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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1813-1825, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215115

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is generally viewed as a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. In 70% of cases, CL/P presents as an isolated feature and/or deemed nonsyndromic. In the remaining 30%, CL/P is associated with multisystem phenotypes or clinically recognizable syndromes, many with a monogenic basis. Here we report the identification, via exome sequencing, of likely pathogenic variants in two genes that encode interacting proteins previously only linked to orofacial clefting in mouse models. A variant in GDF11 (encoding growth differentiation factor 11), predicting a p.(Arg298Gln) substitution at the Furin protease cleavage site, was identified in one family that segregated with CL/P and both rib and vertebral hypersegmentation, mirroring that seen in Gdf11 knockout mice. In the second family in which CL/P was the only phenotype, a mutation in FST (encoding the GDF11 antagonist, Follistatin) was identified that is predicted to result in a p.(Cys56Tyr) substitution in the region that binds GDF11. Functional assays demonstrated a significant impact of the specific mutated amino acids on FST and GDF11 function and, together with embryonic expression data, provide strong evidence for the importance of GDF11 and Follistatin in the regulation of human orofacial development.

4.
Biochem J ; 476(7): 1109-1119, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898847

RESUMO

The biologically important carnitine biosynthesis pathway in humans proceeds via four enzymatic steps. The first step in carnitine biosynthesis is catalyzed by trimethyllysine hydroxylase (TMLH), a non-heme Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenase, which catalyzes the stereospecific hydroxylation of (2S)-N ε-trimethyllysine to (2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-N ε-trimethyllysine. Here, we report biocatalytic studies on human TMLH and its 19 variants introduced through site-directed mutagenesis. Amino acid substitutions at the sites involved in binding of the Fe(II) cofactor, 2OG cosubstrate and (2S)-N ε-trimethyllysine substrate provide a basic insight into the binding requirements that determine an efficient TMLH-catalyzed conversion of (2S)-N ε-trimethyllysine to (2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-N ε-trimethyllysine. This work demonstrates the importance of the recognition sites that contribute to the enzymatic activity of TMLH: the Fe(II)-binding H242-D244-H389 residues, R391-R398 involved in 2OG binding and several residues (D231, N334 and the aromatic cage comprised of W221, Y217 and Y234) associated with binding of (2S)-N ε-trimethyllysine.

6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the biological and clinical significance of the human cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin M/E, encoded by the CTS6 gene, in diseases of human hair and skin. METHODS: Exome and Sanger sequencing was performed to reveal the genetic cause in two related patients with hypotrichosis. Immunohistochemical, biophysical, and biochemical measurements were performed on patient skin and 3D-reconstructed skin from patient-derived keratinocytes. RESULTS: We identified a homozygous variant c.361C>T (p.Gln121*), resulting in a premature stop codon in exon 2 of CST6 associated with hypotrichosis, eczema, blepharitis, photophobia and impaired sweating. Enzyme assays using recombinant mutant cystatin M/E protein, generated by site-directed mutagenesis, revealed that this p.Gln121* variant was unable to inhibit any of its three target proteases (legumain and cathepsins L and V). Three-dimensional protein structure prediction confirmed the disturbance of the protease/inhibitor binding sites of legumain and cathepsins L and V in the p.Gln121* variant. CONCLUSION: The herein characterized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis syndrome indicates an important role of human cystatin M/E in epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle morphogenesis.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14279, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250039

RESUMO

Recurrent de novo variants in the TBR1 transcription factor are implicated in the etiology of sporadic autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Disruptions include missense variants located in the T-box DNA-binding domain and previous work has demonstrated that they disrupt TBR1 protein function. Recent screens of thousands of simplex families with sporadic ASD cases uncovered additional T-box variants in TBR1 but their etiological relevance is unclear. We performed detailed functional analyses of de novo missense TBR1 variants found in the T-box of ASD cases, assessing many aspects of protein function, including subcellular localization, transcriptional activity and protein-interactions. Only two of the three tested variants severely disrupted TBR1 protein function, despite in silico predictions that all would be deleterious. Furthermore, we characterized a putative interaction with BCL11A, a transcription factor that was recently implicated in a neurodevelopmental syndrome involving developmental delay and language deficits. Our findings enhance understanding of molecular functions of TBR1, as well as highlighting the importance of functional testing of variants that emerge from next-generation sequencing, to decipher their contributions to neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD.

