, arterial line, REBOA, disposition to an operating room, or death. Stepwise logistic regression was employed for the development of the Critical Intervention Screen, with a subset of data retained for internal validation.Results: 1296 patients were available for analysis. Overall, 217 patients (16.7%) received a critical intervention, and 112 patients (8.6%) of those patients received a critical intervention within 20 minutes of emergency department arrival. At baseline, EMS use of lights and sirens was 91.1% sensitive and 80.3% specific for receiving a critical intervention. Stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that the need for assisted ventilation, GCS Motor < 6, and penetrating trauma to the trunk were the most predictive prehospital data for receiving at least one critical intervention. The Critical Intervention Screen, defined as having at least one of these risk factors in the prehospital setting, modestly increased sensitivity and specificity (96.4% and 87.9%, respectively) predicting the need for a critical intervention.Conclusion: These findings indicate that EMS are able to correctly identify high-acuity trauma patients, but at times employ L&S during the transport of patients with a low likelihood of receiving a time-sensitive intervention upon emergency department arrival. Therefore, the Critical Intervention Screen has the potential to reduce the use of lights and sirens and improve EMS safety.

13.
J Surg Res ; 266: 405-412, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in obtaining care may lead to perforated appendicitis, increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. We previously explored the role of social determinants in patients undergoing cholecystectomy, finding that emergent presentation is associated with neighborhood Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). We hypothesize that social vulnerability is associated with increased incidence of perforated appendicitis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients presenting to our urban, academic hospital with acute appendicitis during a 9-month timeframe (11/2019 - 7/2020). Patients were classified as perforated or non-perforated. Patient SVI was determined using geocoding at the census tract level. Because rates of perforation were higher in older patients, we performed a subset analysis of patients ≥ 40 years. RESULTS: 190 patients were included. Patients with perforated appendicitis (n = 48, 25%) were older and were more likely to present to a clinic versus the emergency department (P = 0.009). Perforated patients had longer delay before seeking care (56% versus 6% with > 72 hours of symptoms, P < 0.001). However, there were no differences between groups in terms of sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, language barrier, having a primary care physician, or any of the SVI subscales. Of patients ≥ 40 years, a higher proportion were perforated (28/80, 35%) despite similar rates of delayed care. In this cohort, higher overall SVI as well as the socioeconomic status and household composition/disability subscales were associated with perforation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, while perforation was associated with delayed care in this population, we did not find overall that social vulnerability or individual social determinants accounted for this delay.


Assuntos
Apendicite/complicações , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, published tracheostomy guidelines have generally recommended deferral of the procedure beyond the initial weeks of intubation given high mortality as well as concerns about transmission of the infection to providers. It is unclear whether tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 infection facilitates ventilator weaning, and long-term outcomes are not yet reported in the literature. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of tracheostomy outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection at a single-center academic tertiary referral intensive care unit. Patients underwent percutaneous tracheostomy at the bedside; the procedure was performed with limited staffing to reduce risk of disease transmission. RESULTS: Between March 1 and June 30, 2020, a total of 206 patients with COVID-19 infection required mechanical ventilation and 26 underwent tracheostomy at a mean of 25±5 days after initial intubation. Overall, 81% of tracheostomy patients were liberated from the ventilator at a mean of 9±6 days postprocedure, and 54% were decannulated prior to hospital discharge at a mean of 21±10 days postprocedure. Sedation and pain medication requirements decreased significantly in the week after the procedure. In-hospital mortality was 15%. Among tracheostomy survivors, 68% were discharged to a facility. DISCUSSION: The management of patients with COVID-19 related respiratory failure can be challenging due to prolonged ventilator dependency. In our initial experience, outcomes post-tracheostomy in this population are encouraging, with short time to liberation from the ventilator, a high rate of decannulation prior to hospital discharge, and similar mortality to tracheostomy performed for other indications. Barriers to weaning ventilation in this cohort may be high sedation needs and ventilator dyssynchrony. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V-Therapeutic/care management.

