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1.
JCI Insight ; 6(11)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945507

RESUMO

The chemokine system of ligands and receptors is implicated in the progression of alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). Finding upstream regulators could lead to novel therapies. This study involved coordinated expression of chemokines in livers of healthy controls (HC) and patients with AH in 2 distinct cohorts of patients with various chronic liver diseases. Studies in cultured hepatocytes and in tissue-specific KO were used for mechanistic insight into a potential upstream regulator of chemokine expression in AH. Selected C-X-C chemokine members of the IL-8 chemokine family and C-C chemokine CCL20 were highly associated with AH compared with HC but not in patients with liver diseases of other etiologies (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]). Our previous studies implicate macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as a pleiotropic cytokine/chemokine with the potential to coordinately regulate chemokine expression in AH. LPS-stimulated expression of multiple chemokines in cultured hepatocytes was dependent on MIF. Gao-binge ethanol feeding to mice induced a similar coordinated chemokine expression in livers of WT mice; this was prevented in hepatocyte-specific Mif-KO (MifΔHep) mice. This study demonstrates that patients with AH exhibit a specific, coordinately expressed chemokine signature and that hepatocyte-derived MIF might drive this inflammatory response.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition with poor short-term prognosis. Specific treatment with corticosteroids slightly improves short-term survival but is associated with infection and is not used in many centers. A reliable method to identify patients who will recover spontaneously will minimise the numbers of patients who experience side effects of available treatments. METHODS: We analysed the trajectory of serum bilirubin concentration over the course of hospital admissions in patients with AH to predict spontaneous survival and the need for treatment. RESULTS: data from 426 patients were analysed. Based on bilirubin trajectory, patients were categorized into three groups: 'fast fallers' (bilirubin <0.8 x admission value at day 7), 'static' (bilirubin of >0.9 - <1.2 x admission value) and 'rapid risers' (bilirubin of ≥1.2 x admission bilirubin). Fast fallers had significantly better 90-day survival compared to other groups (log rank p < .001), and showed no benefit of corticosteroid therapy (OR for survival at 28 days of treatment, 0.94, 95% CI 0.06 - 8.41). These findings remained even amongst patients with severe disease based on initial DF, GAHS or MELD scores. CONCLUSIONS: We present an intuitive method of classifying patients with AH based on the trajectory of bilirubin over the first week of admission. It is complimentary to existing scores that identify candidates for corticosteroid treatment or assess response to treatment. This method identifies a group of patients with AH who recover spontaneously and can avoid corticosteroid therapy.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Identification of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients at high-risk of poor prognosis is crucial. We aimed to establish predictive models for COVID-19 pneumonia severity in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Retrospective study of 430 patients admitted in Vall d'Hebron Hospital (Barcelona) between 03-12-2020 and 04-28-2020 due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Two models to identify the patients who required high-flow-oxygen-support were generated, one using baseline data and another with also follow-up analytical results. Calibration was performed by a 1000-bootstrap replication model. RESULTS: 249 were male, mean age 57.9 years. Overall, 135 (31.4%) required high-flow-oxygen-support. The baseline predictive model showed a ROC of 0.800 based on: SpO2/FiO2 (adjusted Hazard Ratio-aHR = 8), chest x-ray (aHR = 4), prior immunosuppressive therapy (aHR = 4), obesity (aHR = 2), IL-6 (aHR = 2), platelets (aHR = 0.5). The cut-off of 11 presented a specificity of 94.8%. The second model included changes on the analytical parameters: ferritin (aHR = 7.5 if ≥200ng/mL) and IL-6 (aHR = 18 if ≥64pg/mL) plus chest x-ray (aHR = 2) showing a ROC of 0.877. The cut-off of 12 exhibited a negative predictive value of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: SpO2/FiO2 and chest x-ray on admission or changes on inflammatory parameters as IL-6 and ferritin allow us early identification of COVID-19 patients at risk of high-flow-oxygen-support that may benefit from a more intensive disease management.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 112(11): 869-878, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198773

