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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5525, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535664

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are life-threatening diseases with limited treatment options. The lack of clinically relevant/tractable experimental models hampers therapeutic discovery. Here, we develop a simple and robust human liver cell-based system modeling a clinical prognostic liver signature (PLS) predicting long-term liver disease progression toward HCC. Using the PLS as a readout, followed by validation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis/fibrosis/HCC animal models and patient-derived liver spheroids, we identify nizatidine, a histamine receptor H2 (HRH2) blocker, for treatment of advanced liver disease and HCC chemoprevention. Moreover, perturbation studies combined with single cell RNA-Seq analyses of patient liver tissues uncover hepatocytes and HRH2+, CLEC5Ahigh, MARCOlow liver macrophages as potential nizatidine targets. The PLS model combined with single cell RNA-Seq of patient tissues enables discovery of urgently needed targets and therapeutics for treatment of advanced liver disease and cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Fígado/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioprevenção , Estudos de Coortes , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/genética , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Nizatidina/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520095

RESUMO

Evidence from animal and histological studies has indicated that accumulation of iron in the brain results in reactive gliosis that contributes to cognitive deficits. The current study extends these findings to human cognitive aging and suggests that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques like quantitative relaxometry can be used to study iron and its effects in vivo. The effects of iron on microstructure and memory performance were examined using a combination of quantitative relaxometry and multicompartment diffusion imaging in 35 young (21.06 ± 2.18 years) and 28 older (72.58 ± 6.47 years) adults, who also completed a memory task. Replicating past work, results revealed age-related increases in iron content (R2*) and diffusion, and decreases in memory performance. Independent of age group, iron content was significantly related to restricted (intracellular) diffusion in regions with low-moderate iron (hippocampus, caudate) and to all diffusion metrics in regions with moderate-high iron (putamen, globus pallidus). This pattern is consistent with different stages of iron-related gliosis, ranging from astrogliosis that may influence intracellular diffusion to microglial proliferation and increased vascular permeability that may influence all sources of diffusion. Further, hippocampal restricted diffusion was significantly related to memory performance, with a third of this effect related to iron content; consistent with the hypothesis that higher iron-related astrogliosis in the hippocampus is associated with poorer memory performance. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI to iron-related gliosis and extend our understanding of its impact on cognition by showing that this relationship also explains individual differences in memory performance.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371967

RESUMO

Interventions that address binge eating and food insecurity are needed. Engaging people with lived experience to understand their needs and preferences could yield important design considerations for such interventions. In this study, people with food insecurity, recurrent binge eating, and obesity completed an interview-based needs assessment to learn facilitators and barriers that they perceive would impact their engagement with a digital intervention for managing binge eating and weight. Twenty adults completed semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged. Participants shared considerations that impact their ability to access the intervention (e.g., cost of intervention, cost of technology, accessibility across devices), ability to complete intervention recommendations (e.g., affordable healthy meals, education to help stretch groceries, food vouchers, rides to grocery stores, personalized to budget), and preferred intervention features for education, self-monitoring, personalization, support, and motivation/rewards. Engaging people with lived experiences via user-centered design methods revealed important design considerations for a digital intervention to meet this population's needs. Future research is needed to test whether a digital intervention that incorporates these recommendations is engaging and effective for people with binge eating and food insecurity. Findings may have relevance to designing digital interventions for other health problems as well.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia/terapia , Insegurança Alimentar , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Design Centrado no Usuário , Adulto , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos
4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 96: 12-21, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905951

RESUMO

Single-tensor diffusion imaging (DTI) has traditionally been used to assess integrity of white matter. For example, we previously showed that integrity of limbic white matter tracts declines in healthy aging and relates to episodic memory performance. However, multi-compartment diffusion models may be more informative about microstructural properties of gray matter. The current study examined hippocampal gray matter integrity using both single-tensor and multi-compartment (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, NODDI) diffusion imaging. Younger (20-38 years) and older (59-84 years) adults also completed the Mnemonic Similarity Task to measure mnemonic discrimination performance. Results revealed age-related declines in both single-tensor (lower fractional anisotropy, higher mean diffusivity) and multi-compartment (higher restricted, hindered and free diffusion) measures of hippocampal gray matter integrity. As expected, NODDI measures (hindered and free diffusion) captured more age-related variance than DTI measures. Moreover, mnemonic discrimination of highly similar lure items in memory was related to hippocampal gray matter integrity in younger but not older adults. These findings support the notion that age-related differences in gray matter integrity are better captured by multi-compartment versus single-tensor diffusion models and show that the relationship between mnemonic discrimination and hippocampal gray matter integrity is moderated by age.

