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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present immunogenicity data 6 months after the first dose of BNT162b2 in correlation with age, gender, BMI, comorbidities and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: An immunogenicity evaluation was carried out among health care workers (HCW) vaccinated at the Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri (IFO). All HCW were asked to be vaccine by the national vaccine campaign at the beginning of 2021. Serum samples were collected on day 1 just prior to the first dose of the vaccine and on day 21 just prior to the second vaccination dose. Thereafter sera samples were collected 28, 49, 84 and 168 days after the first dose of BNT162b2. Quantitative measurement of IgG antibodies against S1/S2 antigens of SARS-CoV-2 was performed with a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-four HWCs were analyzed, 175 women (63.9%) and 99 men (36.1%). The maximum antibody geometric mean concentration (AbGMC) was reached at T2 (299.89 AU/mL; 95% CI: 263.53-339.52) with a significant increase compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). Thereafter, a progressive decrease was observed. At T5, a median decrease of 59.6% in COVID-19 negative, and of 67.8% in COVID-19 positive individuals were identified with respect to the highest antibody response. At T1, age and previous COVID-19 were associated with differences in antibody response, while at T2 and T3 differences in immune response were associated with age, gender and previous COVID-19. At T4 and T5, only COVID-19 positive participants demonstrated a greater antibody response, whereas no other variables seemed to influence antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our study clearly shows antibody persistence at 6 months, albeit with a certain decline. Thus, the use of this vaccine in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic is supported by our results that in turn open debate about the need for further boosts.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501313

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to define the pre-treatment radiological characteristics of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) using morphological and non-morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on HPV status, in a single-institution cohort. In total, 100 patients affected by OPSCC were prospectively enrolled in the present study. All patients underwent 1.5T MR with standard sequences, including diffusion-weighted imaging with and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM-DWI) technique and a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. For all patients, human papillomavirus (HPV) status was available. No statistically significant differences in the volume of primary tumors (PTs) and lymph nodes (LNs) were observed based on HPV status. When comparing the two patient groups, no significant differences were found for the PT radiologic characteristics (presence of well-defined borders, exophytic growth, ulceration, and necrosis) and LN morphology (solid/cystic/necrotic). Tumor subsite, smoking status, and alcohol intake significantly differed based on HPV status, as well as ADC and Dt values of both PTs and LNs. We detected no significant difference in DCE-MRI parameters by HPV status. Based on a multivariate logistic regression model, the combination of clinical factors, such as tumor subsite and alcohol habits, with the perfusion-free diffusion coefficient Dt of LNs, may help to accurately discriminate OPSCC by HPV status.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439215

RESUMO

The actual role of chemotherapy in vulvar cancer is undeniably a niche topic. The low incidence of the disease limits the feasibility of randomized trials. Decision making is thus oriented by clinical and pathological features, whose relevance is generally weighted against evidence from observational studies and clinical practice. The therapeutic management of vulvar cancer is increasingly codified and refined at an individual patient level. It is of note that the attitude towards evidence sharing and discussion within a multidisciplinary frame is progressively consolidating. Viable options included in the therapeutic armamentarium available for vulvar cancer patients are frequently an adaption from standards used for cervical or anal carcinoma. Chemotherapy is more frequently combined with radiotherapy as neo-/adjuvant or definitive treatment. Drugs commonly used are platinum derivative, 5-fluorouracil and mitomicin C, mostly in combination with radiotherapy for radiosensitization. Exclusive chemotherapy in the neo-/adjuvant setting comprises platinum-derivative, combined with bleomicin and methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide or taxanes. In advanced disease, current regimens include cisplatin-based chemoradiation, with or without 5-fluorouracil, or doublets with platinum in combination with a taxane. Our work is also enriched by a concise excursus on the biologic pathways underlying vulvar cancer. Introductory hints are also provided on targeted agents, a rapidly evolving research field.

