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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 4027437, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579313

RESUMO

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Animais , Índia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(1): 685-93, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787988

RESUMO

In the present study, active antimicrobial (AM) packaging films were prepared from chitosan (CH) incorporated with ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % v/v) and characterized. GC-MS analysis revealed zingiberene (22.54 ± 0.13), geranial (12.34 ± 0.33), ß-sesquiphellandrene (8.14 ± 0.14), camphene (7.44 ± 0.54) and neral (5.45 ± 0.23) as the major components of essential oil extracted from ginger. Addition of ginger essential oil (GEO) improved the AM activity of the CH film against food borne pathogens, without significantly (p < 0.05) affecting the mechanical properties of the film. CH film with GEO was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and maximum antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was shown by 0.3 % GEO added CH film. In a further experiment, steaks of barracuda (Sphyraena jello) fish were wrapped with the CH-GEO (0.3 %) film and stored at 2 °C for 20 days. Throughout the storage period, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and total mesophilic count of fish steak wrapped with the CH-GEO film were significantly (p < 0.05) lesser than both the unwrapped control fish steak and aerobically packed fish steak in synthetic multilayer film of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (nylon, EVOH and polyethylene). Sensorily, CH-GEO film wrapped sample was acceptable till the end of storage for 20 days compared to 12 days for unwrapped control and fish steak packed in EVOH film. The results indicate that the developed CH-GEO film is efficient in extending the storage life of fish.

3.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(1): 856-63, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26788008

RESUMO

A great deal of attention has been focused on the various health benefits apparently associated with consumption of fish oil. The incorporation of fish oils in food products is becoming increasingly widespread and a large variety of products is being marketed. However, the use of fish oil as functional nutritional ingredients in foods has been limited by its oxidative susceptibility. In the present study, attempts were made to develop fish oil fortified cookies as healthy snack foods by incorporating fish oil microencapsulate. Microencapsulation of fish oil was done by spray drying. Commercially available milk was used to form micro sized complexes with fish oil. Fish gelatin/maltodextrin were used as a wall material for encapsulation. Fish oil was added in three forms (fish oil as such, fish oil-in-water emulsion and fish oil microencapsulate) for the preparation of cookies. Cookies prepared without incorporating fish oil was served as control. The physical, chemical and sensory attributes of cookies were evaluated. Encapsulation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in the cookies. The sensory evaluation of cookies showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in the overall acceptability. Results from this study, demonstrated the possibility of fish oil incorporation into cookies through emulsification and microencapsulation which may increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids for nutritional benefits.

4.
Anc Sci Life ; 36(1): 35-41, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28182032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. RESULTS: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. CONCLUSION: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.

5.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(7): 4432-40, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26139909

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch.

6.
J Food Sci Technol ; 51(9): 1827-36, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25190837

RESUMO

To establish the effect of barrel temperature, screw speed, total moisture and fish flour content on the expansion ratio and bulk density of the fish based extrudates, response surface methodology was adopted in this study. The experiments were optimized using five-levels, four factors central composite design. Analysis of Variance was carried to study the effects of main factors and interaction effects of various factors and regression analysis was carried out to explain the variability. The fitting was done to a second order model with the coded variables for each response. The response surface plots were developed as a function of two independent variables while keeping the other two independent variables at optimal values. Based on the ANOVA, the fitted model confirmed the model fitness for both the dependent variables. Organoleptically highest score was obtained with the combination of temperature-110(0) C, screw speed-480 rpm, moisture-18 % and fish flour-20 %.

7.
J Food Sci ; 75(7): S348-54, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21535569

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient temperature.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Tilápia , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Óleo de Fígado de Bacalhau/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Humanos , Índia , Pigmentação , Controle de Qualidade , Sensação , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Água/análise
8.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 146(1): 107-14, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17112756

RESUMO

Labeo rohita, commonly called rohu is one of the most important fish species for aquaculture in India. Digestive enzyme response and metabolic profile of fingerling L. rohita to different dietary crude protein (CP) levels (viz. 25, 30, 35 and 40%) were studied in an attempt to optimize a practical diet formulation for this species. After 45 days of feeding, activity of digestive enzymes and metabolite concentrations were assayed. Amylase, lipase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were not influenced by the dietary protein, but proteolytic and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities varied (P<0.05) between the treatments. Proteolytic activity showed a second order polynomial relationship with dietary crude protein (CP) as Y = 0.0734X(2) + 4.937X - 68.37, r(2)=0.97. A positive correlation was observed between dietary CP and amylase (r(2)=0.78). All the metabolites except muscle glucose showed significant change corresponding to the dietary protein levels. Glucose and glycogen levels corresponded to the dietary carbohydrate levels. Muscle and plasma pyruvic acid increased as the crude protein in the diet increased, whereas liver pyruvic acid showed the opposite trend. Muscle protein content was not affected by dietary CP. Protein fractions in plasma (total protein, albumin and globulin) showed maximum values in 30% CP fed group. It is concluded that proteolytic activity and ACP are the major digestive enzymes responsive to dietary CP in L. rohita fingerlings. Considering the cost effectiveness of the diet, and based on liver and plasma free amino acid levels and plasma protein fractions, 30% crude protein is recommended as the optimal dietary protein for L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais
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