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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of direct oral anticoagulants as compared with vitamin K antagonists for atrial fibrillation after successful transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, adjudicator-masked trial comparing edoxaban with vitamin K antagonists in patients with prevalent or incident atrial fibrillation as the indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of adverse events consisting of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, systemic thromboembolism, valve thrombosis, or major bleeding. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. On the basis of a hierarchical testing plan, the primary efficacy and safety outcomes were tested sequentially for noninferiority, with noninferiority of edoxaban established if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio did not exceed 1.38. Superiority testing of edoxaban for efficacy would follow if noninferiority and superiority were established for major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 1426 patients were enrolled (713 in each group). The mean age of the patients was 82.1 years, and 47.5% of the patients were women. Almost all the patients had atrial fibrillation before TAVR. The rate of the composite primary efficacy outcome was 17.3 per 100 person-years in the edoxaban group and 16.5 per 100 person-years in the vitamin K antagonist group (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.31; P = 0.01 for noninferiority). Rates of major bleeding were 9.7 per 100 person-years and 7.0 per 100 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; P = 0.93 for noninferiority); the difference between groups was mainly due to more gastrointestinal bleeding with edoxaban. Rates of death from any cause or stroke were 10.0 per 100 person-years in the edoxaban group and 11.7 per 100 person-years in the vitamin K antagonist group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mainly prevalent atrial fibrillation who underwent successful TAVR, edoxaban was noninferior to vitamin K antagonists as determined by a hazard ratio margin of 38% for a composite primary outcome of adverse clinical events. The incidence of major bleeding was higher with edoxaban than with vitamin K antagonists. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; ENVISAGE-TAVI AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02943785.).

2.
Eur Neurol ; 84(5): 354-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167122

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease is common in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We investigated whether chronic kidney disease has an impact on anticoagulation treatment recommendations after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) related with atrial fibrillation (AF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted treatment-related data concerning stroke/TIA patients with AF and available estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) from a monocentric prospective German stroke registry. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Using uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses, we investigated whether chronic kidney disease was associated with a lower probability to be treated with anticoagulation early after stroke. RESULTS: A total of 273 patients entered the analysis. In 242 AF patients (88.6%), oral anticoagulation was recommended after stroke. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, chronic kidney disease was not identified as an independent factor for the decision against anticoagulation (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.50-5.31, p = 0.421); only increasing age (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00-1.21, p = 0.061) and a modified Rankin Scale >3 at discharge (OR 3.41, 95% CI: 0.88-13.24, p = 0.077) showed a nonsignificant trend for the decision to omit anticoagulation. A total of 155 of 167 patients (92.8%) were still anticoagulated at follow-up. A total of 44 patients with chronic kidney disease completed follow-up, and of those, 37 were still anticoagulated (84%). In patients without chronic kidney disease, 118/167 (70.7%) had continued anticoagulation (p = 0.310). CONCLUSION: Our results show that chronic kidney disease was not the main factor in the decision to withhold oral anticoagulation in patients with recent stroke/TIA and AF.