15.
Am J Surg ; 222(3): 643-649, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Surgical Risk Preoperative Assessment System (SURPAS) uses eight variables to accurately predict postoperative complications but has not been sufficiently studied in emergency surgery. We evaluated SURPAS in emergency surgery, comparing it to the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS). METHODS: SURPAS and ESS estimates of 30-day mortality and overall morbidity were calculated for emergency operations in the 2009-2018 ACS-NSQIP database and compared using observed-to-expected plots and rates, c-indices, and Brier scores. Cases with incomplete data were excluded. RESULTS: In 205,318 emergency patients, SURPAS underestimated (8.1%; 35.9%) while ESS overestimated (10.1%; 43.8%) observed mortality and morbidity (8.9%; 38.8%). Each showed good calibration on observed-to-expected plots. SURPAS had better c-indices (0.855 vs 0.848 mortality; 0.802 vs 0.755 morbidity), while the Brier score was better for ESS for mortality (0.0666 vs. 0.0684) and for SURPAS for morbidity (0.1772 vs. 0.1950). CONCLUSIONS: SURPAS accurately predicted mortality and morbidity in emergency surgery using eight predictor variables.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Emergências , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Medição de Risco/métodos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(1): 107-112, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest per-capita incarceration rate and the largest prison population in the world. More than two thirds of recently incarcerated individuals will be arrested again within 3 years of release and may commit crimes as serious as homicide soon after discharge. The pattern of homicidal violence currently remains unknown for recently incarcerated homicide suspects (RIHS) and their victims. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the 36 states included in the 2003 to 2017 National Violent Death Reporting System was performed with a focus on RIHS and their victims. Pearson χ2 and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for comparison. RESULTS: There were 249 RIHS in the database of the 14,561 homicides where suspect recent incarceration status was documented. Compared with not-recently incarcerated suspects, RIHS were more likely to be White (41% vs. 29%, p < 0.001) and male (97% vs. 91%, p < 0.001). Recently incarcerated homicide suspects more often had a known relationship with the victim (75% vs. 51%, p < 0.001), and these homicides more often occurred in the victim's own home (43% vs. 34%, p = 0.006). Intimate partner violence was a factor in 31% of the RIHS cases (vs. 17%, p < 0.001). The homicide weapon was most likely to be a firearm (57.8%, p < 0.001). Only 6.4% of homicides were due to mental health illness. Gang violence, while more common in the RIHS group, was still only a precipitating factor in 12.0% of the homicides (vs. 7.4%, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Recently incarcerated homicide suspects are more likely to kill a known person in their own home with a firearm, and these homicides are frequently categorized as intimate partner homicides. Gang violence and mental health are not frequent precipitating factors in these deaths. Additional future interventions are urgently needed to eliminate these preventable deaths by alerting previous or current intimate partners of those being discharged from the prison system.


Assuntos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 466-470, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence guiding firearm injury prevention is limited by current data collection infrastructure. Trauma registries (TR) omit prehospital deaths and underestimate the burden of injury. In contrast, the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) tracks all firearm deaths including prehospital fatalities, excluding survivors. This is a feasibility study to link these data sets through collaboration with our state public health department, aiming to better estimate the burden of firearm injury and assess comparability of data. METHODS: We reviewed all firearm injuries in our Level I TR from 2011 to 2017. We provided the public health department with in-hospital deaths, which they linked to NVDRS using patient identifiers and time of injury/death. The NVDRS collates information about circumstances, incident type, and wounding patterns from multiple sources including death certificates, autopsy records, and legal proceedings. We considered only subjects with injury location in a single urban county to best estimate in-hospital and prehospital mortality. RESULTS: Of 168 TR deaths, 166 (99%) matched to NVDRS records. Based on data linkages, we estimate 320 prehospital deaths, 184 in-hospital deaths, and 453 survivors for a total of 957 firearm injuries. For the matched patients, there was near-complete agreement regarding simple demographic variables (e.g., age and sex) and good concordance between incident types (suicide, homicide, etc.). However, agreement in wounding patterns between NVDRS and TR varied. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the feasibility of linking TR and NVDRS data with good concordance for many variables, allowing for good estimation of the trauma denominator. Standardized data collection methods in one data set could improve methods used by the other, for example, training NVDRS abstractors to utilize Abbreviated Injury Scale designations for injury patterns. Such data integration holds immediate promise for guiding prevention strategies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level IV.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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