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1.
2.
Nature ; 586(7828): 217-227, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028996

RESUMO

Humanity will soon define a new era for nature-one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. However, persistent shortfalls in ecological representation and management effectiveness diminish the potential role of area-based conservation in stemming biodiversity loss. Here we show how the expansion of protected areas by national governments since 2010 has had limited success in increasing the coverage across different elements of biodiversity (ecoregions, 12,056 threatened species, 'Key Biodiversity Areas' and wilderness areas) and ecosystem services (productive fisheries, and carbon services on land and sea). To be more successful after 2020, area-based conservation must contribute more effectively to meeting global biodiversity goals-ranging from preventing extinctions to retaining the most-intact ecosystems-and must better collaborate with the many Indigenous peoples, community groups and private initiatives that are central to the successful conservation of biodiversity. The long-term success of area-based conservation requires parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to secure adequate financing, plan for climate change and make biodiversity conservation a far stronger part of land, water and sea management policies.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4563, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917882

RESUMO

Land free of direct anthropogenic disturbance is considered essential for achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes but is rapidly eroding. In response, many nations are increasing their protected area (PA) estates, but little consideration is given to the context of the surrounding landscape. This is despite the fact that structural connectivity between PAs is critical in a changing climate and mandated by international conservation targets. Using a high-resolution assessment of human pressure, we show that while ~40% of the terrestrial planet is intact, only 9.7% of Earth's terrestrial protected network can be considered structurally connected. On average, 11% of each country or territory's PA estate can be considered connected. As the global community commits to bolder action on abating biodiversity loss, placement of future PAs will be critical, as will an increased focus on landscape-scale habitat retention and restoration efforts to ensure those important areas set aside for conservation outcomes will remain (or become) connected.

4.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(10): 1377-1384, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778752

RESUMO

Tropical forests vary in composition, structure and function such that not all forests have similar ecological value. This variability is caused by natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes, which influence the ability of forests to support biodiversity, store carbon, mediate water yield and facilitate human well-being. While international environmental agreements mandate protecting and restoring forests, only forest extent is typically considered, while forest quality is ignored. Consequently, the locations and loss rates of forests of high ecological value are unknown and coordinated strategies for conserving these forests remain undeveloped. Here, we map locations high in forest structural integrity as a measure of ecological quality on the basis of recently developed fine-resolution maps of three-dimensional forest structure, integrated with human pressure across the global moist tropics. Our analyses reveal that tall forests with closed canopies and low human pressure typical of natural conditions comprise half of the global humid or moist tropical forest estate, largely limited to the Amazon and Congo basins. Most of these forests have no formal protection and, given recent rates of loss, are at substantial risk. With the rapid disappearance of these 'best of the last' forests at stake, we provide a policy-driven framework for their conservation and restoration, and recommend locations to maintain protections, add new protections, mitigate deleterious human impacts and restore forest structure.

5.
Conserv Biol ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852067

RESUMO

Indigenous Peoples' lands cover over one-quarter of Earth's surface, a significant proportion of which is still free from industrial-level human impacts. As a result, Indigenous Peoples and their lands are crucial for the long-term persistence of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystem services. Yet, information on species composition within Indigenous Peoples' lands globally remains largely unknown. Here, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of terrestrial mammal composition across mapped Indigenous lands by using area of habitat data for 4,460 IUCN-assessed mammal species. We estimated that 2,175 species (49%) have ≥ 10% of their ranges in Indigenous Peoples' lands, and 646 species (14%) have > half of their ranges within these lands. For the threatened species assessed, 413 (41%) occur in Indigenous Peoples' lands. We also found that 935 mammal species (of which 131 are threatened with extinction) have ≥ 10% of their range in Indigenous Peoples' lands that have low human pressure. This analysis shows how important Indigenous Peoples and their lands are to the successful implementation of international conservation and sustainable development agendas. Article impact statement: Indigenous peoples' lands are important for the successful implementation of international conservation and sustainable development agendas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(8): 4344-4356, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500604