9.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754270

RESUMO

Unraveling the causes and pathomechanisms of progressive disorders is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies. Here, we identified heterozygous pathogenic missense variants of LMX1A in two families of Dutch origin with progressive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (HI), using whole exome sequencing. One variant, c.721G > C (p.Val241Leu), occurred de novo and is predicted to affect the homeodomain of LMX1A, which is essential for DNA binding. The second variant, c.290G > C (p.Cys97Ser), predicted to affect a zinc-binding residue of the second LIM domain that is involved in protein-protein interactions. Bi-allelic deleterious variants of Lmx1a are associated with a complex phenotype in mice, including deafness and vestibular defects, due to arrest of inner ear development. Although Lmx1a mouse mutants demonstrate neurological, skeletal, pigmentation and reproductive system abnormalities, no syndromic features were present in the participating subjects of either family. LMX1A has previously been suggested as a candidate gene for intellectual disability, but our data do not support this, as affected subjects displayed normal cognition. Large variability was observed in the age of onset (a)symmetry, severity and progression rate of HI. About half of the affected individuals displayed vestibular dysfunction and experienced symptoms thereof. The late-onset progressive phenotype and the absence of cochleovestibular malformations on computed tomography scans indicate that heterozygous defects of LMX1A do not result in severe developmental abnormalities in humans. We propose that a single LMX1A wild-type copy is sufficient for normal development but insufficient for maintenance of cochleovestibular function. Alternatively, minor cochleovestibular developmental abnormalities could eventually lead to the progressive phenotype seen in the families.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1143-1157, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805042

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL/P) is one of the most common human birth defects and is generally considered a complex trait. Despite numerous loci identified by genome-wide association studies, the effect sizes of common variants are relatively small, with much of the presumed genetic contribution remaining elusive. We report exome-sequencing results in 209 people from 72 multi-affected families with pedigree structures consistent with autosomal-dominant inheritance and variable penetrance. Herein, pathogenic variants are described in four genes encoding components of the p120-catenin complex (CTNND1, PLEKHA7, PLEKHA5) and an epithelial splicing regulator (ESRP2), in addition to the known CL/P-associated gene, CDH1, which encodes E-cadherin. The findings were also validated in a second cohort of 497 people with NS-CL/P, comprising small families and singletons with pathogenic variants in these genes identified in 14% of multi-affected families and 2% of the replication cohort of smaller families. Enriched expression of each gene/protein in human and mouse embryonic oro-palatal epithelia, demonstration of functional impact of CTNND1 and ESRP2 variants, and recapitulation of the CL/P spectrum in Ctnnd1 knockout mice support a causative role in CL/P pathogenesis. These data show that primary defects in regulators of epithelial cell adhesion are the most significant contributors to NS-CL/P identified to date and that inherited and de novo single gene variants explain a substantial proportion of NS-CL/P.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(3): 393-400, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with pathogenic variants in ZBTB18 present with Intellectual Disability (ID) with frequent co-occurrence of corpus callosum (CC) anomalies, hypotonia, microcephaly, growth problems and variable facial dysmorphologies. These features illustrate a key role for ZBTB18 in brain development. METHODS: Patients with a pathogenic variant in ZBTB18 were detected by diagnostic whole exome sequencing (WES) performed in our center. We reviewed the literature and used GeneMatcher to include other cases. YASARA and WHAT IF were used to provide insight into the structural effect of missense variants located in the C2H2 zinc finger domains of the ZBTB18 protein. RESULTS: We give a complete overview of pathogenic variants in ZBTB18 detected to date, showing inconsistent presence of clinical features, including CC anomalies. We present four new cases with a de novo pathogenic variant in the ZBTB18 gene, including the fourth case in which a de novo p.Arg464His variant was found. CONCLUSION: Homology modeling of protein structure points to a variable degree of impaired DNA binding caused by missense variants in these domains probably leading to Loss of Function (LoF). Putative partial LoF may present with a less distinctive phenotype than complete LoF, as seen in truncating variants, which presents with an extensive variability in the phenotypic spectrum. Our data do not support a clear genotype to phenotype correlation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Adolescente , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
12.
Circ Res ; 122(6): 846-854, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343526