5.
Nanomedicine ; 14(2): 317-325, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157977

RESUMO

Safety is prerequisite for preventive medicine, but non-toxic agents are generally ineffective as clinical chemoprevention. Here we propose a strategy overcoming this challenge by delivering molecular-targeted agent specifically to the effector cell type to achieve sufficient potency, while circumventing toxicity in the context of cancer chemoprevention. Hepatic myofibroblasts drive progressive fibrosis that results in cirrhosis and liver cancer. In a rat model of cirrhosis-driven liver cancer, a small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, erlotinib, was delivered specifically to myofibroblasts by a versatile nanoparticle-based system, targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta uniquely expressed on their surface in the liver. With systemic administration of erlotinib, tumor burden was reduced to 31%, which was further improved to 21% by myofibroblast-targeted delivery even with reduced erlotinib dose (7.3-fold reduction with equivalent erlotinib dose) and less hepatocyte damage. These findings demonstrate a strategy, cell type-specific kinase inhibition, for more effective and safer precision cancer chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Exp Mol Med ; 49(11): e396, 2017 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147013

RESUMO

Tissue fibrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by myofibroblasts, is a growing cause of mortality worldwide. Understanding the factors that induce myofibroblastic differentiation is paramount to prevent or reverse the fibrogenic process. Integrin-mediated interaction between the ECM and cytoskeleton promotes myofibroblast differentiation. In the present study, we explored the significance of integrin alpha 11 (ITGA11), the integrin alpha subunit that selectively binds to type I collagen during tissue fibrosis in the liver, lungs and kidneys. We showed that ITGA11 was co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts and was correlatively induced with increasing fibrogenesis in mouse models and human fibrotic organs. Furthermore, transcriptome and protein expression analysis revealed that ITGA11 knockdown in hepatic stellate cells (liver-specific myofibroblasts) markedly reduced transforming growth factor ß-induced differentiation and fibrotic parameters. Moreover, ITGA11 knockdown dramatically altered the myofibroblast phenotype, as indicated by the loss of protrusions, attenuated adhesion and migration, and impaired contractility of collagen I matrices. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ITGA11 was regulated by the hedgehog signaling pathway, and inhibition of the hedgehog pathway reduced ITGA11 expression and fibrotic parameters in human hepatic stellate cells in vitro, in liver fibrosis mouse model in vivo and in human liver slices ex vivo. Therefore, we speculated that ITGA11 might be involved in fibrogenic signaling and might act downstream of the hedgehog signaling pathway. These findings highlight the significance of the ITGA11 receptor as a highly promising therapeutic target in organ fibrosis.


Assuntos
Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/genética , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
7.
eNeuro ; 4(5)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034315