4.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451838

RESUMO

Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common pathology in women worldwide and presents a high impact in developing countries due to limited financial resources as well as difficulties in monitoring and access to health services. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of CC, and despite the approval of prophylactic vaccines, there is no effective treatment for patients with pre-existing infections or HPV-induced carcinomas. High-risk (HR) HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are considered biomarkers in CC progression. Since the E6 structure was resolved, it has been one of the most studied targets to develop novel and specific therapeutics to treat/manage CC. Therefore, several small molecules (plant-derived or synthetic compounds) have been reported as blockers/inhibitors of E6 oncoprotein action, and computational-aided methods have been of high relevance in their discovery and development. In silico approaches have become a powerful tool for reducing the time and cost of the drug development process. Thus, this review will depict small molecules that are already being explored as HR HPV E6 protein blockers and in silico approaches to the design of novel therapeutics for managing CC. Besides, future perspectives in CC therapy will be briefly discussed.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first goal of the study was to analyse the antibody titre 21 days after the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a group of 252 healthcare workers (HCW). The second goal was to analyse how the antibody titre changes in correlation with age, gender and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Participants had a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and were assessed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline and 21 days after the BNT162b2 priming dose. RESULTS: First dose of BNT162b2 activated immune responses in 98% of the participants. Five HWC had no increase in antibody titre 21 days after the first dose. Antibody titre was greater in young (<38 years) vs. older participants (<38 vs. 47-56 p = 0.002; <38 vs. >56 p = 0.001). Higher antibody levels were detected in underweight vs. pre-obesity group (p = 0.026) and in normal-weight vs. pre-obesity group (p = 0.007). This association was confirmed after adjusting for age (p = 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that a single dose of BNT162b2 activates the immune response, and being young and normal-weight correlate positively with this response. Larger specifically designed clinical trials are needed to validate these results.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 36: 100928, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109307

RESUMO

Background: Literature data suggests that age, gender and body mass index (BMI) could be associated with difference in immune responses to vaccines. The first goal of the study was to analyze the antibody titre seven days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in a group of 248 healthcare workers (HCWs). The second goal was to analyze how antibody titre changes in correlation with age, gender, BMI and hypertension. Methods: An immunogenicity evaluation was carried out among HCWs vaccinated at the Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri (IFO), Rome, Italy. All HCWs were asked to be vaccinated by the Italian national vaccine campaign at the beginning of 2021. 260 vaccinated HCWs were enrolled in the study. All eligible participants were assigned to receive the priming dose in two weeks' time and the booster dose exactly 21 days thereafter. Blood and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at baseline and 7 days after second dose of vaccine. Quantitative measurements of IgG antibodies against S1/S2 antigens of SARS-CoV-2 were performed with a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay. Presence of SARS-Cov-2 in nasopharyngeal swab was determined by commercial RT-PCR testing. Findings: 248 HWCs were analyzed, 158 women (63.7%) and 90 men (36.3%). After the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, 99.5% of participants developed a humoral immune response. The geometric mean concentration of antibodies among the vaccinated subjects after booster dose (285.9 AU/mL 95% CI: 249.5-327.7) was higher than that of human convalescent sera (39.4 AU/mL, 95% CI: 33.1-46.9), with p<0.0001. Multivariate linear regression analysis of AU/mL by age, gender and BMI multivariate was performed by the inclusion of covariates. This analysis demonstrated that age (p<0.0001) and gender (p = 0.038) are statistically associated with differences in antibody response after vaccination, whereas BMI and hypertension have no statistically significant association (p = 0.078 and p = 0.52 respectively). Interpretation: 99.5% of HCW developed a humoral immune response and female and young participants seem to have an increased capacity to mount humoral immune responses. BMI and hypertension seem not associated with difference in immune response to the vaccine. Funding: None.

