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1.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 532-539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146338

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) to dentin and interfacial stress in a class II cavity restored with bulk-fill or conventional composite resins and the margin interfaces. Vertical slot class II cavities in the mesial face, with the gingival end in dentin, were prepared in 72 third molars, being divided into groups (n=24): G1-Tetric N-Ceram; G2-Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill; G3-SonicFill. Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system was used in all groups. Half of the teeth in each group (n=12) were submitted to thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC). Restored teeth (n=9) were cut perpendicular to obtain beams, which were submitted to a mTBS test in an EMIC machine. The cervical margins in dentin of the restored teeth (n=3) were assessed using SEM through epoxy resin replicas as well as the section of the restoration. Interfacial stresses after load application were calculated by 2D finite element analysis. The mTBS means-MPa followed by different letters represent statistical difference by ANOVA and Games-Howell's test (p<0.05): Without TMC: G1-15.68±6.10a; G2-10.08±5.21ab; G3-7.98±3.76b. With TMC: G1-9.70±5.52a; G2-5.79±1.42a; G3-4.37±1.87a. Interfacial stress (MPa) was 4.4 for SonicFill, 3.9 for Tetric N-Ceram, and 3.5 for Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill. SEM images showed continuous margins for all composite resin restorations. It was possible to conclude that SonicFill obtained a slightly higher interfacial stress and lower bond strength to dentin in comparison with Tetric N-Ceram and Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill. Continuous margin interfaces were obtained for Tetric N-Ceram, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill, and SonicFill. However, voids were observed in the SonicFill restorations.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Resinas Compostas , Dentina , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
2.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 540-547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146339

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of orthodontic bracket type (metallic or ceramic) and mouthguard on biomechanical response during impact. Two-dimensional plane-strain models of a patient with increased positive overjet of the maxillary central incisor was created based on a CT scan, simulating the periodontal ligament, bone support, gingival tissue, orthodontic brackets (metallic or ceramic) and mouthguard. A nonlinear dynamic impact finite element analysis was performed in which a steel object hit the model at 1 m/s. Stress distributions (Von Mises and Modified Von Mises) and strain were evaluated. Stress distributions were affected by the bracket presence and type. Models with metallic and ceramic bracket had higher stresses over a larger buccal enamel impact area. Models with ceramic brackets generated higher stresses than the metallic brackets. Mouthguards reduced the stress and strain values regardless of bracket type. Mouthguard shock absorption were 88.37% and 89.27% for the metallic and ceramic bracket, respectively. Orthodontic bracket presence and type influenced the stress and strain generated during an impact. Ceramic brackets generated higher stresses than metallic brackets. Mouthguards substantially reduced impact stress and strain peaks, regardless of bracket type.


Assuntos
Protetores Bucais , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Incisivo , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Estresse Mecânico
3.
J Adhes Dent ; 22(5): 503-514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073781

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare shrinkage stress, cuspal strain and fracture load of weakened premolars restored with different conventional and bulk-fill composite resins and restorative techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty premolars received a 4.0 x 3.5mm mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) class II preparation. The lingual and buccal cups were internally weakened. Specimens were restored according to the following 5 groups: Filtek Z350 XT/10 increments; Filtek Z350 XT/8 increments (both 3M Oral Care); Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable Restorative + Filtek Z350 XT (both 3M Oral Care); SDR + Spectra Basic (Dentsply Sirona); and Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent). Cuspal strains were measured using strain gauges (n = 10). After restoration, specimens were submitted to thermal/mechanical cycles and fractured. Post-gel shrinkage of the composites was determined. Additionally, residual shrinkage strains and stresses were analyzed using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (α = 0.05). RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among composite resins (p < 0.001) for the post-gel shrinkage. Filtek Z350 XT had the highest post-gel shrinkage and no difference was found between Spectra Basic and Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (p = 0.110). The Filtek Z350 XT/10 increments, Filtek Z350 XT/8 increments and Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable Restorative/Filtek Z350 XT had statistically significantly higher cuspal deformation values when compared to the SDR/Spectra Basic and Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill techniques. 3D-FEA confirmed higher stress levels in the incrementally filled conventional restorations. Fracture loads were not statistically significantly different. CONCLUSION: The bulk-fill restoration techniques resulted in less cuspal strain and stress than the incremental technique with conventional composite resin. Fracture resistance was not affected by the restorative techniques.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Dente Pré-Molar , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Polimerização
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 540-547, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1132326