3.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2250, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after stroke, related to atrial fibrillation (AF), is a frequent complication, and it can be associated with a delay in the (re-)initiation of oral anticoagulation therapy. We investigated the effect of the presence and severity of white matter disease (WMD) on early HT after stroke related to AF. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients with recent (<4 weeks) ischemic stroke and AF, treated at the Hyper Acute Stroke Unit of the Imperial College London between 2010 and 2017, were enrolled. Patients with brain MRI performed 24-72 h from stroke onset and not yet started on anticoagulant treatment were included. WMD was graded using the Fazekas score. RESULTS: Among the 441 patients eligible for the analysis, 91 (20.6%) had any HT. Patients with and without HT showed similar clinical characteristics. Patients with HT had a larger diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) infarct volume compared to patients without HT (p < .001) and significant difference in the distribution of the Fazekas score (p = .001). On multivariable analysis, HT was independently associated with increasing DWI infarct volume (odd ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.05; p < .001), higher Fazekas scores (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.47-2.57; p < .001) and history of previous intracranial hemorrhage (OR, 4.80; 95% CI, 1.11-20.80; p = .036). CONCLUSIONS: Presence and severity of WMD is associated with increased risk of development of early HT in patients with stroke and AF. Further evidence is needed to provide reliable radiological predictors of the risk of HT in cardioembolic stroke.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Substância Branca , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(6): 426-436, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring improves detection of covert atrial fibrillation in stroke survivors but the effect on secondary prevention is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of systematic ECG monitoring of patients in hospital on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, randomised, open-label, parallel-group multicentre study with masked endpoint adjudication, we recruited patients aged at least 18 years with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack without known atrial fibrillation in 38 certified stroke units in Germany. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to usual diagnostic procedures for atrial fibrillation detection (control group) or additional Holter-ECG recording for up to 7 days in hospital (intervention group). Patients were stratified by centre using a random permuted block design. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients on oral anticoagulants at 12 months after the index event in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation in hospital and the composite of recurrent stroke, major bleeding, myocardial infarction, or death after 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02204267, and is completed and closed for participants. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2014, and Sept 11, 2017, 3465 patients were randomly assigned, 1735 (50·1%) to the intervention group and 1730 (49·9%) to the control group. Oral anticoagulation status was available in 2920 (84·3%) patients at 12 months (1484 [50·8%] in the intervention group and 1436 [49·2%] in the control group). For the primary outcome, at 12 months, 203 (13·7%) of 1484 patients in the intervention group versus 169 (11·8%) of 1436 in the control group were on oral anticoagulants (odds ratio [OR] 1·2 [95% CI 0·9-1·5]; p=0·13). Atrial fibrillation was newly detected in patients in hospital in 97 (5·8%) of 1714 in the intervention group versus 68 (4·0%) of 1717 in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4 [95% CI 1·0-2·0]; p=0·024). The composite of cardiovascular outcomes and death did not differ between patients randomly assigned to the intervention group versus the control group at 24 months (232 [13·5%] of 1714 vs 249 [14·5%] of 1717; HR 0·9 [0·8-1·1]; p=0·43). Skin reactions due to study ECG electrodes were reported in 56 (3·3%) patients in the intervention group. All-cause death occured in 73 (4·3%) patients in the intervention group and in 103 (6·0%) patients in the control group (OR 0·7 [0·5-0·9]). INTERPRETATION: Systematic core centrally reviewed ECG monitoring is feasible and increases the detection rate of atrial fibrillation in unselected patients hospitalised with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, if added to usual diagnostic care in certified German stroke units. However, we found no effect of systematic ECG monitoring on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months and further efforts are needed to improve secondary stroke prevention. FUNDING: Bayer Vital. TRANSLATION: For the German translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nervenarzt ; 92(6): 531-539, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763706

RESUMO

Even early at the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic, stroke was described as a manifestation or complication of infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current meta-analyses reported a stroke rate of approximately 1.5%. Stroke in COVID­19 positive patients occurs more frequently in severe courses of the infection and in older patients with cardiovascular comorbidities; however, young patients without cardiovascular risk factors are also not uncommonly affected. The mechanisms of stroke are predominantly embolic. The thrombi frequently occlude large intracranial vessels and in more than 20% affect multiple vascular territories, whereas infarctions due to small vessel disease are uncommon. The exact source of the embolism remains cryptogenic in more than 40% of patients. The mortality caused by the co-occurrence of a SARS-CoV­2 infection and a stroke exceeds 15-30%. While acute stroke treatment was severely affected in some European regions, the rates of recanalization treatment in Germany largely remained stable during the first pandemic wave; however, 20-30% fewer patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) presented to hospitals during the first wave in spring 2020. The present narrative review summarizes the current evidence regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of stroke associated with COVID­19 and describes the effect of the pandemic so far on the provision of acute stroke treatment.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Alemanha , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
7.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(1): 11-20, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074284