RESUMO

Older adults tend to use strategies that differ from those used by young adults to solve decision-making tasks. MRI experiments suggest that altered strategy use during aging can be accompanied by a change in extent of activation of a given brain region, inter-hemispheric bilateralization or added brain structures. It has been suggested that these changes reflect compensation for less effective networks to enable optimal performance. One way that communication can be influenced within and between brain networks is through oscillatory events that help structure and synchronize incoming and outgoing information. It is unknown how aging impacts local oscillatory activity within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). The present study recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and single units in old and young rats during the performance of tasks that involve discrimination learning and probabilistic decision making. We found task- and age-specific increases in power selectively within the ß range (15-30 Hz). The increased ß power occurred after lever presses, as old animals reached the goal location. Periods of high-power ß developed over training days in the aged rats, and was greatest in early trials of a session. ß Power was also greater after pressing for the large reward option. These data suggest that aging of BLA networks results in strengthened synchrony of ß oscillations when older animals are learning or deciding between rewards of different size. Whether this increased synchrony reflects the neural basis of a compensatory strategy change of old animals in reward-based decision-making tasks, remains to be verified.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletroencefalografia , Masculino , Probabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Análise Espectral , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
8.
Gut ; 66(7): 1286-1296, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27849562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with limited treatment options. Palbociclib, a well-tolerated and selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, has shown promising results in the treatment of retinoblastoma (RB1)-positive breast cancer. RB1 is rarely mutated in HCC, suggesting that palbociclib could potentially be used for HCC therapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterisation of the efficacy of palbociclib in multiple preclinical models of HCC. DESIGN: The effects of palbociclib on cell proliferation, cellular senescence and cell death were investigated in a panel of human liver cancer cell lines, in ex vivo human HCC samples, in a genetically engineered mouse model of liver cancer, and in human HCC xenografts in vivo. The mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to palbociclib were assessed in human liver cancer cell lines and human HCC samples by protein and gene expression analyses. RESULTS: Palbociclib suppressed cell proliferation in human liver cancer cell lines by promoting a reversible cell cycle arrest. Intrinsic and acquired resistance to palbociclib was determined by loss of RB1. A signature of 'RB1 loss of function' was found in <30% of HCC samples. Palbociclib, alone or combined with sorafenib, the standard of care for HCC, impaired tumour growth in vivo and significantly increased survival. CONCLUSIONS: Palbociclib shows encouraging results in preclinical models of HCC and represents a novel therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, alone or particularly in combination with sorafenib. Palbociclib could potentially benefit patients with RB1-proficient tumours, which account for 70% of all patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Sorafenibe , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
9.
Cancer Cell ; 30(6): 879-890, 2016 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960085

RESUMO

Cirrhosis is a milieu that develops hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most lethal cancer worldwide. HCC prediction and prevention in cirrhosis are key unmet medical needs. Here we have established an HCC risk gene signature applicable to all major HCC etiologies: hepatitis B/C, alcohol, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A transcriptome meta-analysis of >500 human cirrhotics revealed global regulatory gene modules driving HCC risk and the lysophosphatidic acid pathway as a central chemoprevention target. Pharmacological inhibition of the pathway in vivo reduced tumors and reversed the gene signature, which was verified in organotypic ex vivo culture of patient-derived fibrotic liver tissues. These results demonstrate the utility of clinical organ transcriptome to enable a strategy, namely, reverse-engineering precision cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Lisofosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(23): 5819-5824, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793566

RESUMO

Based on our previous identification of a disubstituted aminothiazole termed HBF-0079 with promising selective toxicity for HCC-derived cell lines versus non-HCC liver lines, a series of tri-substituted aminothiazole derivatives were prepared and evaluated. This work resulted in the discovery of isopropyl 4-(pyrazin-2-yl)-2-(pyrimidin-2-ylamino)thiazole-5-carboxylate, 14, which displayed EC50 value of 0.11µM and more than 450times of selectivity, and its methyl carbonate prodrug 24 with improved solubility in organic solvents. Furthermore, 14, was shown to reduce the proliferation of several liver cancer cells derived directly from patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Aminação , Carbonatos/química , Carbonatos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia
11.
Liver Int ; 36(1): 108-18, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26058462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most lethal cancer caused by lack of effective therapies. Although promising, HCC molecular classification, which enriches potential responders to specific therapies, has not yet been assessed in clinical trials of anti-HCC drugs. We aimed to overcome these challenges by developing clinicopathological surrogate indices of HCC molecular classification. METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma classification defined in our previous transcriptome meta-analysis (S1, S2 and S3 subclasses) was implemented in an FDA-approved diagnostic platform (Elements assay, NanoString). Ninety-six HCC tumours (training set) were assayed to develop molecular subclass-predictive indices based on clinicopathological features, which were independently validated in 99 HCC tumours (validation set). Molecular deregulations associated with the histopathological features were determined by pathway analysis. Sample sizes for HCC clinical trials enriched with specific molecular subclasses were determined. RESULTS: Hepatocellular carcinoma subclass-predictive indices were steatohepatitic (SH)-HCC variant and immune cell infiltrate for S1 subclass, macrotrabecular/compact pattern, lack of pseudoglandular pattern, and high serum alpha-foetoprotein (>400 ng/ml) for S2 subclass, and microtrabecular pattern, lack of SH-HCC and clear cell variants, and lower histological grade for S3 subclass. Macrotrabecular/compact pattern, a predictor of S2 subclass, was associated with the activation of therapeutically targetable oncogene YAP and stemness markers EPCAM/KRT19. BMP4 was associated with pseudoglandular pattern. Subclass-predictive indices-based patient enrichment reduced clinical trial sample sizes from 121, 184 and 53 to 30, 43 and 22 for S1, S2 and S3 subclass-targeting therapies respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatocellular carcinoma molecular subclasses can be enriched by clinicopathological indices tightly associated with deregulation of therapeutically targetable molecular pathways.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/análise , Queratina-19/análise , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/classificação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/classificação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise
12.
Behav Neurosci ; 129(2): 138-48, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25664565