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of orthodontic bracket type (metallic or ceramic) and mouthguard on biomechanical response during impact. Two-dimensional plane-strain models of a patient with increased positive overjet of the maxillary central incisor was created based on a CT scan, simulating the periodontal ligament, bone support, gingival tissue, orthodontic brackets (metallic or ceramic) and mouthguard. A nonlinear dynamic impact finite element analysis was performed in which a steel object hit the model at 1 m/s. Stress distributions (Von Mises and Modified Von Mises) and strain were evaluated. Stress distributions were affected by the bracket presence and type. Models with metallic and ceramic bracket had higher stresses over a larger buccal enamel impact area. Models with ceramic brackets generated higher stresses than the metallic brackets. Mouthguards reduced the stress and strain values regardless of bracket type. Mouthguard shock absorption were 88.37% and 89.27% for the metallic and ceramic bracket, respectively. Orthodontic bracket presence and type influenced the stress and strain generated during an impact. Ceramic brackets generated higher stresses than metallic brackets. Mouthguards substantially reduced impact stress and strain peaks, regardless of bracket type.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da presença e tipo de bráquete ortodôntico (metálico ou cerâmico), e a presença de protetor bucal na resposta biomecânica durante impacto. Modelos bidimensionais em estado plano de deformação de paciente com incisivo central superior com overjet positivo acentuado foram criados baseados em tomografia computadorizada, simulando ligamento periodontal, suporte ósseo, tecido gengival, bráquetes ortodônticos (metálico e cerâmico) e o protetor bucal. Análise de elementos finitos não-linear de impacto foi realizada na qual uma esfera de aço atingiu o modelo a 1m/s. A distribuição de tensões (Von Mises e Von Mises modificado) e a deformação foram avaliadas. As distribuições de tensões foram afetadas pela presença e tipo de bráquete. Modelos com bráquete metálico e cerâmico produziram maiores valores de tensões sobre maior área do esmalte vestibular. Modelos com bráquetes cerâmicos geraram maiores tensões do que metálicos. O protetor bucal reduziu as tensões e deformações geradas independentemente do tipo de bráquete. A capacidade de absorção de choques foi de 88.37 e 89.27% para os bráquetes metálicos e cerâmicos, respectivamente. A presença e o tipo de bráquete influenciou a distribuição de tensões e deformações durante o impacto. Bráquetes cerâmicos geraram maiores valores de tensão do que metálicos. Protetor bucal reduziu significativamente os picos de tensão e deformação.

5.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 532-539, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1132338

RESUMO

Abstract The aim was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) to dentin and interfacial stress in a class II cavity restored with bulk-fill or conventional composite resins and the margin interfaces. Vertical slot class II cavities in the mesial face, with the gingival end in dentin, were prepared in 72 third molars, being divided into groups (n=24): G1-Tetric N-Ceram; G2-Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill; G3-SonicFill. Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system was used in all groups. Half of the teeth in each group (n=12) were submitted to thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC). Restored teeth (n=9) were cut perpendicular to obtain beams, which were submitted to a mTBS test in an EMIC machine. The cervical margins in dentin of the restored teeth (n=3) were assessed using SEM through epoxy resin replicas as well as the section of the restoration. Interfacial stresses after load application were calculated by 2D finite element analysis. The mTBS means-MPa followed by different letters represent statistical difference by ANOVA and Games-Howell's test (p<0.05): Without TMC: G1-15.68±6.10a; G2-10.08±5.21ab; G3-7.98±3.76b. With TMC: G1-9.70±5.52a; G2-5.79±1.42a; G3-4.37±1.87a. Interfacial stress (MPa) was 4.4 for SonicFill, 3.9 for Tetric N-Ceram, and 3.5 for Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill. SEM images showed continuous margins for all composite resin restorations. It was possible to conclude that SonicFill obtained a slightly higher interfacial stress and lower bond strength to dentin in comparison with Tetric N-Ceram and Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill. Continuous margin interfaces were obtained for Tetric N-Ceram, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill, and SonicFill. However, voids were observed in the SonicFill restorations.