7.
ACS Omega ; 6(13): 8778-8783, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842749

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is the etiologic agent of more than 50% anal/cervical cancers and about 20% oropharyngeal cancers. HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes favor the transformation and are essential for maintaining the transformed status. Serum anti-E6 and anti-E7 antibodies appear to have prognostic significance for HPV-associated cancers. However, most of the previous attempts to establish diagnostic tools based on serum detection of E6 and/or E7 antibodies have been unsuccessful, mainly due to the low accuracy of applied tests. This paper reports on a feasibility study to prove the possibility to easily immobilize HPV16 E7 onto electrospun substrates for application in diagnostic tools. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone) electrospun scaffolds (called ePCL) are used to provide a microstructured substrate with a high surface-to-volume ratio, capable of binding E7 proteins when used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. ePCL functionalized with E7 exhibited superior properties compared to standard polystyrene plates, increasing the detection signal from serum antibodies by 5-6 times. Analysis of the serum samples from mice immunized with HPV16 E7 DNA vaccine showed higher efficiency of this new anti-E7 ePCL-ELISA test vs control in E7-specific antibody detection. In addition, ePCL-E7-ELISA is prepared with a relatively low amount of antigen, decreasing the manufacturing costs.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917435

RESUMO

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with invasive malignancies, including almost 100% of cervical cancers (CECs), and 35-70% of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). HPV infection leads to clinical implications in related tumors by determining better prognosis and predicting treatment response, especially in OPC. Currently, specific and minimally invasive tests allow for detecting HPV-related cancer at an early phase, informing more appropriately therapeutical decisions, and allowing for timely disease monitoring. A blood-based biomarker detectable in liquid biopsy represents an ideal candidate, and the use of circulating HPV DNA (ct-DNA) itself could offer the highest specificity for such a scope. Circulating HPV DNA is detectable in the greatest part of patients affected by HPV-related cancers, and studies have demonstrated its potential usefulness for CEC and OPC clinical management. Unfortunately, when using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the detection rate of serum HPV DNA is low. Innovative techniques such as droplet-based digital PCR and next generation sequencing are becoming increasingly available for the purpose of boosting HPV ct-DNA detection rate. We herein review and critically discuss the most recent and representative literature, concerning the role of HPV ctDNA in OPC and CEC in the light of new technologies that could improve the potential of this biomarker in fulfilling many of the unmet needs in the clinical management of OPC and CEC patients.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673300

RESUMO

Middle ear squamous cell carcinoma (MESCC) is rare. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection has been found in a significant number of cases of MESCC. Despite the emerging role of HPV in oncogenesis, its role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of MESCC is not known. This study aims to identify the prognostic impact of alpha and beta HPV in MESCC and its correlation with p16 protein. We retrospectively investigated 33 patients with MESCC surgically treated between 2004 and 2016. HPV DNA was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and P16INK4a detection was performed. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and cumulative incidence of recurrence were calculated in relation to HPV presence and genotype. p16 sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) in predicting HPV infection were calculated. HPV was detected in 66.7% of patients (36.4% alpha HPV, 63.6% beta HPV). Five-year DSS was 55.0% and was not statistically related to HPV presence (p = 0.55) or genotype (p = 0.87). Five-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 46 %, and was not statistically related to HPV presence (p = 0.22) or genotype (p = 0.44). p16 sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in predicting HPV infection were 27.3%, 36.4%, 46.2%, and 20.0%, respectively. In our experience, beta HPV was more frequent than alpha HPV in MESCC. Neither HPV presence nor HPV genotypes relate to DSS or cumulative incidence of recurrence. p16 expression was not predictive for HPV infection in MESCC. The role of HPV infection in oncogenesis, maintenance, and prognosis of MESCC seems to be different from that in oropharynx and skin cancer.