RESUMO

Studies of the effects of aging on decision making suggest that choices can be altered in a variety of ways depending on the situation, the nature of the outcome and risk, or certainty levels. To better characterize how aging impacts decision making in rodents, young and aged Fischer 344 rats underwent a series of probabilistic discounting tasks in which reward magnitude and probabilities were manipulated. Young rats tended to choose 1 of 2 different strategies: (a) to press for the large/uncertain reward, regardless of the reward probability; or (b) to continually adapt their behavior according to the odds of winning. The first strategy was adopted by about half of the younger rats, the second by the remaining young animals and the entire group of aged rats. Additionally, we found that when the odds of winning were varied from uncertain to certain during a session, aged rats chose most often the lever associated with the small/certain reward. This is consistent with an interpretation of increased risk aversion. When this behavior was further characterized using a lose-shift analysis, it appears that older rats exhibited an increased sensitivity to negative feedback. In contrast, sensitivity to wins was unaltered in aged rats compared with young, suggesting that aging selectively impacts rat's behavior following losses. In line with some human aging studies, it appears that aged rats are either more risk averse or have a greater certainty bias, which may result from age differences in emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Recompensa , Risco , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
13.
Gut ; 64(8): 1296-302, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25143343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The number of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis is increasing, leading to a rising risk of complications and death. Prognostic stratification in patients with early-stage cirrhosis is still challenging. We aimed to develop and validate a clinically useful prognostic index based on genomic and clinical variables to identify patients at high risk of disease progression. DESIGN: We developed a prognostic index, comprised of a 186-gene signature validated in our previous genome-wide profiling study, bilirubin (>1 mg/dL) and platelet count (<100,000/mm(3)), in an Italian HCV cirrhosis cohort (training cohort, n=216, median follow-up 10 years). The gene signature test was implemented using a digital transcript counting (nCounter) assay specifically developed for clinical use and the prognostic index was evaluated using archived specimens from an independent cohort of HCV-related cirrhosis in the USA (validation cohort, n=145, median follow-up 8 years). RESULTS: In the training cohort, the prognostic index was associated with hepatic decompensation (HR=2.71, p=0.003), overall death (HR=6.00, p<0.001), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR=3.31, p=0.001) and progression of Child-Turcotte-Pugh class (HR=6.70, p<0.001). The patients in the validation cohort were stratified into high-risk (16%), intermediate-risk (42%) or low-risk (42%) groups by the prognostic index. The high-risk group had a significantly increased risk of hepatic decompensation (HR=7.36, p<0.001), overall death (HR=3.57, p=0.002), liver-related death (HR=6.49, p<0.001) and all liver-related adverse events (HR=4.98, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A genomic and clinical prognostic index readily available for clinical use was successfully validated, warranting further clinical evaluation for prognostic prediction and clinical trial stratification and enrichment for preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Genom Data ; 2: 361-362, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25506552