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of advanced chronic liver disease worldwide. Excessive and prolonged alcohol use leads to ALD, which ranges from early forms such as alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), through progressive fibrosis to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, patients with underlying ALD and continuous alcohol use can develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), which presents a rapid progression of liver failure and has a high short-term mortality. Genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors influence the progression of ALD to more severe forms. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Recent translational studies have demonstrated a key role of the gut-liver axis and innate immunity in hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. In severe forms, hepatocellular de-differentiation and systemic inflammation contribute to liver failure and multiorgan failure. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for ALD and the prevention of its complications, but the efficacy and accessibility of psycho-familial-social interventions is still poor and effective public health policies to limit problematic alcohol use need to be implemented. Prednisolone is the only current option for AH, with a transient beneficial effect over placebo. For patients with decompensated ALD-cirrhosis and/or development of HCC, liver transplantation (LT) may be required. In recent years, early LT is being increasingly offered to carefully selected AH patients, with excellent long-term survival. New trials of AH treatments are currently ongoing, and translational studies in human samples are paving the way to new promising targeted therapies


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ilustração Médica , Progressão da Doença , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo
5.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(11): 869-878, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054302

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of advanced chronic liver disease worldwide. Excessive and prolonged alcohol use leads to ALD, which ranges from early forms such as alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), through progressive fibrosis to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, patients with underlying ALD and continuous alcohol use can develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), which presents a rapid progression of liver failure and has a high short-term mortality. Genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors influence the progression of ALD to more severe forms. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Recent translational studies have demonstrated a key role of the gut-liver axis and innate immunity in hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. In severe forms, hepatocellular de-differentiation and systemic inflammation contribute to liver failure and multiorgan failure. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for ALD and the prevention of its complications, but the efficacy and accessibility of psycho-familial-social interventions is still poor and effective public health policies to limit problematic alcohol use need to be implemented. Prednisolone is the only current option for AH, with a transient beneficial effect over placebo. For patients with decompensated ALD-cirrhosis and/or development of HCC, liver transplantation (LT) may be required. In recent years, early LT is being increasingly offered to carefully selected AH patients, with excellent long-term survival. New trials of AH treatments are currently ongoing, and translational studies in human samples are paving the way to new promising targeted therapies.

6.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe manifestation of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) with high mortality. Although gut bacteria and fungi modulate disease severity, little is known about the effects of the viral microbiome (virome) in patients with ALD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We extracted virus-like particles from 89 patients with AH who were enrolled in a multicenter observational study, 36 with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 17 persons without AUD (controls). Virus-like particles from fecal samples were fractionated using differential filtration techniques, and metagenomic sequencing was performed to characterize intestinal viromes. We observed an increased viral diversity in fecal samples from patients with ALD, with the most significant changes in samples from patients with AH. Escherichia-, Enterobacteria-, and Enterococcus phages were over-represented in fecal samples from patients with AH, along with significant increases in mammalian viruses such as Parvoviridae and Herpesviridae. Antibiotic treatment was associated with higher viral diversity. Specific viral taxa, such as Staphylococcus phages and Herpesviridae, were associated with increased disease severity, indicated by a higher median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and associated with increased 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, intestinal viral taxa are altered in fecal samples from patients with AH and associated with disease severity and mortality. Our study describes an intestinal virome signature associated with AH.

7.
Hepatology ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418225
8.
Hepatology ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is diagnosed by clinical criteria, although several objective scores facilitate risk stratification. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as biomarkers for many diseases and are also implicated in the pathogenesis of AH. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma EV concentration and sphingolipid cargo could serve as diagnostic biomarkers for AH and inform prognosis to permit dynamic risk profiling of AH subjects. APPROACH AND RESULTS: EVs were isolated and quantified from plasma samples from healthy controls, heavy drinkers, and subjects with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) attributed to cholestatic liver diseases and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, decompensated alcohol-associated cirrhosis (AC), and AH. Sphingolipids were quantified by tandem mass spectroscopy. The median plasma EV concentration was significantly higher in AH subjects (5.38 × 1011 /mL) compared to healthy controls (4.38 × 1010 /mL; P < 0.0001), heavy drinkers (1.28 × 1011 /mL; P < 0.0001), ESLD (5.35 × 1010 /mL; P < 0.0001), and decompensated AC (9.2 × 1010 /mL; P < 0.0001) disease controls. Among AH subjects, EV concentration correlated with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. When EV counts were dichotomized at the median, survival probability for AH subjects at 90 days was 63.0% in the high-EV group and 90.0% in the low-EV group (log-rank P value = 0.015). Interestingly, EV sphingolipid cargo was significantly enriched in AH when compared to healthy controls, heavy drinkers, ESLD, and decompensated AC (P = 0.0001). Multiple sphingolipids demonstrated good diagnostic and prognostic performance as biomarkers for AH. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating EV concentration and sphingolipid cargo signature can be used in the diagnosis and differentiation of AH from heavy drinkers, decompensated AC, and other etiologies of ESLD and predict 90-day survival permitting dynamic risk profiling.