10.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 37, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oncogenic activity of the high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is fully dependent on the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins produced during viral infection. The oncoproteins interfere with cellular homeostasis by promoting proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis and blocking epithelial differentiation, driving the infected cells towards neoplastic progression. The causal relationship between expression of E6/E7 and cellular transformation allows inhibiting the oncogenic process by hindering the activity of the two oncoproteins. We previously developed and characterized some antibodies in single-chain format (scFvs) against the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins, and demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo their antitumor activity consisting of protective efficacy against tumor progression of HPV16-positive cells. METHODS: Envisioning clinical application of the best characterized anti-HPV16 E6 and -HPV16 E7 scFvs, we verified their activity in the therapeutic setting, on already implanted tumors. Recombinant plasmids expressing the anti-HPV16 E6 scFvI7 with nuclear targeting sequence, or the anti-HPV16 E7 scFv43M2 with endoplasmic reticulum targeting sequence were delivered by injection followed by electroporation to three different preclinical models using C57/BL6 mice, and their effect on tumor growth was investigated. In the first model, the HPV16+ TC-1 Luc cells were used to implant tumors in mice, and tumor growth was measured by luciferase activity; in the second model, a fourfold number of TC-1 cells was used to obtain more aggressively growing tumors; in the third model, the HPV16+ C3 cells where used to rise tumors in mice. To highlight the scFv possible mechanism of action, H&E and caspase-3 staining of tumor section were performed. RESULTS: We showed that both the anti-HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 scFvs tested were efficacious in delaying tumor progression in the three experimental models and that their antitumor activity seems to rely on driving tumor cells towards the apoptotic pathway. CONCLUSION: Based on our study, two scFvs have been identified that could represent a safe and effective treatment for the therapy of HPV16-associated lesions. The mechanism underlying the scFv effectiveness appears to be leading cells towards death by apoptosis. Furthermore, the validity of electroporation, a methodology allowed for human treatment, to deliver scFvs to tumors was confirmed.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114220

RESUMO

Antigen-specific immunotherapy and, in particular, DNA vaccination provides an established approach for tackling human papillomavirus (HPV) cancers at different stages. DNA vaccines are stable and have a cost-effective production. Their intrinsic low immunogenicity has been improved by several strategies with some success, including fusion of HPV antigens with plant gene sequences. Another approach for the control of HPV cancers is the use of natural immunomodulatory agents like those derived from plants, that are able to interfere in carcinogenesis by modulating many different cellular pathways and, in some instances, to reduce chemo- and radiotherapy resistance of tumors. Indeed, plant-derived compounds represent, in many cases, an abundantly available, cost-effective source of molecules that can be either harvested directly in nature or obtained from plant cell cultures. In this review, an overview of the most relevant data reported in literature on the use of plant natural compounds and genetic vaccines that include plant-derived sequences against HPV tumors is provided. The purpose is also to highlight the still under-explored potential of multimodal treatments implying DNA vaccination along with plant-derived agents.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257968

RESUMO

E7 protein from cutaneous as well as mucosal HPV types can alter NF-κB activity. Conflicting literature data show a HPV-induced up- or down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway in different cell lines. In a previous study we detected the expression of E7 gene of HPV15 in a subungual tumor of a patient affected by incontinentia pigmenti (IP). IP is a rare X-linked genodermatosis in which the IKKγ gene is altered. From observations in transgenic IKKγ defective mice, it was suggested that IKK-deficient cells may undergo rapid hyper-proliferation and apoptosis/necrosis, leading to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the neighboring IKK-positive cells. The objective of this study was to ascertain if beta HPV 15 can alter apoptosis and NF-κB pathway in normal and IKKγ-deficient keratinocytes. The human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and human primary keratinocyte (HPK) cells were transduced with a retrovirus expressing E6-E7 proteins of HPV 15 and IKKγ was successful silenced mimicking the HPV15 infection and IP. HPV15 E6-E7 gene expression improved NF-κB activity in human keratinocytes even when IKKγ was silenced by siRNA. In IKKγ silenced keratinocyte cells, TNF-α-induced apoptosis was strongly reduced by the expression of HPV15 E6-E7 genes. Beta HPV15 exerted this anti-apoptotic activity by decreasing pro-apoptotic BAK and cleaved Caspase 3 proteins. In conclusion, we can speculate that presence of persistent infection by beta papillomavirus might influence the biological fate of IP by altering NF-κB activation and apoptosis in IKKγ mutated cells, favoring their survival and possibly the development of tumors in the late stage of disease. Taken together, our data reinforce the importance of host genetic background in the pathogenesis of HPV-associated skin lesions.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Apoptose , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Papillomaviridae
13.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 732-746, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848196

