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2.
Children (Basel) ; 8(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682128

RESUMO

Human breast milk not only has nutritional properties but also holds a functional role. It contains various bioactive factors (lactoferrin, lysozyme, leukocytes, immunoglobulins, cytokines, hormones, human milk oligosaccharides, microbiome, microRNAs and stem cells) shown to contribute to several short- and long-term health outcomes. Some of these factors appear to be involved in the infant's neuro-cognitive development, anti-oncogenic processes, cellular communication and differentiation. Furthermore, breast milk is increasingly recognized to have dynamic characteristics and to play a fundamental role in the cross-talking mother-neonate. This narrative review aims to provide a summary and an update on these bioactive substances, exploring their functions mainly on immunomodulation, microbiome and virome development. Although the knowledge about breast milk potentiality has significantly improved, leading to discovering unexpected functions, the exact mechanisms with which breast milk exercises its bioactivity have not been completely clarified. This can represent a fertile ground for exploring and understanding the complexity behind these functional elements to develop new therapeutic strategies.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684413

RESUMO

Nutrition in early life is a crucial element to provide all essential substrates for growth. Although this statement may appear obvious, several studies have shown how the intake of micro and macronutrients in toddlers differs a lot from the recommendations of scientific societies. Protein intake often exceeds the recommended amount, while the intake of iron and zinc is frequently insufficient, as well as Vitamin D. Nutritional errors in the first years of life can negatively impact the health of the child in the long term. To date, no clear evidence on which milk is suggested during the second year of life is yet to be established. In this study, we compare the nutrient profiles of cow's milk and specific formulas as well as nutritional risks in toddlers linked to growth and childhood obesity development. The purpose of this review is to resume the latest clinical studies on toddlers fed with cow's milk or young children formula (YCF), and the potential risks or benefits in the short and long term.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684654

RESUMO

The adolescence period is characterized by a considerable risk to weight gain due to the high consumption of food rich in sugar. A promising strategy to reduce sugar consumption may lie in exploiting the ability of our senses to interact to each other (cross-modal interactions). The aims were to investigate the cross-modal interactions and gustatory function in normal-weight and overweight adolescents. Fifty adolescents (25 overweight and 25 normal-weight) were involved. Subjects rated liking and attribute intensity in pudding samples obtained by adding vanilla aroma (0.1%; 0.3%), butter aroma (0.05%; 0.1%) or a thickener agent (1%; 1.5%) to a base formulation. The gustatory function was also measured through the "taste strips" methodology. Overweight adolescents were found to have a significantly (p < 0.001) worse ability to correctly identify all tastes. Cross-modal interactions occurred differently according to their body mass index, with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in sensory desirable characteristics (e.g., sweet and creaminess) due to aroma addition, especially in overweight subjects. Furthermore, butter aroma significantly increased hedonic responses only in overweight subjects. Tricking our senses in the way of perceiving sensory attributes could be a promising strategy to develop innovative food formulations with a reduced sugar amount, which will lead to a potential decrease in caloric intake and help to tackle the obesity epidemic.

5.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 43(2): 1036-1042, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563042

RESUMO

Liang-Wang syndrome (LIWAS) is a polymalformative syndrome first described in 2019 caused by heterozygous mutation of the KCNMA1 gene encoding the Ca2+ and voltage-activated K+ channel (BKC). The KCNMA1 variant p.(Gly356Arg) abolishes the function of BKC and blocks the generation of K+ current. The phenotype of this variant includes developmental delay, and visceral and connective tissue malformations. So far, only three cases of LWAS have been described, one of which also had neonatal diabetes (ND). We present the case of a newborn affected by LIWAS carrying the p.(Gly375Arg) variant who manifested diabetes in the first week of life. The description of our case strongly increases the frequency of ND in LIWAS patients and suggests a role of BK inactivation in human insulin secretion. The knowledge on the role of BKC in insulin secretion is very poor. Analyzing the possible mechanisms that could explain the association of LIWAS with ND, we speculate that BK inactivation might impair insulin secretion through the alteration of ion-dependent membrane activities and mitochondrial functions in ß-cells, as well as the impaired intra-islet vessel reactivity.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578875