9.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 522-538, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228214

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption causes increased intestinal permeability and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition, which contribute to the development and progression of alcohol-related liver disease. In this setting, little is known about commensal fungi in the gut. We studied the intestinal mycobiota in a cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, patients with alcohol use disorder, and nonalcoholic controls using fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. We further measured serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a systemic immune response to fungal products or fungi. Candida was the most abundant genus in the fecal mycobiota of the two alcohol groups, whereas genus Penicillium dominated the mycobiome of nonalcoholic controls. We observed a lower diversity in the alcohol groups compared with controls. Antibiotic or steroid treatment was not associated with a lower diversity. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher ASCA levels compared to patients with alcohol use disorder and to nonalcoholic controls. Within the alcoholic hepatitis cohort, patients with levels of at least 34 IU/mL had a significantly lower 90-day survival (59%) compared with those with ASCA levels less than 34 IU/mL (80%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031). Conclusion: Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have a lower fungal diversity with an overgrowth of Candida compared with controls. Higher serum ASCA was associated with increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Intestinal fungi may serve as a therapeutic target to improve survival, and ASCA may be useful to predict the outcome in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatite Alcoólica/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Micobioma , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Candida/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Disbiose/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/imunologia
10.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(10): 657-676, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188200

RESUMO

La enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA) es la causa más prevalente de enfermedad hepática avanzada y cirrosis hepática en Europa incluyendo a España. De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud la fracción de cirrosis hepática atribuible al uso de alcohol en España es del 73,8% entre varones y del 56,3% entre mujeres. La EHA incluye diversos estadios como la esteatohepatitis, la cirrosis y el cáncer hepatocelular. Además, enfermos con EHA de base e ingesta abundante de alcohol pueden desarrollar hepatitis alcohólica, que cursa con una elevada mortalidad. Hasta la fecha, el único tratamiento efectivo para tratar la EHA es la abstinencia prolongada. No existen tratamientos específicos, y el único tratamiento que aumenta la esperanza de vida en la hepatitis alcohólica es la prednisolona. Para enfermos con hepatitis alcohólica que no responden al tratamiento, algunos centros ofrecen la posibilidad de un trasplante precoz. Estas guías de práctica clínica tienen como objetivo proponer recomendaciones sobre la EHA teniendo en cuenta su relevancia como causa de hepatopatía crónica avanzada y cirrosis hepática en nuestro medio. En el presente trabajo se propone como objetivo responder las preguntas claves para la práctica clínica de Gastroenterología, Hepatología, así como de Medicina Interna y centros de salud primaria, poniendo al servicio del profesional de la salud la información más actualizada respecto al manejo y tratamiento de la EHA. Estas guías proporcionan recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para el manejo clínico de esta enfermedad


Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatite Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Consenso , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/terapia , Saúde Pública , História Natural , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nature ; 575(7783): 505-511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723265

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease due to alcohol-use disorder contributes markedly to the global burden of disease and mortality1-3. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. The gut microbiota promotes ethanol-induced liver disease in mice4, but little is known about the microbial factors that are responsible for this process. Here we identify cytolysin-a two-subunit exotoxin that is secreted by Enterococcus faecalis5,6-as a cause of hepatocyte death and liver injury. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals or patients with alcohol-use disorder, patients with alcoholic hepatitis have increased faecal numbers of E. faecalis. The presence of cytolysin-positive (cytolytic) E. faecalis correlated with the severity of liver disease and with mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Using humanized mice that were colonized with bacteria from the faeces of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bacteriophages that target cytolytic E. faecalis. We found that these bacteriophages decrease cytolysin in the liver and abolish ethanol-induced liver disease in humanized mice. Our findings link cytolytic E. faecalis with more severe clinical outcomes and increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We show that bacteriophages can specifically target cytolytic E. faecalis, which provides a method for precisely editing the intestinal microbiota. A clinical trial with a larger cohort is required to validate the relevance of our findings in humans, and to test whether this therapeutic approach is effective for patients with alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Terapia por Fagos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Perforina/metabolismo
12.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(10): 657-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771785