RESUMO

There is a critical need to understand mechanisms of resistance and to develop combinatorial strategies to improve responses to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy (CBI). Here, we uncover a novel mechanism by which the human papillomavirus (HPV) inhibits the activity of CBI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Using orthotopic HNSCC models, we show that radiation combined with anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy significantly enhanced local control, CD8+ memory T cells, and induced preferential T-cell homing via modulation of vascular endothelial cells. However, the HPV E5 oncoprotein suppressed immune responses by downregulating expression of major histocompatibility complex and interfering with antigen presentation in murine models and patient tumors. Furthermore, tumors expressing HPV E5 were rendered entirely resistant to anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy, and patients with high expression of HPV16 E5 had worse survival. The antiviral E5 inhibitor rimantadine demonstrated remarkable single-agent antitumor activity. This is the first report that describes HPV E5 as a mediator of resistance to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy and demonstrates the antitumor activity of rimantadine. These results have broad clinical relevance beyond HNSCC to other HPV-associated malignancies and reveal a powerful mechanism of HPV-mediated immunosuppression, which can be exploited to improve response rates to checkpoint blockade. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies a novel mechanism of resistance to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy mediated by HPV E5, which can be exploited using the HPV E5 inhibitor rimantadine to improve outcomes for head and neck cancer patients. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/4/732/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Rimantadina/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 16/metabolismo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA-Seq , Rimantadina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Cancer ; 10(24): 5903-5914, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762800

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by distinctive biological features that confer an aggressive clinical behavior. In TNBC patients, the absence of well-defined driver pathways such as hormonal receptor expression or hyperactivation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) significantly reduce the spectrum of therapeutic options, which are currently mainly confined to chemotherapy. Thus far, median overall survival for patients with metastatic TNBC is about 9-12 months with conventional cytotoxic agents. However, the heterogeneity recently revealed at a gene expression level inside the TNBC family may help inform therapeutic decisions concerning the use of chemotherapy and hopefully lead the way to novel targeted options that include immunotherapy. Eribulin, a halichondrin class antineoplastic drug, is currently recommended for treatment of HER2 negative metastatic or recurrent breast cancer (BC) previously exposed to anthracyclines and taxanes, also for patients with a TNBC. It is currently indicated from the second line of treatment. In this review, we aim to analyze a wide range of cumulated evidence on eribulin use in TNBC including preclinical studies, intervention and observational clinical trials. Data from the real-world setting and the emerging evidence increasingly substantiating the rationale for combinations with new generation treatment strategies, e.g., PARP-inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, will be also discussed.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 452, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031788

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor disease is a critical public health problem worldwide, especially in the developing countries. The recognized pathogenic function of E5, E6, and E7 oncoproteins offers the opportunity to devise therapeutic vaccines based on engineered recombinant proteins. The potential of plants to manufacture engineered compounds for pharmaceutical purposes, from small to complex protein molecules, allows the expression of HPV antigens and, possibly, the regulation of immune functions to develop very specific therapies as a reinforcement to available nonspecific therapies and preventive vaccination also in developed countries. Among plant-based expression formats, hairy root cultures are a robust platform combining the benefits of eukaryotic plant-based bioreactors, with those typical of cell cultures. In this work, to devise an experimental therapeutic vaccine against HPV, hairy root cultures were used to express a harmless form of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (E7*) fused to SAPKQ, a noncytotoxic form of the saporin protein from Saponaria officinalis, that we had shown to improve E7-specific cell-mediated responses as a fusion E7*-SAPKQ DNA vaccine. Hairy root clones expressing the E7*-SAPKQ candidate vaccine were obtained upon infection of leaf explants of Solanum lycopersicum using a recombinant plant expression vector. Yield was approximately 35.5 µg/g of fresh weight. Mouse immunization with vaccine-containing crude extracts was performed together with immunological and biological tests to investigate immune responses and anticancer activity, respectively. Animals were primed with either E7*-SAPKQ DNA-based vaccine or E7*-SAPKQ root extract-based vaccine and boosted with the same (homologous schedule) or with the other vaccine preparation (heterologous schedule) in the context of TC-1 experimental mouse model of HPV-associated tumor. All the formulations exhibited an immunological response associated to anticancer activity. In particular, DNA as prime and hairy root extract as boost demonstrated the highest efficacy. This work, based on the development of low-cost technologies, highlights the suitability of hairy root cultures as possible biofactories of therapeutic HPV vaccines and underlines the importance of the synergic combination of treatment modalities for future developments in this field.