RESUMO

Importance: The reported associations of cerebral microbleeds with recurrent stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage have raised concerns regarding antithrombotic treatment in patients with a history of stroke and microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Objective: To characterize microbleeds in embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) and report interactions between microbleeds and the effects of random assignment to anticoagulant vs antiplatelet therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Subgroup analyses of the New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs Aspirin to Prevent Embolism in ESUS (NAVIGATE ESUS) international, double-blind, randomized, event-driven phase 3 clinical trial. Participants were enrolled between December 2014 and September 2017 and followed up for a median of 11 months. The study setting included 459 stroke recruitment centers in 31 countries. Patients aged 50 years or older who had neuroimaging-confirmed ESUS between 7 days and 6 months before screening were eligible. Of these 7213 NAVIGATE ESUS participants, 3699 (51%) had information on cerebral microbleeds reported on their baseline clinical magnetic resonance imaging and were eligible for these analyses. Patients with a prior history of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. Interventions: Rivaroxaban, 15 mg, compared with aspirin, 100 mg, daily. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality. Results: Microbleeds were present in 395 of 3699 participants (11%). Of patients with cerebral microbleeds, mean (SD) age was 69.5 (9.4) years, 241 were men (61%), and 201 were White (51%). Advancing age (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), East Asian race/ethnicity (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.04-2.37), hypertension (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.54-3.15), multiterritorial infarcts (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.42-2.67), chronic infarcts (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.42-2.23), and occult intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.76-9.90) were independently associated with microbleeds. The presence of microbleeds was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3), a 4-fold risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3-13.9), a 2-fold risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3), and strictly lobar microbleeds with an approximately 2.5-fold risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3). There were no interactions between microbleeds and treatment assignments for recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, or all-cause mortality. The HR of intracerebral hemorrhage on rivaroxaban was similar between persons with microbleeds (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.3-30.0) and persons without microbleeds (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.6-14.7; interaction P = .97). Conclusions and Relevance: Microbleeds mark an increased risk of recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and mortality in ESUS but do not appear to influence effects of rivaroxaban on clinical outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , AVC Embólico/complicações , AVC Embólico/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico
8.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 22(11): 144, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910288

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A novel permanent carotid filter device for percutaneous implantation was developed for the purpose of stroke prevention. In this review, we cover rationale, existing preclinical and clinical data, and potential future directions for research using such a device. RECENT FINDINGS: The Vine™ filter was assessed for safety in sheep and in 2 observational human studies, the completed CAPTURE 1 (n = 25) and the ongoing CAPTURE 2 (planned n = 100). CAPTURE 1 has shown high procedural and long-term implant safety. A control group was not available for comparison. A mechanical filter for permanent stroke prevention can be implanted bilaterally in the common carotid artery safely and efficiently. A randomized trial is planned for 2021 (n = 3500, INTERCEPT) to demonstrate superiority of a filter + anticoagulation strategy over anticoagulation alone in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Artéria Carótida Primitiva , Humanos , Próteses e Implantes , Ovinos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(10): 1233-1240, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628266