Resumo O objetivo foi avaliar a resistência de união à microtração (RUμT) à dentina e o estresse interfacial em cavidades classe II restauradas com resina composta de incremento único ou convencional e as interfaces marginais. Cavidades classe II na face mesial, com margem gengival em dentina, foram confeccionadas em 72 terceiros molares, sendo divididos em grupos (n=24): Grupo 1-Tetric N-Ceram; Grupo 2- Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill; Grupo 3- SonicFill. O Sistema adesivo Clearfil SE Bond foi usado em todos os grupos. Metade dos dentes de cada grupo (n=12) foram submetidos à ciclagem termo-mecânica (CTM). Os dentes restaurados (n=9) foram cortados perpendicularmente para obter palitos que foram submetidos ao teste de RµT na máquina-EMIC. As margens cervicais em dentina dos dentes restaurados (n=3) foram observados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) por meio de réplicas em resina epoxy, assim como os cortes das restaurações. O estresse interfacial após a aplicação da carga foram calculadas por análise de elementos finitos 2D. As médias de RUμT-MPa seguidas de letras distintas apresentam diferença estatística de acordo com ANOVA e teste de Games-Howell (p<0,05): Antes da CTM: G1-15.68±6.10a; G2-10.08±5.21ab; G3-7.98±3.76b. Após CTM: G1-9.70±5.52a; G2-5.79±1.42a; G3-4.37±1.87a. O estresse interfacial (MPa) foi 4,4 para SonicFill, 3,9 para Tetric N-Ceram e 3,5 para Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill. Imagens em MEV mostraram margens contínuas para todas as restaurações em resina composta. Foi possível concluir que o SonicFill obteve um estresse interfacial ligeiramente mais alto e menor resistência de união à dentina em comparação com o Tetric N-Ceram e o Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill. Interfaces de margem contínua foram obtidas para Tetric N-Ceram, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill e SonicFill. Entretanto, espaços vazios foram observados nas restaurações do SonicFill.

6.
Dent Traumatol ; 35(4-5): 276-284, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Maxillary canines have a high incidence of impaction which may be associated with unexpected damage during maxillofacial trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate how an impacted canine could influence the stress distribution in the dentoalveolar complex during a simulated impact before and after surgical removal plus the protective effect offered by a mouthguard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional finite element models of the central incisor and support structures of a patient with an impacted canine in a transverse position were made using ImageJ and Marc/Mentat software. The following impact conditions were simulated: (a) incisor with impacted canine; (b) incisor with surgical socket after impacted canine extraction; and (c) incisor after bone healing. The impacts were also simulated with a 3 mm custom-fitted ethylene vinyl acetate mouthguard. A non-linear dynamic impact finite element analysis was performed in which a rigid object hit the model at 1 m/s. Maximum and minimum principal stresses as well as von Mises stresses were analyzed. RESULTS: Higher values of compressive and tensile stresses occurred on the cortical bone in the models after impacted canine extraction. The highest stress concentrations in the enamel and dentin structures were observed after bone healing. The mouthguard reduced the stress in the alveolar bone and dental structures. CONCLUSIONS: Use of mouthguards during impact reduced the compressive and tensile stresses in the alveolar bone, mainly in the fragile regions of the impacted canine or surgical socket.


Assuntos
Análise do Estresse Dentário , Protetores Bucais , Traumatismos Dentários , Dente Impactado , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Maxila
7.
Dent Traumatol ; 35(2): 128-134, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dental trauma is the cause of several consequences to the injured tooth. However, the stresses and strains at adjacent teeth non-directly impacted as a possible cause of sequelae are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in incisors adjacent to an upper central incisor when it suffers a frontal impact in order to identify a potential explanation for sequelae in non-traumatized teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines was created from a cone-beam scan of a patient with normal occlusion. Non-linear dynamic impact analysis was performed, simulating the right central incisor being impacted by a steel ball with a velocity of 10 m/s. A functional chewing load (100 N) on the palatal surface of the central incisor was simulated for comparison. Displacements, strains and modified von Mises stresses were calculated for the adjacent teeth. RESULTS: During impact on the central incisor, the adjacent teeth showed root displacement. Considerable stress concentrations were observed on the palatal surfaces, proximal and labial surfaces of teeth adjacent to the traumatized incisor. Stresses in the adjacent teeth were higher than stresses calculated during functional biting. Compressive stresses were concentrated at the proximal areas of the adjacent incisors. High levels of deformation were found in the root dentin of adjacent teeth during the traumatic event. CONCLUSIONS: A frontal impact on an anterior tooth generated stresses at the roots of adjacent teeth. These stresses may play a role in clinically observed sequelae of teeth adjacent to traumatized teeth.


