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Kidney Int ; 70(9): 1629-35, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16955110


Efficacy and safety of antibiotic 'locks', in prevention of thrombotic and infectious complication-related morbidity and mortality, among diabetics dialyzed through tunneled-cuffed catheters (TCCs) has not been effectively investigated. This trial was designed to investigate the outcome of TCCs (n = 109), inserted among 96 diabetic end-stage renal disease patients (March 2002-February 2003), by comparing the catheter thrombosis, catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), catheter survival, and mortality rates, between the cohorts of 49 patients who had TCCs (n = 51) 'locked' with cefotaxime/heparin (group I) and 47 patients with TCCs (n = 58) filled with standard heparin (group II). Thrombosis was defined as the inability to use catheter at a blood flow of 200 ml/min despite intraluminal thrombolysis. Primary end points were catheter thrombosis and CRBSI; elective catheter removal and CRBSI-related death led to sensor of TCCs follow-up. Patients with intraluminal cefotaxime/heparin lock, on cumulative survival analysis, showed a superior thrombosis-free (86.3 vs 63.8%, P = 0.023, log rank), infection-free (72.9 vs 27.1%, P = 0.004, log rank), and thrombosis- and infection-free TCC survival (78.4 vs 37.9%, P = 0.001, log rank) at 365 days, besides having significantly lower incidence of CRBSI (1.56 vs 3.68 episodes/1000 catheter days, P < 0.0001) and CRBSI-related mortality (9.8 vs 23.4%, P = 0.015), compared with the heparin-alone group. Deployment of cefotaxime-heparin 'lock' enhances catheter survival; reduces thrombotic and infectious complications and ensuing mortality, among diabetics on dialysis. However, further studies are needed to define the long-term implications of antibiotic locks in terms of the risk of emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

Antibioticoprofilaxia/instrumentação , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
Am J Infect Control ; 31(1): 26-33, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12548254


BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in hemodialysis (HD) units, especially in Middle Eastern countries. The meticulous isolation policy recommended for patients with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in an HD unit resulted in a significant drop in HBV incidence globally. This study was developed to prospectively investigate the impact of an identical isolation policy on incidence of nosocomial HCV infection in this HD unit of the Middle East. METHODS: In phase I of the study, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 189 patients with a mean age of 47.5 +/- 11.4 years (range, 15-85 years) who were receiving maintenance HD from December 7, 1995, to December 6, 2000, for the mean duration of 73 +/- 6.3 months (range, 3-144 months) to record the prevalence of HCV. Factors such as blood transfusions and dialytic age (time span that patient has received dialysis since its initiation) implicated in transmission of HCV in the HD unit also were recorded. Phase II involved stringent isolation of anti-HCV positive patients detected during phase I through provision of dedicated space, dialysis equipment, and nursing staff from December 7, 2000, to December 6, 2001. Liver function and anti-HCV tests were repeated for all the 198 patients every 6 months to identify new HCV seroconversions. RESULTS: An HCV prevalence rate of 43.9% (83/189) and an annual HCV seroconversion rate of 6.8% were identified in this cohort. No significant association with blood tranfusion was observed. Eighty-three anti-HCV positive (43.9%) patients had a mean dialytic age of 48.5 +/- 14.2 months compared with 25.0 +/- 8.6 months among 106 (56.1%) anti-HCV negative patients (relative risk [RR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-5.86; P <.001). Only 2 new HCV seroconversions (1.01% [2/198]) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Evidently, the sharing of facilities in a high-risk HD environment for a prolonged dialytic age facilitates the nosocomial transmission of HCV infection. A significant decline of annual seroconversion rate from 6.8% to 1.01% (odds ratio [OR], 7.535; 95% CI, 1.598-48.89; P <.005) suggests that a comprehensive, strictly enforced isolation policy for HCV-positive patients may play a significant role in limiting HCV transmission in HD units, just as it has in drastically reducing HBV transmission in these settings.

Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/organização & administração , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Isolamento de Pacientes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Ren Fail ; 24(6): 763-77, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12472199


BACKGROUND: Fairly higher nasal carriage rates among type-II diabetics place them at a greater risk of endogenous Staphylococcus aureus linked vascular access-related septicemia (VRS) that is also dependent on the type of vascular access used for hemodialysis (HD). The prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) and its impact on VRS was determined in order to identify most vulnerable group and plan potential prophylactic strategies, accordingly. METHODS: Five standardized nasal swab cultures were performed in 208 patients enrolled for long-term HD through July 1996 to July 1999. Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive cultures for MSSA or MRSA. Peripheral blood cultures were collected on clinical suspicion of septicemia. RESULTS: The prevalence of type-II diabetes of 28.0% with 72.4% of nasal carriage rate and three folds higher S. aureus related VRS (RR-3.19, p<0.0001) than diabetic non-carriers on HD, was observed. Type-II diabetics also had higher MSSA and MRSA nasal carriage rates (53.4% and 19.0%) than non-diabetic nasal carriers (18.6 and 6.0%) yet, carried a comparable (RR-4.0 vs. 4.5) risk of VRS between MSSA and MRSA nasal carriers. Among diabetic type-II S. aureus nasal carriers, central venous catheters (CVCs) carried 35 and 38 times higher collective risk of developing MSSA and MRSA nasal carriage-related VRS respectively than Arterio-venous fistula (AVF). The AVF recorded the lowest risk of developing MSSA and MRSA nasal carriage-related VRS (0.013 and 0.010 episodes/patient-year) in both diabetic type-II MSSA and MRSA nasal carrier groups. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic type-II S. aureus nasal carriers on HD through CVCs make an extremely high-risk group for MSSA and MRSA nasal carriage-related VRS. The incidence of S. aureus nasal carriage-related VRS could reasonably be reduced through a challenging obligation of optimizing AVF prevalence in this high-risk group, while limiting the use of CVCs, at the same time.