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Orthostatic hypotension is a common clinical problem, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully delineated. OBJECTIVE: We describe 2 families, with 4 patients in total, experiencing severe life-threatening orthostatic hypotension because of a novel cause. METHODS AND RESULTS: As in dopamine ß-hydroxylase deficiency, concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the patients were low. Plasma dopamine ß-hydroxylase activity, however, was normal, and the DBH gene had no mutations. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to determine the underlying genetic cause. Homozygosity mapping and exome and Sanger sequencing revealed pathogenic homozygous mutations in the gene encoding cytochrome b561 (CYB561); a missense variant c.262G>A, p.Gly88Arg in exon 3 in the Dutch family and a nonsense mutation (c.131G>A, p.Trp44*) in exon 2 in the American family. Expression of CYB561 was investigated using RNA from different human adult and fetal tissues, transcription of RNA into cDNA, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The CYB561 gene was found to be expressed in many human tissues, in particular the brain. The CYB561 protein defect leads to a shortage of ascorbate inside the catecholamine secretory vesicles leading to a functional dopamine ß-hydroxylase deficiency. The concentration of the catecholamines and downstream metabolites was measured in brain and adrenal tissue of 6 CYB561 knockout mice (reporter-tagged deletion allele [post-Cre], genetic background C57BL/6NTac). The concentration of norepinephrine and normetanephrine was decreased in whole-brain homogenates of the CYB561(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice (P<0.01), and the concentration of normetanephrine and metanephrine was decreased in adrenal glands (P<0.01), recapitulating the clinical phenotype. The patients responded favorably to treatment with l-dihydroxyphenylserine, which can be converted directly to norepinephrine. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to implicate cytochrome b561 in disease by showing that pathogenic mutations in CYB561 cause an as yet unknown disease in neurotransmitter metabolism causing orthostatic hypotension.

13.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 1061-1068, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The craniosynostoses are characterized by premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. The relative contribution of previously reported genes to craniosynostosis in large cohorts is unclear. Here we report on the use of a massively parallel sequencing panel in individuals with craniosynostosis without a prior molecular diagnosis. METHODS: A 20-gene panel was designed based on the genes' association with craniosynostosis, and clinically validated through retrospective testing of an Australian and New Zealand cohort of 233 individuals with craniosynostosis in whom previous testing had not identified a causative variant within FGFR1-3 hot-spot regions or the TWIST1 gene. An additional 76 individuals were tested prospectively. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in non-FGFR genes were identified in 43 individuals, with diagnostic yields of 14% and 15% in retrospective and prospective cohorts, respectively. Variants were identified most frequently in TCF12 (N = 22) and EFNB1 (N = 8), typically in individuals with nonsyndromic coronal craniosynostosis or TWIST1-negative clinically suspected Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Clinically significant variants were also identified in ALX4, EFNA4, ERF, and FGF10. CONCLUSION: These findings support the clinical utility of a massively parallel sequencing panel for craniosynostosis. TCF12 and EFNB1 should be included in genetic testing for nonsyndromic coronal craniosynostosis or clinically suspected Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 120-129, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255262