Assuntos
Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Incisivo , Traumatismos Dentários , Humanos
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 32(suppl 1): e76, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365617

RESUMO

Endodontic treatment is a common dental procedure used for treating teeth which the pulp tissue has become irreversibly inflamed or necrotic as a result of the carious process or dental trauma. This procedure which involves mechanical and chemical preparation of root canal may affect several mechanical and physical properties of the tooth structure. The endodontic treatment can also influence the longevity of the rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth and biomechanics during the oral function. For restoring endodontically treated teeth several factor and clinical decisions should be observed. The decision of the fiberglass post usage and the restorative materials are related to several factors such as the quantity and quality of remaining dental structure, presence of ferrule, post cementation length and final coronal restoration. In this review, the authors will address the effect of the endodontic treatment procedures on canal shape and mechanical properties of a tooth, and also discuss the parameters and the biomechanical principles of root canal treated teeth.


Assuntos
Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Dente não Vital/terapia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Dentina/química , Dentina/patologia , Vidro , Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Dente não Vital/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 33(2): 335-343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534121

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mouthguard shock absorption ability, strain, and stress generation during impact on dental implants placed in the anterior maxilla. The mouthguard material was also characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty experimental models were created and divided into six groups (n = 10): implant type, external hexagon (EH) and Morse taper (MT); without and with two mouthguards (MTG), EVA custom-fitted (Ct-MTG) and standard self-adapted (St-MTG). The Shore A hardness, EVA sheet and mouthguard thickness, and elastic modulus were measured to characterize the mouthguard material. A strain gauge was attached to the palatal surface of the implant abutment, which was subjected to an impact test. Distortion of the abutment and implant was determined after impact from centroid displacements in standardized radiographic images. Two-dimensional finite element models were created to represent the six groups and were submitted to nonlinear dynamic impact analysis. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α = .05). RESULTS: Ct-MTG resulted in higher Shore A hardness (P < .001). After the heat-forming process, the St-MTG maintained the original thickness, but the Ct-MTG thickness had decreased. The elastic modulus of EVA was 18.1 ± 0.5 MPa. The mouthguard presence reduced strain values significantly (P < .001), particularly for Ct-MTG. There was no significant difference between implant connection types EH and MT (P = .547). CONCLUSION: The external hexagon abutment resulted in higher stress and micro-displacement values. The mouthguard was able to absorb 40% to 46% of the energy caused by the impact on the dental implant.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Projeto do Implante Dentário-Pivô , Implantes Dentários , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Maxila/fisiopatologia , Protetores Bucais , Dente Suporte , Projeto do Implante Dentário-Pivô/métodos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Dureza , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Dent Mater ; 34(1): 152-160, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between post-gel shrinkage, total shrinkage, and cuspal flexure was examined. Cuspal flexure was measured on restored typodont teeth, which offered a standardized tooth shape for comparison of shrinkage stress effects among restorative composites. METHODS: Six restorative composites were compared (Filtek LS, Venus Flowable, Tetric EvoCeram, Filtek Flowable, Esthet-X, and Filtek Supreme). Total shrinkage was determined from changes in projected surface area before and after polymerization (n=10). Post-gel shrinkage was determined with a biaxial strain gauge that measured strain development during polymerization (n=10). Cuspal flexure was determined using typodont maxillary second premolars with standard MOD slot preparation (n=10). Flexure was determined by comparing the three-dimensionally scanned cuspal surfaces before and after restoration. Restoration bonding to the typodont cavity was achieved by sandblasting and adhesive application. Bond integrity was verified by measuring dye penetration. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (significance level 0.05). Pearson was used for correlations. RESULTS: Total and post-gel shrinkage were significant different for all composites (t-test; P<0.001). Depending on the composite, only 9-41% of the total shrinkage was recorded as post-gel shrinkage. Bond integrity of restored typodont teeth was 96-99%. Cuspal flexure correlated strongly with post-gel shrinkage, but there was no correlation with total shrinkage. SIGNIFICANCE: Cuspal flexure of restored typodont teeth showed the effect of shrinkage stress caused by polymerizing composite restorations, ensuring standardization while maintaining the effects of tooth/cavity geometry. Post-gel shrinkage gave a good indication to screen composites for the stress they may generate; total shrinkage had no direct correlation with stress.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Dente Pré-Molar , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Imageamento Tridimensional , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Maleabilidade , Polimerização , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32(supl.1): e76, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-974469