RESUMO

The rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) related liver cirrhosis and subsequent cancer development is increasing and raising the risk of related mortality and morbidity. To address this issue, we aimed to develop a prognostic index that can be used to stratify patients for risk of disease progression. This index was developed in part by using a gene signature test implemented in a clinically applicable digital transcript counting platform (NanoString nCounter system). A cohort of 145 U.S. patients with HCV-related early-stage cirrhosis was analyzed by using the assay. This dataset (GEO accession number GPL17230) provides information of expression levels of the prognostic genes in the cohort.

15.
Behav Neurosci ; 128(2): 122-33, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24773433

RESUMO

Normal aging in rats affects behavioral performance on a variety of associative learning tasks under Pavlovian conditions. There is little information, however, on whether aging also impacts performance of instrumental tasks. Young (9-12 months) and aged (24-27 months) Fisher 344 rats were trained to press distinct levers associated with either maltodextrin or sucrose. The rats in both age groups increased their lever press frequency at a similar rate, suggesting that the initial acquisition of this instrumental task is not affected by aging. Using a contingency degradation procedure, we then addressed whether aged rats could adapt their behavior to changes in action-outcome contingencies. We found that young and aged rats do adapt, but that a different schedule of reinforcement is necessary to optimize performance in each age group. Finally, we also addressed whether aged rats can extinguish a lever press action as well as young rats, using 2 40-min extinction sessions on consecutive days. While extinction profiles were similar in young and aged rats on the first day of training, aged rats were faster to extinguish their lever presses on the second day, in spite of their performance levels being similar at the beginning of the session. Together these data support the finding that acquisition of instrumental lever press behaviors is preserved in aged rats and suggest that they have a different threshold for switching strategies in response to changes in action-outcome associations. This pattern of result implies that age-related changes in the brain are heterogeneous and widespread across structures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Ratos , Esquema de Reforço , Recompensa
16.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e86961, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24498002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Archived tissues from previously completed prospective trials represent invaluable resource for biomarker development. However, such specimens are often stored as sections on glass slides, in which RNA is severely degraded due to prolonged air exposure. We evaluated whether a proportion of archived sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (AS-FFPE) tissues yield transcriptome profiles comparable to freshly cut (FC) FFPE tissues, which can be used for retrospective class prediction analysis. METHODS: Genome-wide transcriptome profiles of 6 to 7-year-old AS-FFPE tissue sections (generated from 5 to 16-year-old blocks) of 83 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 47 liver cirrhosis samples were generated by using whole-genome DASL assay (Illumina) and digital transcript counting (nCounter) assay (NanoString), and gene signature-based prediction of HCC subclasses and prognosis was compared with previously generated FC-FFPE profiles from the same tissue blocks. RESULTS: RNA quality and assay reproducibility of AS-FFPE RNA were comparable to intermediate to poor quality FC-FFPE samples (RNA Integrity Number: up to 2.50, R-square for technical replicates: up to 0.93). Analyzable transcriptome profiles were obtained in 64 (77%) HCC and 36 (77%) cirrhosis samples. Statistically more confident predictions based on random resampling-based method (nearest template prediction) were obtained in 37 (58%) HCC and 13 (36%) cirrhosis samples. Predictions made in FC-FFPE profiles were reproduced in 36 (97%) HCC and 11 (85%) cirrhosis AS-FFPE profiles. nCounter assay was tested in 24 cirrhosis samples, which yielded confident prediction in 15 samples (63%), of which 10 samples (67%) showed concordant predictions with FC-FFPE profiles. CONCLUSIONS: AS-FFPE tissues yielded poorer quality RNA and transcriptome profiles compared to FC-FFPE tissues. Statistically more confident class prediction was feasible in 37 of 83 HCC samples and 13 of 47 cirrhosis samples. These results suggest that AS-FFPE tissues can be regarded as a resource for retrospective transcriptome-based class prediction analysis when they are the only available materials.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Fixadores/química , Formaldeído/química , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fixação de Tecidos
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