RESUMO

Leading up to the Convention on Biological Diversity Conference of the Parties 15, there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet, it remains unclear how much of Earth's land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth's land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently estimate similar percentages of the Earth's terrestrial surface as having very low (20%-34%) and low (48%-56%) human influence. Three out of four spatial assessments agree on 46% of the non-permanent ice- or snow-covered land as having low human influence. However, much of the very low and low influence portions of the planet are comprised of cold (e.g., boreal forests, montane grasslands and tundra) or arid (e.g., deserts) landscapes. Only four biomes (boreal forests, deserts, temperate coniferous forests and tundra) have a majority of datasets agreeing that at least half of their area has very low human influence. More concerning, <1% of temperate grasslands, tropical coniferous forests and tropical dry forests have very low human influence across most datasets, and tropical grasslands, mangroves and montane grasslands also have <1% of land identified as very low influence across all datasets. These findings suggest that about half of Earth's terrestrial surface has relatively low human influence and offers opportunities for proactive conservation actions to retain the last intact ecosystems on the planet. However, though the relative abundance of ecosystem areas with low human influence varies widely by biome, conserving these last intact areas should be a high priority before they are completely lost.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Humanos , Tundra
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9906-9911, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317385

RESUMO

Degradation and loss of natural habitat is the major driver of the current global biodiversity crisis. Most habitat conservation efforts to date have targeted small areas of highly threatened habitat, but emerging debate suggests that retaining large intact natural systems may be just as important. We reconcile these perspectives by integrating fine-resolution global data on habitat condition and species assemblage turnover to identify Earth's high-value biodiversity habitat. These are areas in better condition than most other locations predicted to have once supported a similar assemblage of species and are found within both intact regions and human-dominated landscapes. However, only 18.6% of this high-value habitat is currently protected globally. Averting permanent biodiversity loss requires clear, spatially explicit targets for retaining these unprotected high-value habitats.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Planeta Terra , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos
9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(5): 3040-3051, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133726

RESUMO

Transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy is fundamental for halting anthropogenic climate change. However, renewable energy facilities can be land-use intensive and impact conservation areas, and little attention has been given to whether the aggregated effect of energy transitions poses a substantial threat to global biodiversity. Here, we assess the extent of current and likely future renewable energy infrastructure associated with onshore wind, hydropower and solar photovoltaic generation, within three important conservation areas: protected areas (PAs), Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) and Earth's remaining wilderness. We identified 2,206 fully operational renewable energy facilities within the boundaries of these conservation areas, with another 922 facilities under development. Combined, these facilities span and are degrading 886 PAs, 749 KBAs and 40 distinct wilderness areas. Two trends are particularly concerning. First, while the majority of historical overlap occurs in Western Europe, the renewable electricity facilities under development increasingly overlap with conservation areas in Southeast Asia, a globally important region for biodiversity. Second, this next wave of renewable energy infrastructure represents a ~30% increase in the number of PAs and KBAs impacted and could increase the number of compromised wilderness areas by ~60%. If the world continues to rapidly transition towards renewable energy these areas will face increasing pressure to allow infrastructure expansion. Coordinated planning of renewable energy expansion and biodiversity conservation is essential to avoid conflicts that compromise their respective objectives.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Energia Renovável , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Vento
10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(5): 694-701, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203481

RESUMO

Rapid biodiversity loss has prompted global action to prevent further declines, yet coordinated conservation action among nations remains elusive. As a result, species with ranges that span international borders-which include 53.8% of terrestrial birds, mammals and amphibians-are in increasing peril through uncoordinated management and artificial barriers to human movement, such as border fences. Transboundary conservation initiatives represent a unique opportunity to better protect species through coordinated management across national borders. Using metrics of governance, collaboration and human pressure, we provide an index of transboundary conservation feasibility to assess global opportunities and challenges for different nations. While the transboundary conservation potential of securing multinational threatened species varied substantially, there are distinct opportunities in South-East Asia, Northern Europe, North America and South America. But to successfully avert the loss of transboundary species, the global community must be prepared to invest in some regions facing greater implementation challenges, including the nations of Central Africa, where efforts may necessitate establishing rapid conservation interventions postconflict that align with local socio-cultural opportunities and constraints. Sanctioned and coordinated approaches towards managing transboundary species are now essential to prevent further declines of many endangered species, and global policy efforts must do more to produce and enact legitimate mechanisms for collaborative action in conservation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , América do Norte , América do Sul
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(2): 330-332, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578793

RESUMO

The Human Modification map differs in important ways from the map of the human footprint, such as its mapping of widespread direct modification of much of the world's polar regions. An extensive validation reveals large inaccuracies in the Human Modification map, and that the human footprint tends to better represent actual observable human pressures on the ground. This article is a commentary on Kennedy et al., 25, 811-826; See also the Commentary on this article by Kennedy et al., 26, 333-336.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
13.
PLoS Biol ; 17(12): e3000598, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841524

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000158.].