RESUMO

Abstract: Endodontic treatment is a common dental procedure used for treating teeth which the pulp tissue has become irreversibly inflamed or necrotic as a result of the carious process or dental trauma. This procedure which involves mechanical and chemical preparation of root canal may affect several mechanical and physical properties of the tooth structure. The endodontic treatment can also influence the longevity of the rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth and biomechanics during the oral function. For restoring endodontically treated teeth several factor and clinical decisions should be observed. The decision of the fiberglass post usage and the restorative materials are related to several factors such as the quantity and quality of remaining dental structure, presence of ferrule, post cementation length and final coronal restoration. In this review, the authors will address the effect of the endodontic treatment procedures on canal shape and mechanical properties of a tooth, and also discuss the parameters and the biomechanical principles of root canal treated teeth.

12.
ImplantNewsPerio ; 2(5): 895-909, set.-out. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-877297

RESUMO

A busca pela estética tem acentuado a procura dos pacientes pela transformação do sorriso. Com o auxílio da fotografia e da tecnologia computacional, é possível a realização do DSD (digital smile design ­ planejamento digital do sorriso), que nos dá maior previsibilidade do tratamento. A confirmação deste planejamento digital se dá na prova do mock-up, a partir do qual o paciente tem a real sensação do seu sorriso planejado. Este artigo apresentou um caso clínico no qual se destaca a adesão do paciente ao tratamento e a realização de cirurgia periodontal para aumento de coroa clínica, seguida de restaurações diretas com resinas compostas, posterior ao enceramento diagnóstico. Com o planejamento integrando a terapia cirúrgica periodontal e o protocolo restaurador adesivo direto guiado por planejamento digital (DSD), foi possível estabelecer um excelente resultado com uma elevada satisfação do paciente.


The seek for esthetics has increased patient´s demand for the smile makeover. With the help of computational technology, it is possible to perform the DSD (digital smile design) with greater treatment predictability treatment. Confirmation of this digital planning occurs in the mock-up test, from which the patient has a physical sensation of his/her planned smile. This article presents a clinical case which highlights the patient cooperation and periodontal surgery for crown lengthening, followed by direct composite resin restorations after the diagnostic wax-up procedure. With an integrated treatment planning guided by the DSD protocol, it was possible to establish an excellent outcome with high patient satisfaction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Resinas Compostas/uso terapêutico , Estética Dentária , Gengivoplastia/métodos , Fotografia Dentária , Sorriso , Tecnologia Odontológica
13.
J Endod ; 43(9): 1539-1544, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A ferrule on anterior endodontic-treated teeth has been evaluated using clinical trials, in vitro tests, and finite element analysis (FEA). The patient-specific FEA with a nonuniform ferrule and nonlinear contact biting load associated with clinical validation can be used to predict failure. METHODS: A patient was selected with both maxillary central incisors with different ferrule designs who received endodontic treatment and restoration using a fiber post, composite core, and computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. Strain gauges were attached to the buccal surfaces of both teeth to record ceramic strain during bite force recording for FEA validation. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging was performed, and the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine files were exported to Mimics, 3-Matic (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and Patran (MSC Software, Santa Ana, CA) software to create a patient-specific FEA model. Bite load was applied using contact load applied by antagonist teeth (155 N). Mechanical properties were obtained from the literature. Modified von Mises equivalent stress was used for stress evaluation. RESULTS: Stresses on the dentin and fiber post on the left incisor, which had a nonuniform ferrule, were higher compared with the right incisor. The strain values recorded for the right central incisor (strain gauge =79.9 ± 3.8 µS and FEA = 69.5 µS) and the left central incisor (strain gauge = 83.5 ± 5.3 µS and FEA = 73.9 µS) validate the FEA analysis. CONCLUSIONS: FEA was validated with in vivo strain values measured at the buccal crown surfaces, supporting that the stress levels were realistic for investigation of the clinical performance of fiber posts. Maintaining a uniform ferrule was more favorable than a localized higher ferrule.