RESUMO

Importance: The concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) unifies a subgroup of cryptogenic strokes based on neuroimaging, a defined minimum set of diagnostic tests, and exclusion of certain causes. Despite an annual stroke recurrence rate of 5%, little is known about the etiology underlying recurrent stroke after ESUS. Objective: To identify the stroke subtype of recurrent ischemic strokes after ESUS, to explore the interaction with treatment assignment in each category, and to examine the consistency of cerebral location of qualifying ESUS and recurrent ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NAVIGATE-ESUS trial was a randomized clinical trial conducted from December 23, 2014, to October 5, 2017. The trial compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with recent ESUS (n = 7213). Ischemic stroke was validated in 309 of the 7213 patients by adjudicators blinded to treatment assignment and classified by local investigators into the categories ESUS or non-ESUS (ie, cardioembolic, atherosclerotic, lacunar, other determined cause, or insufficient testing). Five patients with recurrent strokes that could not be defined as ischemic or hemorrhagic in absence of neuroimaging or autopsy were excluded. Data for this secondary post hoc analysis were analyzed from March to June 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban, 15 mg/d, or aspirin, 100 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of recurrent ESUS with stroke characteristics. Results: A total of 309 patients (205 men [66%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [10] years) had ischemic stroke identified during the median follow-up of 11 (interquartile range [IQR], 12) months (annualized rate, 4.6%). Diagnostic testing was insufficient for etiological classification in 39 patients (13%). Of 270 classifiable ischemic strokes, 156 (58%) were ESUS and 114 (42%) were non-ESUS (37 [32%] cardioembolic, 26 [23%] atherosclerotic, 35 [31%] lacunar, and 16 [14%] other determined cause). Atrial fibrillation was found in 27 patients (9%) with recurrent ischemic stroke and was associated with higher morbidity (median change in modified Rankin scale score 2 [IQR, 3] vs 0 (IQR, 1]) and mortality (15% vs 1%) than other causes. Risk of recurrence did not differ significantly by subtype between treatment groups. For both the qualifying and recurrent strokes, location of infarct was more often in the left (46% and 54%, respectively) than right hemisphere (40% and 37%, respectively) or brainstem or cerebellum (14% and 9%, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, most recurrent strokes after ESUS were embolic and of undetermined source. Recurrences associated with atrial fibrillation were a minority but were more often disabling and fatal. More extensive investigation to identify the embolic source is important toward an effective antithrombotic strategy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , AVC Embólico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Embólico/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Recidiva
11.
Neurology ; 95(8): e1091-e1104, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 2 doses of natalizumab on functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: In this double-blind phase 2b trial, patients with AIS aged 18-80 years with NIH Stroke Scale scores of 5-23 from 53 US and European sites were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of 300 or 600 mg IV natalizumab or placebo, with randomization stratified by treatment window (≤9 or >9 to ≤24 hours from patient's last known normal state). The primary endpoint was a composite measure of excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤1 and Barthel Index score ≥95) at day 90 assessed in all patients receiving a full dose. Sample size was estimated from a Bayesian model; p values were not used for hypothesis testing. RESULTS: An excellent outcome was less likely with natalizumab than with placebo (natalizumab 300 or 600 mg odds ratio 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.93). There was no effect modification by time to treatment or use of thrombolysis/thrombectomy. For natalizumab 300 mg, 600 mg, or placebo, there were no differences in incidence of adverse events (90.0%, 92.1%, and 92.3%, respectively), serious adverse events (25.6%, 32.6%, and 20.9%, respectively), or deaths (6.7%, 4.5%, and 5.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Natalizumab administered ≤24 hours after AIS did not improve patient outcomes. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02730455 CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with AIS, an excellent outcome was less likely in patients treated with natalizumab than with placebo.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Natalizumab/administração & dosagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
12.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2139-2147, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Risks, sites, and predictors of major bleeding during antithrombotic therapies have not been well defined for patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of major bleeds defined by International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria occurring among 7213 participants in international NAVIGATE (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial) embolic stroke of undetermined source randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15 mg daily with aspirin 100 mg daily. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 months, 85 major bleeds occurred. The most frequent site was gastrointestinal (38%), followed by intracranial (29%). Assignment to rivaroxaban (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.7-4.3]), East Asia region (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.9]), systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg (HR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2-3.8]), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.2 per 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 decrease, [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]) were independently associated with presence of major bleeds. Five (6%) were fatal. Among 15 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 (13%) were fatal. There was no evidence of an early high-risk period following initiation of rivaroxaban. The annualized rate of intracerebral hemorrhage was 6-fold higher among East Asian participants (0.67%) versus all other regions (0.11%; HR, 6.3 [95% CI, 2.2-18.0]). Distribution of bleeding sites was similar for rivaroxaban and aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Among embolic stroke of undetermined source patients participating in an international randomized trial, independent predictors of major bleeding were assignment to rivaroxaban, East Asia region, increased systolic blood pressure, and impaired renal function. East Asia as a region was strongly associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Estimated glomerular filtration rate should be a consideration for stratifying bleeding risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Método Duplo-Cego , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Stroke ; 51(6): 1797-1804, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295509