RESUMO

Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) has been associated with several cancers, although its exact role is unknown. We show that SELENBP1 is a methanethiol oxidase (MTO), related to the MTO in methylotrophic bacteria, that converts methanethiol to H2O2, formaldehyde, and H2S, an activity not previously known to exist in humans. We identified mutations in SELENBP1 in five patients with cabbage-like breath odor. The malodor was attributable to high levels of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide, the main odorous compounds in their breath. Elevated urinary excretion of dimethylsulfoxide was associated with MTO deficiency. Patient fibroblasts had low SELENBP1 protein levels and were deficient in MTO enzymatic activity; these effects were reversed by lentivirus-mediated expression of wild-type SELENBP1. Selenbp1-knockout mice showed biochemical characteristics similar to those in humans. Our data reveal a potentially frequent inborn error of metabolism that results from MTO deficiency and leads to a malodor syndrome.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 824-832, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106825

RESUMO

The Rab GTPase family comprises ∼70 GTP-binding proteins, functioning in vesicle formation, transport and fusion. They are activated by a conformational change induced by GTP-binding, allowing interactions with downstream effectors. Here, we report five individuals with two recurrent de novo missense mutations in RAB11B; c.64G>A; p.Val22Met in three individuals and c.202G>A; p.Ala68Thr in two individuals. An overlapping neurodevelopmental phenotype, including severe intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, and hypotonia was observed in all affected individuals. Additionally, visual problems, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly were present in the majority of cases. Re-evaluation of brain MRI images of four individuals showed a shared distinct brain phenotype, consisting of abnormal white matter (severely decreased volume and abnormal signal), thin corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia and mild ventriculomegaly. To compare the effects of both variants with known inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound RAB11B mutants, we modeled the variants on the three-dimensional protein structure and performed subcellular localization studies. We predicted that both variants alter the GTP/GDP binding pocket and show that they both have localization patterns similar to inactive RAB11B. Evaluation of their influence on the affinity of RAB11B to a series of binary interactors, both effectors and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), showed induction of RAB11B binding to the GEF SH3BP5, again similar to inactive RAB11B. In conclusion, we report two recurrent dominant mutations in RAB11B leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome, likely caused by altered GDP/GTP binding that inactivate the protein and induce GEF binding and protein mislocalization.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/congênito , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Vermis Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vermis Cerebelar/metabolismo , Vermis Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Guanosina Difosfato/química , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/química , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Fenótipo , Ligação Proteica , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Substância Branca/patologia , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(3): 478-484, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867141

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency (HI) is the best characterized mechanism through which dominant mutations exert their effect and cause disease. Non-haploinsufficiency (NHI) mechanisms, such as gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms, are often characterized by the spatial clustering of mutations, thereby affecting only particular regions or base pairs of a gene. Variants leading to haploinsufficency might occasionally cluster as well, for example in critical domains, but such clustering is on the whole less pronounced with mutations often spread throughout the gene. Here we exploit this property and develop a method to specifically identify genes with significant spatial clustering patterns of de novo mutations in large cohorts. We apply our method to a dataset of 4,061 de novo missense mutations from published exome studies of trios with intellectual disability and developmental disorders (ID/DD) and successfully identify 15 genes with clustering mutations, including 12 genes for which mutations are known to cause neurodevelopmental disorders. For 11 out of these 12, NHI mutation mechanisms have been reported. Additionally, we identify three candidate ID/DD-associated genes of which two have an established role in neuronal processes. We further observe a higher intolerance to normal genetic variation of the identified genes compared to known genes for which mutations lead to HI. Finally, 3D modeling of these mutations on their protein structures shows that 81% of the observed mutations are unlikely to affect the overall structural integrity and that they therefore most likely act through a mechanism other than HI.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploinsuficiência , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Conformação Proteica
17.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1786-1795, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905505