Assuntos
Análise de Elementos Finitos , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Dente não Vital/terapia , Humanos , Incisivo
14.
Dent Traumatol ; 33(1): 57-63, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Custom-fitted mouthguards are devices used to prevent dental injuries. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the antagonist contact on the stresses and strains of the anterior teeth, shock absorption and displacement of EVA custom-fitted mouthguards during a horizontal impact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Finite element models of human maxillary central incisors with and without a mouthguard for different occlusion conditions (with and without antagonist contact) were created based on tomography. A nonlinear dynamic impact analysis using the single-step Houbolt method was performed in which a rigid object hit the model at 1 m s-1 . Strain and stress were evaluated by means of Von Mises and Critical modified Von Mises criterion and shock absorption during impact were calculated as well as the mouthguard displacement. RESULTS: The model without mouthguard and without antagonist contact showed the highest stress and strain values at the enamel and dentin in the tooth crown on impact compared to the model without mouthguard and with antagonist contact. Mouthguard presence reduced the stress and strain values regardless of the occlusion condition. The mouthguard displacement decreased with the mandibular antagonist contact. CONCLUSIONS: Mouthguards are efficient at decreasing the stress and strain values on the tooth in front of an impact reaching more than 90% of shock absorption. A mouthguard with balanced occlusion and maximum number of contacts with mandibular anterior teeth should be considered because it reduces mouthguard displacement.