14.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax2546, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692892

RESUMO

Intact tropical forests, free from substantial anthropogenic influence, store and sequester large amounts of atmospheric carbon but are currently neglected in international climate policy. We show that between 2000 and 2013, direct clearance of intact tropical forest areas accounted for 3.2% of gross carbon emissions from all deforestation across the pantropics. However, full carbon accounting requires the consideration of forgone carbon sequestration, selective logging, edge effects, and defaunation. When these factors were considered, the net carbon impact resulting from intact tropical forest loss between 2000 and 2013 increased by a factor of 6 (626%), from 0.34 (0.37 to 0.21) to 2.12 (2.85 to 1.00) petagrams of carbon (equivalent to approximately 2 years of global land use change emissions). The climate mitigation value of conserving the 549 million ha of tropical forest that remains intact is therefore significant but will soon dwindle if their rate of loss continues to accelerate.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Geografia , Clima Tropical
15.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 232, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653863

RESUMO

Remotely sensed maps of global forest extent are widely used for conservation assessment and planning. Yet, there is increasing recognition that these efforts must now include elements of forest quality for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Such data are not yet available globally. Here we introduce two data products, the Forest Structural Condition Index (SCI) and the Forest Structural Integrity Index (FSII), to meet this need for the humid tropics. The SCI integrates canopy height, tree cover, and time since disturbance to distinguish short, open-canopy, or recently deforested stands from tall, closed-canopy, older stands typical of primary forest. The SCI was validated against estimates of foliage height diversity derived from airborne lidar. The FSII overlays a global index of human pressure on SCI to identify structurally complex forests with low human pressure, likely the most valuable for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. These products represent an important step in maturation from conservation focus on forest extent to forest stands that should be considered "best of the last" in international policy settings.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Clima Tropical , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
16.
Nature ; 567(7748): 311, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890806

Assuntos
Clima , Florestas
17.
PLoS Biol ; 17(3): e3000158, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860989

RESUMO

Conserving threatened species requires identifying where across their range they are being impacted by threats, yet this remains unresolved across most of Earth. Here, we present a global analysis of cumulative human impacts on threatened species by using a spatial framework that jointly considers the co-occurrence of eight threatening processes and the distribution of 5,457 terrestrial vertebrates. We show that impacts to species are widespread, occurring across 84% of Earth's surface, and identify hotspots of impacted species richness and coolspots of unimpacted species richness. Almost one-quarter of assessed species are impacted across >90% of their distribution, and approximately 7% are impacted across their entire range. These results foreshadow localised extirpations and potential extinctions without conservation action. The spatial framework developed here offers a tool for defining strategies to directly mitigate the threats driving species' declines, providing essential information for future national and global conservation agendas.


Assuntos
Vertebrados , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Humanos
18.
Conserv Biol ; 33(5): 1219-1223, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672033

RESUMO

Current conservation templates prioritize biogeographic regions with high intensity ecosystem values, such as exceptional species richness or threat. Intensity-based targets are an important consideration in global efforts, but they do not capture all available opportunities to conserve ecosystem values, including those that accrue in low intensity over large areas. We assess six globally-significant ecosystem values-intact wilderness, freshwater availability, productive marine environments, breeding habitat for migratory wildlife, soil carbon storage, and latitudinal potential for range shift in the face of climate change-to highlight opportunities for high-impact broadly-distributed contributions to global conservation. Nations can serve as a cohesive block of policy that can profoundly influence conservation outcomes. Contributions to global ecosystem values that exceed what is predicted by a nation's area alone, can give rise to countries with the capacity to act as 'conservation superpowers', such as Canada and Russia. For these conservation superpowers, a relatively small number of national policies can have environmental repercussions for the rest of the world.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Canadá , Federação Russa
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4621, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397204

RESUMO

Predicting how species respond to human pressure is essential to anticipate their decline and identify appropriate conservation strategies. Both human pressure and extinction risk change over time, but their inter-relationship is rarely considered in extinction risk modelling. Here we measure the relationship between the change in terrestrial human footprint (HFP)-representing cumulative human pressure on the environment-and the change in extinction risk of the world's terrestrial mammals. We find the values of HFP across space, and its change over time, are significantly correlated to trends in species extinction risk, with higher predictive importance than environmental or life-history variables. The anthropogenic conversion of areas with low pressure values (HFP < 3 out of 50) is the most significant predictor of change in extinction risk, but there are biogeographical variations. Our framework, calibrated on past extinction risk trends, can be used to predict the impact of increasing human pressure on biodiversity.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Mamíferos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Filogeografia , Densidade Demográfica , Crescimento Demográfico , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
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