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Emboli in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) may originate from various potential embolic sources (PES), some of which may respond better to anticoagulation, whereas others to antiplatelets. We analyzed whether rivaroxaban is associated with reduction of recurrent stroke compared with aspirin in patients with ESUS across different PES and by number of PES. Methods- We assessed the presence/absence of each PES (atrial cardiopathy, atrial fibrillation, arterial atherosclerosis, left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac valvulopathy, patent foramen ovale, cancer) in NAVIGATE-ESUS (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) participants. Prevalence of each PES, as well as treatment effect and risk of event for each PES were determined. Results by number of PES were also determined. The outcomes were ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and myocardial infarction. Results- In 7213 patients (38% women, mean age 67years) followed for a median of 11 months, the 3 most prevalent PES were atrial cardiopathy (37%), left ventricular disease (36%), and arterial atherosclerosis (29%). Forty-one percent of all patients had multiple PES, with 15% having ≥3 PES. None or a single PES was present in 23% and 36%, respectively. Recurrent ischemic stroke risk was similar for rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients for each PES, except for those with cardiac valvular disease which was marginally higher in rivaroxaban-assigned patients (hazard ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.0-3.0]). All-cause mortality risks were similar across treatment groups for each PES while too few myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths occurred for meaningful assessment. Increasing number of PES was not associated with increased stroke recurrence nor all-cause mortality, and outcomes did not vary between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients by number of PES. Conclusions- A large proportion of patients with ESUS had multiple PES which could explain the neutral results of NAVIGATE-ESUS. Recurrence rates between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients were similar across the spectrum of PES. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Embolia Intracraniana , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(4): 104669, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Rapid and sensitive detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) is of paramount importance for initiation of adequate preventive therapy after stroke. Stroke Unit care includes continuous electrocardiogram monitoring (CEM) but the optimal exploitation of the recorded ECG traces is controversial. In this retrospective single-center study, we investigated whether an automated analysis of continuous electrocardiogram monitoring (ACEM), based on a software algorithm, accelerates the detection of AF in patients admitted to our Stroke Unit compared to the routine CEM. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were consecutively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received CEM. Additionally, in the second phase of the study the CEM traces of the patients underwent ACEM analysis using a software algorithm for AF detection. Patients with history of AF or with AF on the admission ECG were excluded. RESULTS: The CEM (n = 208) and ACEM cohorts (n= 114) did not differ significantly regarding risk factors, duration of monitoring and length of admission. We found a higher rate of newly-detected AF in the ACEM cohort compared to the CEM cohort (15.8% versus 10.1%, P < .001). Median time to first detection of AF was shorter in the ACEM compared to the CEM cohort [10 hours (IQR 0-23) versus 46.50 hours (IQR 0-108.25), P < .001]. CONCLUSIONS: ACEM accelerates the detection of AF in patients with stroke compared with the routine CEM. Further evidences are required to confirm the increased rate of AF detected using ACEM.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Unidades Hospitalares , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Automação , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/fisiopatologia , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
15.
Eur Stroke J ; 4(2): 181-188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259266

RESUMO

Background: Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists and non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOAC) is effective in stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, anticoagulation also poses a major challenge for emergency treatment of patients suffering ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Aim: The registry RASUNOA-prime is designed to describe current patterns of emergency management, clinical course and outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation experiencing an acute ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage under different anticoagulation schemes prior to stroke (NOAC, vitamin K antagonists or no anticoagulation). Methods and design: RASUNOA-prime (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02533960) is a prospective, investigator-initiated, multicentre, observational cohort study aiming to recruit 3000 patients with acute ischaemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, and 1000 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage and atrial fibrillation with different anticoagulation schemes pre-stroke. It is a non-interventional triple-armed study aiming at a balanced inclusion of ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage patients according to the different anticoagulation schemes. Patients will be followed up for clinical course, management and outcome up to three months after the event. Findings in ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage patients on NOAC will be compared with patients taking vitamin K antagonists or no anticoagulant pre-stroke. Study outcomes: Primary endpoint for ischaemic stroke patients: occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, for intracerebral haemorrhage patients: occurrence of secondary haematoma expansion. Secondary endpoints include assessment of coagulation, use of thrombolysis and/or mechanical thrombectomy, occurrence of complications, implementation of secondary prevention. Summary: Describing the current patterns of early management as well as outcome of stroke patients with atrial fibrillation will help guide physicians to develop recommendations for emergency treatment of stroke patients under different anticoagulation schemes.