Assuntos
Oclusão Dentária , Incisivo , Protetores Bucais , Traumatismos Dentários/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Dentários , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Mecânico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Am J Dent ; 29(6): 333-338, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare flowable and regular paste bulk-fill resin composites with old and new generation conventional composites that use incremental filling techniques for direct restoration of endodontically-treated teeth. METHODS: Four resin composites produced by the same company (3M-ESPE) were used: two conventional resin composites (old formulation, Z100, and new nanofilled formulation, Filtek Supreme XT); and two bulk-fill resin composites (flowable composite, Filtek Bulk-fill Flowable associated with Filtek Supreme, and regular paste, Filtek Bulk-fill Posterior). Elastic modulus (E), Vickers hardness (VH), post-gel shrinkage (Shr), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and compressive strength (CS) were determined (n= 10) and statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Shrinkage stresses were analyzed using non-linear finite element analysis. RESULTS: Filtek Bulk-fill flowable and Filtek Supreme XT had higher CS than Z100 and Filtek Bulk-fill Posterior. Z100 and Filtek Supreme XT had higher DTS than Filtek Bulk-fill Posterior. Filtek Bulk-fill flowable had the lowest values and Z100 the highest E and Shr. Z100 resulted in higher stresses in the enamel and in root dentin close to the pulp chamber than the other filling techniques. Filtek Bulk-fill Flowable resulted in lower stress than other resin composites. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Using bulk-fill composites, especially flowable resin composite, created lower stresses in restored endodontically-treated teeth. Clinicians, when deciding for direct restoration of endodontically-treated teeth, may choose the bulk-fill composite to decrease undesirable effects of direct restoration while simplifying filling procedure.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Dente Molar , Dente não Vital , Força Compressiva , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Dureza , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Dióxido de Silício , Resistência à Tração , Zircônio
16.
Am J Dent ; 29(4): 234-2240, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate temperature rise, separating heat caused by irradiation and exotherm for three composites polymerized with three curing lights. The effect of substrate on temperature measurements was also determined. METHODS: Composite samples (n= 5) (Filtek Supreme Ultra, Filtek LS, and EsthetX HD) were placed on a thermocouple tip inside three substrates (aluminum, Delrin, and tooth). The composites were photoactivated using three curing lights (Elipar 2500 QTH, SmartLite Max LED, DemiUltra LED) at 1 mm distance. Irradiance was 798, 980, and 1,135 mW/cm2, respectively. Exotherm was determined by subtracting post-cure from the polymerization temperature curves. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc tests were used to analyze differences among peak temperatures and exotherms (significance level 0.05). RESULTS: SmartLite LED curing light resulted in higher peak temperatures and exotherms compared to the DemiUltra LED and QTH for all tested composites (16.9-20.4°C vs 12.3-14.7°C vs 8.9-9.7°C). Thus, the LEDs produced higher temperature rises than the QTH, and the LED with lower irradiance caused higher temperature rise than the LED with higher irradiance. The silorane-based Filtek LS generated significantly higher exotherm than the methacrylate-based EsthetX HD and Filtek Supreme Ultra (6.2-7.6°C vs 3.6-4.5°C vs 2.7-3.6°C). Substrate affected temperatures significantly. Temperature profiles found in Delrin substrate were comparable to tooth substrate, while aluminum substrate reduced temperatures 10-20 degrees. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Curing of restorative composites raises the temperature under a restoration due to irradiation and exothermic reaction; how much the temperature increases depends on curing light design, type of composite, and surrounding substrate. The silorane-based Filtek LS generated significantly higher exotherm than the methacrylate-based EsthetX HD and Filtek Supreme Ultra.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Luzes de Cura Dentária , Temperatura Alta , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização
17.
Dent Traumatol ; 32(2): 95-102, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26310199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the tooth stresses and strains, shock absorption, and displacement during impact of custom-fitted mouthguards with different thicknesses. METHODS: Six bar-shaped specimens of the EVA were made and subjected to tensile test for elastic modulus assessment. Two-dimensional plane-strain models of a human maxillary central incisor, periodontal ligament, bone support, soft tissue, and mouthguard (MTG) were created. The mouthguards were modeled in five different thicknesses (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm). One model was created without mouthguard. A nonlinear dynamic impact analysis was performed in which a rigid object hit the model at 1 m s(-1). Strain and stress (von Mises and Critical modified von Mises) distributions were evaluated, and the displacement of the mouthguard with respect to the tooth was calculated. RESULTS: The mean [SD] for the EVA elastic modulus was 18.075 [0.457] MPa. The model without mouthguard showed the highest stress values at the enamel and dentin structures in the tooth crown during the impact. For the MTG models, the location of the stress concentrations changed to the root, regardless of the MTG thickness, but maximum stresses in the enamel and dentin were lower compared with the model without MTG. Increasing the mouthguard thickness did not notably decrease the stress-strain values. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the use of a mouthguard promoted lower stresses and strains in teeth during an impact with a rigid object. There was no substantial difference in peak stresses and strains and in shock absorption among the different mouthguard thicknesses.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Protetores Bucais , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Polivinil , Equipamentos Esportivos , Estresse Mecânico
18.
Dent Traumatol ; 32(1): 4-13, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26139006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Custom-fitted mouthguards are devices used to decrease the likelihood of dental trauma. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental bovine dentoalveolar model with periodontal ligament to evaluate mouthguard shock absorption, and impact strain and stress behavior. METHODS: A pendulum impact device was developed to perform the impact tests with two different impact materials (steel ball and baseball). Five bovine jaws were selected with standard age and dimensions. Six-mm mouthguards were made for the impact tests. The jaws were fixed in a pendulum device and impacts were performed from 90, 60, and 45° angles, with and without mouthguard. Strain gauges were attached at the palatal surface of the impacted tooth. The strain and shock absorption of the mouthguards was calculated and data were analyzed with 3-way anova and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Two-dimensional finite element models were created based on the cross-section of the bovine dentoalveolar model used in the experiment. A nonlinear dynamic impact analysis was performed to evaluate the strain and stress distributions. RESULTS: Without mouthguards, the increase in impact angulation significantly increased strains and stresses. Mouthguards reduced strain and stress values. CONCLUSIONS: Impact velocity, impact object (steel ball or baseball), and mouthguard presence affected the impact stresses and strains in a bovine dentoalveolar model. Experimental strain measurements and finite element models predicted similar behavior; therefore, both methodologies are suitable for evaluating the biomechanical performance of mouthguards.