Bacteriemia/etiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Resistência a Meticilina , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 25(2): 109-14, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12077493


BACKGROUND: AV fistula (AVF) is the safest of vascular accesses with lowest infection rates; yet only 23% patients used AVF during 1997 in USA. The lower prevalence of AVF among diabetics on hemodialysis (HD) places them at a higher risk of vascular-access-related septicemia (VRS) and ensuing mortality. In this study we assessed the outcome of VRS after maximizing the frequency of native AVF in this largest growing population on HD. METHODS: Study included 218 patients, 63 diabetics and 155 nondiabetics on HD, through July 1996 to July 2000 when National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcome and Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI) set goal was accomplished with overall 72% of functioning AVF (57.2% diabetics and 78.1% nondiabetics) through joint efforts of nephrologists and vascular surgeons. RESULTS: Overall, 10.6% patients per year developed VRS through 125 episodes, over 10,464 patient-months, recording 1.19 episodes per 100 patient-months. In the diabetic group, 13.87% patients per year had VRS during 44 episodes with 1.45 episodes per 100 patient-months while 1.08 episodes per 100 patient-months were recorded in nondiabetics with 9.35% per year having VRS during 81 episodes. Collectively, catheters recorded 1.5 folds higher VRS episodes in diabetic than in nondiabetic group. Mortality of 9.28% per year in diabetic group as compared to that of 6.45% per year in nondiabetic group [RR-1.436, 95% CI (0.778-2.651)] was observed, while overall mortality of 7.5% per year recorded is a good deal lower than 12-22% reported. CONCLUSION: The NKF-DOQI set aim of dialyzing over 50% patients through AVF is attainable in diabetics as well. Optimizing AVF is a viable approach to lessen VRS related mortality in diabetics on HD. Our continued dependence on vascular catheters is largely responsible for higher mortality in diabetics than nondiabetics on HD due to lack of cagily established pre-ESRD program for diabetics.

Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Diabetes , Sepse/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
J Vasc Access ; 3(2): 74-9, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17639464


BACKGROUND: Populations of elderly and type-II diabetics are increasing worldwide. Therefore elderly diabetics on hemodialysis (HD), known to have higher nasal carriage rates, are also increasing. These patients are more often dialyzed through central venous catheters (CVCs). They represent the high-risk groups for Staphylococcus aureus linked vascular access-related septicemia (VRS) and ensuing mortality. The outcome of VRS in terms of mortality was studied in the three high-risk groups: elderly; type-II diabetics; elderly diabetics, following optimization of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) prevalence to at least 50%. METHODS: Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive standardized nasal swab cultures performed on 187 ESRD patients undergoing HD from July 1997 to July 2000. Peripheral blood samples were collected for culture and sensitivity on clinical suspicion of septicemia. Overall, AVF prevalence of over 50% was achieved through joint efforts of nephrology and vascular surgery departments. RESULTS: A nasal carriage rate of 47.6% was observed in this HD cohort. This included nasal carriage rates of 16.4% in <65 years non-diabetic (reference) group, 55.8% in elderly and 70.7% among type-II diabetics along with that of 75.5% in elderly-diabetic group. We achieved an overall AVF prevalence of 72.7% inclusive of 66.17% in elderly, 65.5% in type-II diabetics and 86.8% in reference group along with 37.7% in elderly-diabetic group. We recorded a mortality due to S. aureus nasal carriage-related VRS of 6.86% in elderly (RR-1.50, p-NS), 10.91% in type-II diabetics (RR-1.52, p<0.02) and 13.20% in the elderly-diabetic group (RR-2.87, p<0.0004) as compared to that of 4.4% per year in the reference group (assigned RR of one) with overall mortality of 7.3% per year. CONCLUSIONS: AVF prevalence of over 50% is achievable in all the high-risk groups except among elderly-diabetics due to the predominance of peripheral vasculopathy. Optimizing AVF placement is a physiological and safer approach for achieving significant reductions in mortality associated with S. aureus nasal carriage-related VRS among high-risk groups.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 12(4): 562-5, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18209404


The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among hemodialysis (HD) patients was studied at King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. The records of 189 patients undergoing HD were reviewed. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 43.9%. Anti-HCV antibody prevalence was more common among female patients. There was no correlation between repeated blood transfusions and anti-HCV positivity as 4.8% of the patients who did not receive any blood transfusion during HD were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. A positive correlation was observed between the duration on dialysis and anti-HCV antibodies. An annual serocoversion rate of 6.8% was observed in this study.