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3126, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311938

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by profound hepatocellular dysfunction for which targeted treatments are urgently needed. Identification of molecular drivers is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. By performing RNA sequencing in livers from patients with different phenotypes of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), we show that development of AH is characterized by defective activity of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). TGFß1 is a key upstream transcriptome regulator in AH and induces the use of HNF4α P2 promoter in hepatocytes, which results in defective metabolic and synthetic functions. Gene polymorphisms in LETFs including HNF4α are not associated with the development of AH. In contrast, epigenetic studies show that AH livers have profound changes in DNA methylation state and chromatin remodeling, affecting HNF4α-dependent gene expression. We conclude that targeting TGFß1 and epigenetic drivers that modulate HNF4α-dependent gene expression could be beneficial to improve hepatocellular function in patients with AH.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(11): 2320-2329.e12, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite recent advances in treatment of viral hepatitis, liver-related mortality is high, possibly owing to the large burden of advanced alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). We investigated whether patients with ALD are initially seen at later stages of disease development than patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or other etiologies. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 3453 consecutive patients with either early or advanced liver disease (1699 patients with early and 1754 with advanced liver disease) seen at 17 tertiary care liver or gastrointestinal units worldwide, from August 2015 through March 2017. We collected anthropometric, etiology, and clinical information, as well as and model for end-stage liver disease scores. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios for evaluation at late stages of the disease progression. RESULTS: Of the patients analyzed, 81% had 1 etiology of liver disease and 17% had 2 etiologies of liver disease. Of patients seen at early stages for a single etiology, 31% had HCV infection, 21% had hepatitis B virus infection, and 17% had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas only 3.8% had ALD. In contrast, 29% of patients seen for advanced disease had ALD. Patients with ALD were more likely to be seen at specialized centers, with advanced-stage disease, compared with patients with HCV-associated liver disease (odds ratio, 14.1; 95% CI, 10.5-18.9; P < .001). Of patients with 2 etiologies of liver disease, excess alcohol use was associated with 50% of cases. These patients had significantly more visits to health care providers, with more advanced disease, compared with patients without excess alcohol use. The mean model for end-stage liver disease score for patients with advanced ALD (score, 16) was higher than for patients with advanced liver disease not associated with excess alcohol use (score, 13) (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional analysis of patients with liver disease worldwide, we found that patients with ALD are seen with more advanced-stage disease than patients with HCV-associated liver disease. Of patients with 2 etiologies of liver disease, excess alcohol use was associated with 50% of cases. Early detection and referral programs are needed for patients with ALD worldwide.

15.
JHEP Rep ; 1(5): 403-413, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039391

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) represents a major public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, the highest levels of per capita alcohol consumption are observed in countries of the European Region. Alcohol consumption is also alarmingly increasing in developing countries. ALD is one of the main contributors to the burden of alcohol-attributable deaths and disability. In the United States, severe forms of ALD such alcoholic hepatitis have increased in the last decade and in the United Kingdom, three-quarters of liver-related mortality results from alcohol consumption. Besides genetic factors, there is strong evidence that the amount of alcohol consumed plays a major role in the development of advanced ALD. Establishing effective public health policies is therefore mandatory to reduce the burden of ALD. Since the 90s, major public health institutions and governments have developed a variety of policies in order to reduce the harm caused by excessive drinking. These policies encompass multiple factors, from pricing and taxation to advertising regulation. Measures focused on taxation and price regulation have been shown to be the most effective at reducing alcohol-related mortality. However, there are few studies focused on the effect of public policies on ALD. This review article summarises the factors influencing ALD burden and the role of different public health policies.