RESUMO

Mitochondrial protein synthesis involves an intricate interplay between mitochondrial DNA encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA encoded proteins, such as ribosomal proteins and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. Eukaryotic cells contain 17 mitochondria-specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. WARS2 encodes mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase (mtTrpRS), a homodimeric class Ic enzyme (mitochondrial tryptophan-tRNA ligase; EC 6.1.1.2). Here, we report six individuals from five families presenting with either severe neonatal onset lactic acidosis, encephalomyopathy and early death or a later onset, more attenuated course of disease with predominating intellectual disability. Respiratory chain enzymes were usually normal in muscle and fibroblasts, while a severe combined respiratory chain deficiency was found in the liver of a severely affected individual. Exome sequencing revealed rare biallelic variants in WARS2 in all affected individuals. An increase of uncharged mitochondrial tRNATrp and a decrease of mtTrpRS protein content were found in fibroblasts of affected individuals. We hereby define the clinical, neuroradiological, and metabolic phenotype of WARS2 defects. This confidently implicates that mutations in WARS2 cause mitochondrial disease with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/enzimologia , Masculino , Doenças Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1454-1463, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815929

RESUMO

Whole exomes of patients with a genetic disorder are nowadays routinely sequenced but interpretation of the identified genetic variants remains a major challenge. The increased availability of population-based human genetic variation has given rise to measures of genetic tolerance that have been used, for example, to predict disease-causing genes in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we investigated whether combining variant information from homologous protein domains can improve variant interpretation. For this purpose, we developed a framework that maps population variation and known pathogenic mutations onto 2,750 "meta-domains." These meta-domains consist of 30,853 homologous Pfam protein domain instances that cover 36% of all human protein coding sequences. We find that genetic tolerance is consistent across protein domain homologues, and that patterns of genetic tolerance faithfully mimic patterns of evolutionary conservation. Furthermore, for a significant fraction (68%) of the meta-domains high-frequency population variation re-occurs at the same positions across domain homologues more often than expected. In addition, we observe that the presence of pathogenic missense variants at an aligned homologous domain position is often paired with the absence of population variation and vice versa. The use of these meta-domains can improve the interpretation of genetic variation.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Exoma , Ontologia Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2017 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513979

RESUMO

The cardinal features of Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, Cleft lip/palate (EEC), and Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndromes are ectodermal dysplasia (ED), orofacial clefting, and limb anomalies. EEC and AEC are caused by heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor p63 encoded by TP63. Here, we report a patient with an EEC/AEC syndrome-like phenotype, including ankyloblepharon, ED, cleft palate, ectrodactyly, syndactyly, additional hypogammaglobulinemia, and growth delay. Neither pathogenic mutations in TP63 nor CNVs at the TP63 locus were identified. Exome sequencing revealed de novo heterozygous variants in CHUK (conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase), PTGER4, and IFIT2. While the variant in PTGER4 might contribute to the immunodeficiency and growth delay, the variant in CHUK appeared to be most relevant for the EEC/AEC-like phenotype. CHUK is a direct target gene of p63 and encodes a component of the IKK complex that plays a key role in NF-κB pathway activation. The identified CHUK variant (g.101980394T>C; c.425A>G; p.His142Arg) is located in the kinase domain which is responsible for the phosphorylation activity of the protein. The variant may affect CHUK function and thus contribute to the disease phenotype in three ways: (1) the variant exhibits a dominant negative effect and results in an inactive IKK complex that affects the canonical NF-κB pathway; (2) it affects the feedback loop of the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways that are CHUK kinase activity-dependent; and (3) it disrupts NF-κB independent epidermal development that is often p63-dependent. Therefore, we propose that the heterozygous CHUK variant is highly likely to be causative to the EEC/AEC-like and additional hypogammaglobulinemia phenotypes in the patient presented here.

20.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 30(6): 441-447, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475759

RESUMO

The NewProt protein engineering portal is a one-stop-shop for in silico protein engineering. It gives access to a large number of servers that compute a wide variety of protein structure characteristics supporting work on the modification of proteins through the introduction of (multiple) point mutations. The results can be inspected through multiple visualizers. The HOPE software is included to indicate mutations with possible undesired side effects. The Hotspot Wizard software is embedded for the design of mutations that modify a proteins' activity, specificity, or stability. The NewProt portal is freely accessible at http://newprot.cmbi.umcn.nl/ and http://newprot.fluidops.net/.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Internet , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas , Software , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Interface Usuário-Computador
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