16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2273-2279, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) identifies patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke presumed due to embolism from several unidentified sources. Among patients with recent ESUS, we sought to determine independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke during treatment with aspirin or rivaroxaban and to assess the relative effects of these treatments according to risk. METHODS: Exploratory analyses of 7213 participants in the NAVIGATE ESUS international trial who were randomized to aspirin 100 mg/day or rivaroxaban 15 mg/day and followed for a median of 11 months, during which time there were 309 first recurrent ischemic strokes (4.6% per year). Baseline features were correlated with recurrent stroke by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The 7 independent predictors of recurrent stroke were stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) prior to the qualifying stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% confidence internal [CI] 1.58-2.60), current tobacco user (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.12), age (HR 1.02 per year increase, 95%CI 1.01-1.03), diabetes (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.64), multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.02), aspirin use prior to qualifying stroke (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), and time from qualifying stroke to randomization (HR .98, 95% CI .97-.99). The rate of recurrent stroke rate was 2.6% per year for participants without any of these risk factors, and increased by an average of 45% for each independent predictor (P < .001). There were no significant interactions between treatment effects and independent stroke predictors or stroke risk status. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of ESUS patients, several features including prior stroke or TIA, advanced age, current tobacco user, multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging, and diabetes independently identified those with an increased risk of ischemic stroke recurrence. The relative effects of rivaroxaban and aspirin were similar across the spectrum of independent stroke predictors and recurrent stroke risk status.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 25, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is present in 15-20% of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Oral anticoagulation reduces the risk of AF-related recurrent stroke but clinical guideline recommendations are rather vague regarding its use in the acute phase of stroke. We aimed to assess the current clinical practice of medical stroke prevention in AF patients during the acute phase of ischemic stroke. METHODS: In April 2017, a standardized anonymous questionnaire was sent to clinical leads of all 298 certified stroke units in Germany. RESULTS: Overall, 154 stroke unit leads participated (response rate 52%). Anticoagulation in the acute phase of stroke is considered feasible in more than 90% of AF patients with ischemic stroke. Clinicians assume that about two thirds of all AF patients (range 20-100%) are discharged on oral anticoagulation. According to local preferences, acetylsalicylic acid is given orally in the majority of patients with delayed initiation of oral anticoagulation. A non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOAC) is more often prescribed than a vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (VKA). VKA is more often chosen in patients with previous VKA intake than in VKA naive patients. In the minority of patients, stroke unit leads discuss the prescription of a specific oral anticoagulant with the treating general practitioner. Adherence to medical stroke prevention after hospital discharge is not assessed on a regular basis in any patient by the majority of participating stroke centers. CONCLUSIONS: Early secondary stroke prevention in AF patients in German stroke units is based on OAC use but prescription modalities vary in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina K
18.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1153-1159, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lacking awareness of healthcare providers bears the risk of delayed or false diagnoses in rare diseases. No systematic data about misdiagnoses of Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) are available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate and pattern of missed diagnoses in MMA. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a consecutive case series from a single German referral center. Rates of missed or delayed diagnoses in Caucasian MMA patients were calculated based on discharge letters from other hospitals and systematic chart review. RESULTS: Out of 192 Caucasian patients eventually diagnosed with MMA at our center, an initial misdiagnosis was identified in 119 patients (62%). The time between onset and diagnosis was 1 year in 24 patients, 2 years in 23 patients, 3 years in 10 patients, and > 3 years in 49 patients (mean 5.28, median 3, standard deviation 5.11, and range 4-26 years). The most common misdiagnoses were cerebral vasculitis (31%), etiologically ill-defined stroke diagnoses (30.2%), and MS (3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic report which shows that patients with MMA are at high risk to be falsely diagnosed and treated. Depiction of typical vascular abnormalities in angiopathy is essential. Normal CSF cell counts, negative oligoclonal bands, and lack of infratentorial lesions as well as gadolinium-positive T1 lesions on MRI may be red flags differentiating this vasculopathy from vasculitis and MS.