16.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7076942, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847353

RESUMO

Mollusk hemocyanins have been used for decades in immunological and clinical applications as natural, nontoxic, nonpathogenic, and nonspecific immunostimulants for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer, as carriers/adjuvants of tumor-associated antigens in cancer vaccine development and as adjuvants to dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, because these glycoproteins induce a bias towards Th1 immunity. Here, we analyzed the preclinical therapeutic potential of the traditional keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and two new hemocyanins from Concholepas concholepas (CCH) and Fissurella latimarginata (FLH) in mouse models of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Due to the aggressiveness and deadly malignant potential of this cancer, the hemocyanins were applied in combination with adjuvants, such as alum, AddaVax, and QS-21, which have been shown to be safe and effective in human vaccines, to potentiate their antitumor activity. The immunogenic performance of the hemocyanins in combination with the adjuvants was compared, and the best formulation was evaluated for its antitumor effects in two murine models of oral cancer: MOC7 cells implanted in the flank (heterotopic) and bioluminescent AT-84 E7 Luc cells implanted in the floor of the mouth (orthotopic). The results demonstrated that the hemocyanins in combination with QS-21 showed the greatest immunogenicity, as reflected by a robust, specific humoral response predominantly characterized by IgG2a antibodies and a sustained cellular response manifesting as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The KLH- and FLH-QS-21 formulations showed reduced tumor development and greater overall survival. Hemocyanins, as opposed to QS-21, had no cytotoxic effect on either oral cancer cell line cultured in vitro, supporting the idea that the antitumor effects of hemocyanins are associated with their modulation of the immune response. Therefore, hemocyanin utilization would allow a lower QS-21 dosage to achieve therapeutic results. Overall, our study opens a new door to further investigation of the use of hemocyanins plus adjuvants for the development of immunotherapies against oral carcinoma.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Hemocianinas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Alúmen/administração & dosagem , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemocianinas/química , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Moluscos/química , Polissorbatos/administração & dosagem , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Esqualeno/administração & dosagem
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(5): 1133-1134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779688
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1568-1577, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, variable phenotypic expression may delay diagnosis. Panleukopenia, malignancy, and chronic lung disease all affect morbidity and mortality risks. Routinely used treatments include immunoglobulins, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and antibiotics; recent trials with a target C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist show promising results. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the largest cohort of patients with WHIM and evaluate their diagnostic and therapeutic management. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 18 patients with CXCR4 mutations. RESULTS: The clinical features manifested at 2.2 ± 2.6 years of age, whereas the disease diagnosis was delayed until 12.5 ± 10.4 years of age. Patients with WHIM commonly presented with a severe bacterial infection (78%). Pneumonia recurrence was observed in 61% of patients and was complicated with bronchiectasis in 27%. Skin warts were observed in 61% of patients at a mean age of 11 years, whereas human papilloma virus (HPV)-related malignancies manifested in 16% of patients. All the patients had severe neutropenia (195 ± 102 cells/mm3 at onset), whereas lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia were detected in 88% and 58% of patients, respectively. Approximately 50% of patients received antibiotic prophylaxis, whereas G-CSF and immunoglobulin treatments were used in 72% and 55% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The WHIM syndrome onsets early in life and should be suspected in patients with chronic neutropenia. Patients with WHIM need careful monitoring and timely intervention for complications, mainly lung disease and HPV-related malignancies. We suggest that immunoglobulin therapy should be promptly considered to control the frequency of bacterial infections and prevent chronic lung damage.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/fisiopatologia , Verrugas/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/etiologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/terapia , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Coortes , Criocirurgia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Humanos , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ceratolíticos/uso terapêutico , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Retinoides/uso terapêutico , Ácido Salicílico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Verrugas/genética , Verrugas/imunologia , Verrugas/terapia , Adulto Jovem
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