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J Insect Physiol ; 106(Pt 3): 163-171, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278714


In the face of global warming, both the absolute thermal tolerance of an ectotherm, and its ability to shift its tolerance level via acclimation, are thought to be fundamentally important. Understanding the links between tolerance and its plasticity is therefore critical to accurately predict vulnerability to warming. Previous studies in a number of ectotherm taxa suggest trade-offs in the evolution of thermal tolerance and its plasticity, something which does not, however, apply to Deronectes diving beetles, where these traits are instead positively correlated. Here we revisit the relationship between thermal tolerance and plasticity in these beetles, paying attention to a recently discovered morphological adaptation supporting under water respiration - setal tracheal gills. Hollow setae on the elytra interconnect with the beetle's tracheal system, providing a gas exchange surface that allows oxygen to be extracted directly from the water. This enables individuals to stay submerged for longer than their subelytral air stores would allow. We show that hypoxia reduced heat tolerance, especially when individuals were denied access to air, forcing them to rely solely on aquatic gas exchange. Species with higher densities of these gas-exchanging setae exhibited improved cold tolerance, but reduced heat tolerance and lower plasticity of heat tolerance. Differences in setal tracheal gill density across species were also related to habitat use: species with low gill density were found mainly in intermittent, warmer rivers, where underwater gas exchange is more problematic and risks of surfacing may be smaller. Moreover, when controlling for differences in gill density we no longer found a significant relationship between heat tolerance and its plasticity, suggesting that the previously reported positive relationship between these variables may be driven by differences in gill density. Differences in environmental conditions between the preferred habitats could simultaneously select for characteristic differences in both thermal tolerance and gill density. Such simultaneous selection may have resulted in a non-causal association between cold tolerance and gill density. For heat tolerance, the correlations with gill density could reflect a causal relationship. Species relying strongly on diffusive oxygen uptake via setal tracheal gills may have a reduced oxygen supply capacity and may be left with fewer options for matching oxygen uptake to oxygen demand during acclimation, which could explain their reduced heat tolerance and limited plasticity. Our study helps shed light on the mechanisms that underpin thermal tolerance and plasticity in diving air-breathing ectotherms, and explores how differences in thermal tolerance across species are linked to their selected habitat, morphological adaptations and evolutionary history.

Besouros/fisiologia , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Animais , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Brânquias/anatomia & histologia
Sci Rep ; 6: 29269, 2016 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435118


The collapse of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks throughout North-Western Europe is generally ascribed to large-scale river regulation, water pollution and over-fishing in the 19(th) and 20(th) century. However, other causes have rarely been quantified, especially those acting before the 19(th) century. By analysing historical fishery, market and tax statistics, independently confirmed by archaeozoological records, we demonstrate that populations declined by up to 90% during the transitional period between the Early Middle Ages (c. 450-900 AD) and Early Modern Times (c. 1600 AD). These dramatic declines coincided with improvements in watermill technology and their geographical expansion across Europe. Our extrapolations suggest that historical Atlantic salmon runs must have once been very abundant indeed. The historical perspective presented here contributes to a better understanding of the primary factors that led to major declines in salmon populations. Such understanding provides an essential basis for the effective ecological rehabilitation of freshwater ecosystems.

Pesqueiros , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Água , Animais , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Geografia
Integr Comp Biol ; 53(4): 609-19, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23604617


Thermal limits in ectotherms may arise through a mismatch between supply and demand of oxygen. At higher temperatures, the ability of their cardiac and ventilatory activities to supply oxygen becomes insufficient to meet their elevated oxygen demand. Consequently, higher levels of oxygen in the environment are predicted to enhance tolerance of heat, whereas reductions in oxygen are expected to reduce thermal limits. Here, we extend previous research on thermal limits and oxygen limitation in aquatic insect larvae and directly test the hypothesis of increased anaerobic metabolism and lower energy status at thermal extremes. We quantified metabolite profiles in stonefly nymphs under varying temperatures and oxygen levels. Under normoxia, the concept of oxygen limitation applies to the insects studied. Shifts in the metabolome of heat-stressed stonefly nymphs clearly indicate the onset of anaerobic metabolism (e.g., accumulation of lactate, acetate, and alanine), a perturbation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., accumulation of succinate and malate), and a decrease in energy status (e.g., ATP), with corresponding decreases in their ability to survive heat stress. These shifts were more pronounced under hypoxic conditions, and negated by hyperoxia, which also improved heat tolerance. Perturbations of metabolic pathways in response to either heat stress or hypoxia were found to be somewhat similar but not identical. Under hypoxia, energy status was greatly compromised at thermal extremes, but energy shortage and anaerobic metabolism could not be conclusively identified as the sole cause underlying thermal limits under hyperoxia. Metabolomics proved useful for suggesting a range of possible mechanisms to explore in future investigations, such as the involvement of leaking membranes or free radicals. In doing so, metabolomics provided a more complete picture of changes in metabolism under hypoxia and heat stress.

Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura , Anaerobiose , Animais , Inglaterra , Larva/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Rios
J Evol Biol ; 25(2): 329-41, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22151892


Surfacing behaviour is fundamental in the ecology of aquatic air-breathing organisms; however, it is only in vertebrates that the evolutionary ecology of diving has been well characterized. Here, we explore the diving behaviour of dytiscid beetles, a key group of surface-exchanging freshwater invertebrates, by comparing the dive responses of 25 taxa (Deronectes and Ilybius spp.) acclimated at two temperatures. The allometric slopes of dive responses in these dytiscids appear similar to those of vertebrate ectotherms, supporting the notion that metabolic mode shapes the evolution of diving performance. In both genera, beetles spend more time submerged than on the surface, and surface time does not vary with the temperature of acclimation. However, presumably in order to meet increased oxygen demand at higher temperatures, Deronectes species increase surfacing frequency, whereas Ilybius species decrease dive time, an example of 'multiple solutions.' Finally, widespread northern species appear to possess higher diving performances than their geographically restricted southern relatives, something which may have contributed to their range expansion ability.

Besouros/fisiologia , Mergulho , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Besouros/metabolismo , Filogenia , Temperatura