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Erros de Diagnóstico , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiografia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Moyamoya/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(1): 54-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke can lead to cardiac dysfunction in patients, but the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the injured brain and the heart are poorly understood. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of experimental murine stroke on cardiac function and molecular signalling in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were subjected to filament-induced left middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 or 60 min or sham surgery and underwent repetitive micro-echocardiography. Left ventricular contractility was reduced early (24-72 h) but not late (2 months) after brain ischaemia. Cardiac dysfunction was accompanied by a release of high-sensitive cardiac troponin (hsTNT (ng/ml): d1: 7.0 ± 1.0 vs. 25.0 ± 3.2*; d3: 7.3 ± 1.1 vs. 52.2 ± 16.7*; d14: 5.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.2 ± 0.3; sham vs. 60 min. MCAO; mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05); reduced heart weight (heart weight/tibia length ratio: d1: 6.9 ± 0.2 vs. 6.4 ± 0.1*; d3: 6.7 ± 0.2 vs. 5.8 ± 0.1*; d14: 6.7 ± 0.2 vs. 6.4 ± 03; sham vs. 60 min. MCAO; mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05); resulting from cardiomyocyte atrophy (cardiomyocyte size: d1: 12.8% ± 0.002**; d3: 13.5% ± 0.002**; 14d: 6.3% ± 0.003*; 60 min. MCAO vs. sham; mean ± SEM; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05), accompanied by increased atrogin-1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase murf-1. Net norepinephrine but not synthesis was increased, suggesting a reduced norepinephrine release or an increase of norepinephrine re-uptake, resulting in a functional denervation. Transcriptome analysis in cardiac tissue identified the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma as a potential mediator of stroke-induced transcriptional dysregulation involved in cardiac atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke induces a complex molecular response in the heart muscle with immediate but transient cardiac atrophy and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Atrofia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(12): 1053-1060, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a contributor to embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Subgroup analyses from previous studies suggest that anticoagulation could reduce recurrent stroke compared with antiplatelet therapy. We hypothesised that anticoagulant treatment with rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, would reduce the risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke compared with aspirin among patients with PFO enrolled in the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. METHODS: NAVIGATE ESUS was a double-blinded, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 459 centres in 31 countries that assessed the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with ESUS. For this prespecified subgroup analysis, cohorts with and without PFO were defined on the basis of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). The primary efficacy outcome was time to recurrent ischaemic stroke between treatment groups. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding, according to the criteria of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The primary analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. Additionally, we did a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of studies in which patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO were randomly assigned to receive anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. FINDINGS: Between Dec 23, 2014, and Sept 20, 2017, 7213 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive rivaroxaban (n=3609) or aspirin (n=3604). Patients were followed up for a mean of 11 months because of early trial termination. PFO was reported as present in 534 (7·4%) patients on the basis of either TTE or TOE. Patients with PFO assigned to receive aspirin had a recurrent ischaemic stroke rate of 4·8 events per 100 person-years compared with 2·6 events per 100 person-years in those treated with rivaroxaban. Among patients with known PFO, there was insufficient evidence to support a difference in risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke between rivaroxaban and aspirin (hazard ratio [HR] 0·54; 95% CI 0·22-1·36), and the risk was similar for those without known PFO (1·06; 0·84-1·33; pinteraction=0·18). The risks of major bleeding with rivaroxaban versus aspirin were similar in patients with PFO detected (HR 2·05; 95% CI 0·51-8·18) and in those without PFO detected (HR 2·82; 95% CI 1·69-4·70; pinteraction=0·68). The random-effects meta-analysis combined data from NAVIGATE ESUS with data from two previous trials (PICSS and CLOSE) and yielded a summary odds ratio of 0·48 (95% CI 0·24-0·96; p=0·04) for ischaemic stroke in favour of anticoagulation, without evidence of heterogeneity. INTERPRETATION: Among patients with ESUS who have PFO, anticoagulation might reduce the risk of recurrent stroke by about half, although substantial imprecision remains. Dedicated trials of anticoagulation versus antiplatelet therapy or PFO closure, or both, are warranted. FUNDING: Bayer and Janssen.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Forame Oval Patente/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , MEDLINE/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
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