16.
Hepatology ; 69(5): 1916-1930, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324707

RESUMO

Risk of alcoholic cirrhosis is determined by genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to investigate if climate has a causal effect on alcohol consumption and its weight on alcoholic cirrhosis. We collected extensive data from 193 sovereign countries as well as 50 states and 3,144 counties in the United States. Data sources included World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and the Institute on Health Metrics and Evaluation. Climate parameters comprised Koppen-Geiger classification, average annual sunshine hours, and average annual temperature. Alcohol consumption data, pattern of drinking, health indicators, and alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of cirrhosis were obtained. The global cohort revealed an inverse correlation between mean average temperature and average annual sunshine hours with liters of annual alcohol consumption per capita (Spearman's rho -0.5 and -0.57, respectively). Moreover, the percentage of heavy episodic drinking and total drinkers among population inversely correlated with temperature -0.45 and -0.49 (P < 0.001) and sunshine hours -0.39 and -0.57 (P < 0.001). Importantly, AAF was inversely correlated with temperature -0.45 (P < 0.001) and sunshine hours -0.6 (P < 0.001). At a global level, all included parameters in the univariable and multivariable analysis showed an association with liters of alcohol consumption and drinkers among population once adjusted by potential confounders. In the multivariate analysis, liters of alcohol consumption associated with AAF. In the United States, colder climates showed a positive correlation with the age-standardized prevalence of heavy and binge drinkers. Conclusion: These results suggest that colder climates may play a causal role on AAF mediated by alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Clima Frio/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/etiologia , Luz Solar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Hepatol ; 69(2): 396-405, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The degree of cholestasis is an important disease driver in alcoholic hepatitis, a severe clinical condition that needs new biomarkers and targeted therapies. We aimed to identify the largely unknown mechanisms and biomarkers linked to cholestasis in alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Herein, we analyzed a well characterized cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and correlated clinical and histological parameters and outcomes with serum bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a major regulator of bile acid synthesis. RESULTS: We found that total and conjugated bile acids were significantly increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared with controls. Serum FGF19 levels were strongly increased and gene expression of FGF19 was induced in biliary epithelial cells and ductular cells of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. De novo bile acid synthesis (CYP7A1 gene expression and C4 serum levels) was significantly decreased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Importantly, total and conjugated bile acids correlated positively with FGF19 and with disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease score). FGF19 correlated best with conjugated cholic acid, and model for end-stage liver disease score best with taurine-conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant associations between FGF19 and bilirubin as well as gamma glutamyl transferase, and negative correlations between FGF19 and fibrosis stage as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, in all patients with alcoholic hepatitis. CONCLUSION: Serum FGF19 and bile acids are significantly increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, while de novo bile acid synthesis is suppressed. Modulation of bile acid metabolism or signaling could represent a promising target for treatment of alcoholic hepatitis in humans. LAY SUMMARY: Understanding the underlying mechanisms that drive alcoholic hepatitis is important for the development of new biomarkers and targeted therapies. Herein, we describe a molecule that is increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Modulating the molecular pathway of this molecule might lead to promising targets for the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colestase , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Hepatite Alcoólica , Neutrófilos/patologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/metabolismo , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 11: 1756283X17743419, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383024

RESUMO

Background: Episodes of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have been related to low survival rate. However, the relation between its clinical evolution and mortality has not been assessed. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 245 cirrhotic patients admitted for an acute episode of HE (⩾grade 2) or who developed an HE episode after an upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) event was performed to assess the relation between time in HE and transplant-free survival. Results: Median (IQR25-75) time in HE was 48 h (24-96 h) in the whole cohort. Patients who presented a longer time in HE (>48 h; n = 89) exhibited a lower transplant-free survival at 28 days (67.2% versus 88.9%, p < 0.001), 90 days (48.7% versus 73.8%, p < 0.001) and 365 days (30.3% versus 53.2%, p < 0.001), as compared to those with less time in HE (⩽48 h; n = 156). Survival rates remained significantly different, with lower percentages in the group with time in HE >48 h, when comparing patients according to baseline HE grade (2 versus ⩾3) or model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) function (⩽15 versus >15). Time in HE was also an independent risk factor for mortality at each time point, hazard ratio (HR) (95 CI%) 28 days 2.59 (1.39-4.84); 90 days 1.98 (1.28-3.1) and 365 days 1.5 (1.08-2.19). Conclusions: The duration of the acute HE episode determines survival in cirrhotic patients independently of liver function and baseline HE grade.

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