Assuntos
Modelos Dentários , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Protetores Bucais , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(6): 630-636, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-769563

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porosity of self-adhesive resin on the stress distribution, post retention and failure mode of fiber post cemented to human root dentin. Ten human central upper incisors with circular root canal were selected. They were sectioned with 15 mm and were endodontically filled. The roots were scanned using micro-CT after post space preparation for root filling remaining evaluation. Fiber posts were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X U200, 3M-ESPE). Two 1-mm-thick slices from the cervical, medium and apical thirds were scanned for resin cement bubbles volume measurements and submitted to a push-out test (PBS). Three operators using stereomicroscopy and confocal laser microscopy classified the failure mode. Stress distributions during the push-out test were analyzed using 3D finite element analysis. PBS values (MPa) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests and the failure modes using the Kappa coefficient to assess inter-operator agreement. Chi-square test was used to determine significant differences between the methods ( = 0.05). Push-out bond strength was significantly affected by the bubbles presence in all root depth (p<0.05). The stress concentration was higher when the bubbles were present. Adhesive dentin/resin cement interface failure was the most frequent type of failure. Confocal microscopy was better than stereomicroscopy for failure analysis. Bubbles generated during resin cement insertion into the root canal negatively affect the stress distribution and the bond strength. The use of confocal microscopy is recommended for failure analysis.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da integridade do cimento resinoso autoadesivo, expresso pela presença de bolhas, sobre a distribuição de tensão, resistência adesiva e modo de falha de pinos de fibra cimentados à dentina radicular humana. Dez incisivos centrais superiores humanos com canais radiculares circulares foram selecionados. Os mesmos foram seccionados com 15 mm e tratados endodonticamente. As raízes foram digitalizadas utilizando micro-CT após preparo do pino para avaliação de remanescentes de material obturador. Pinos de fibra foram cimentados utilizando cimento autoadesivo (Rely X U200, 3M-ESPE). Duas fatias de 1 mm de espessura dos terços cervical, médio e apical foram escaneados para mensuração do volume de bolhas no cimento resinoso e submetidos ao teste de push-out. Três operadores classificaram o modo de falha utilizando microscopia confocal à laser e lupa estereoscópica. Distribuição de tensão foi analisada pelo método de elementos finitos 3D. Os valores de resistência adesiva (MPa) foram submetidos ao teste ANOVA em fator único seguido do teste de Tukey. Foi utilizado o coeficiente de Kappa para avaliar a concordância entre operadores. O teste Qui-quadrado foi utilizado para determinar diferenças significativas entre os métodos (α=0,05). A resistência adesiva foi significativamente afetada pela presença de bolhas independentemente da profundidade radicular (p<0,05). A concentração de tensão foi maior na presença de bolhas. Maior frequência de falha adesiva ocorreu na interface cimento/dentina. A microscopia confocal foi melhor do que estereomicroscopia para análise de falhas. A presença de bolhas afetou negativamente a distribuição de tensão e a resistência de união. Recomenda-se uso de microscopia confocal para análise de falhas.


Assuntos
Dentina , Vidro , Porosidade , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Cimentos de Resina , Raiz Dentária , Análise de Elementos Finitos
20.
Clín. int. j. braz. dent ; 11(3): 280-287, jul.-set.2015. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-790483

RESUMO

Protetores bucais são dispositivos utilizados com o objetivo de absorver as tensões geradas pelo impacto e prevenção de traumatismos dentoalveolares durante a prática esportiva. Este artigo apresenta, por meio de associação de evidência científica e relato de caso, uma abordagem crítica dos parâmetros envolvidos na confecção de protetor bucal personalizado em etileno vinil acetato (EVA) e funções durante o uso. A associação de ensaios laboratoriais e computacionais como método de elementos finitos é essencial para o entendimento do comportamento biomecânico dos protetores bucais. O presente estudo apresenta evidência científica sobre a eficiência de protetores bucais personalizados na absorção de choques e prevenção de traumas...


Mouthguards are devices used to absorb stresses generated by the impact and to prevent dental trauma during sport practice. This article presents the association of scientific evidence and a case report on critical parameters for the fabrication of a Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) custom-fitted mouthguard, and function during its use. The association of laboratory and computational tests such as the finite element method is essential to understand the biomechanical behavior of mouthguards. This study presents scientific evidence that proves the efficiency of EVA custom-fitted mouthguards os shock absorption and prevention of dental trauma...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Estética Dentária , Protetores Bucais , Esportes , Avulsão Dentária , Traumatismos Dentários
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