RESUMO

(1) Background. Early nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy, breastfeeding, infancy, and early childhood can affect the risk of developing common non-communicable diseases during adulthood such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. To support positive long-term outcomes, it is essential to debunk fake news and provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations. "Nutripedia-Informati per Crescere" is a new tool delivering information and education on appropriate nutrition of mothers and babies during pregnancy and the first years of life. (2) Methods. Nutripedia provides the readers with evidence-based scientific contents in an easy-to-access fashion through a website, a social media page and a personalized advice app called "Nutripedia Chatbot". (3) Results. Forty articles were published on Nutripedia website with more than 220,000 total views. Social channel activation via bloggers reached over 9 million parents. 14,698 users downloaded Nutripedia chatbot, through which a total of 1930 questions were directed to experts while over 24,000 responses were provided by the app. (4) Conclusions. The use of different communication tools delivering evidence-based nutritional information such as Nutripedia is increasing and could offer supportive strategies to provide scientific information to large audiences and contribute fighting fake news. Future research could investigate the effectiveness of this important health campaign.

7.
Front Physiol ; 12: 716520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588993

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) represent a complex system model, in need of a shift of approach exploring the main factors mediating the regulation of the system, internal or external and overcoming the traditional concept of biochemical and genetic defects. In this context, among the established factors influencing the metabolic flux, i.e., diet, lifestyle, antibiotics, xenobiotics, infectious agents, also the individual gut microbiota should be considered. A healthy gut microbiota contributes in maintaining human health by providing unique metabolic functions to the human host. Many patients with IEMs are on special diets, the main treatment for these diseases. Hence, IEMs represent a good model to evaluate how specific dietary patterns, in terms of macronutrients composition and quality of nutrients, can be related to a characteristic microbiota associated with a specific clinical phenotype ("enterophenotype"). In the present review, we aim at reporting the possible links existing between dysbiosis, a condition reported in IEMs patients, and a pro-inflammatory status, through an altered "gut-liver" cross-talk network and a major oxidative stress, with a repercussion on the health status of the patient, increasing the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). On this basis, more attention should be paid to the nutritional status assessment and the clinical and biochemical signs of possible onset of comorbidities, with the goal of improving the long-term wellbeing in IEMs. A balanced intestinal ecosystem has been shown to positively contribute to patient health and its perturbation may influence the clinical spectrum of individuals with IEMs. For this, reaching eubiosis through the improvement of the quality of dietary products and mixtures, the use of pre-, pro- and postbiotics, could represent both a preventive and therapeutic strategy in these complex diseases.

8.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(5): 1101-1112, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465121

RESUMO

Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are critical for infant growth and development, particularly arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). ARA and DHA are components of cell membrane phospholipids and play an important role in cell division, differentiation, and signaling; and DHA is the n-3 fatty acid predominant in the developing brain and retina. During the third trimester of pregnancy, LC-PUFAs increase substantially in fetal circulation, and a "biomagnification" process in the fetal brain is observed. Moreover, LC-PUFAs are precursors of eicosanoids and metabolites, which modulate the intensity and duration of the immune response. LC-PUFA synthesis implies complex desaturation and elongation processes on their principal precursors, linoleic acid (LA) (18:3 n-6) (series n-6) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) (20:3 n-3) (series n-3), where fatty acid desaturases (FADS) and elongases (ELOVL) are competing. It is important to notice that during the first months of life, as a consequence of low enzymatic activity, LC-PUFA synthesis from LA and LNA is reduced, especially in those infants carrying variations in the FADS and ELOVL genes, which are involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, and so they are unable to supply their own DHA and ARA needs. Homozygote infants for FADS haplotype A (97 % of the Latinoamerican population) show low levels of ARA (only 43 %) and DHA (only 24 %) when compared to those carrying haplotype D (more prevalent in Europe, Africa and Asia). Human milk is the only source of LA, LNA, ARA, and DHA for the neonate and infant till complementary feeding (CF) is introduced. Infants fed with infant formulas must receive enough amounts of LA, LNA, ARA, and DHA to cover their nutritional requirements. The new guidelines by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2016) recommend that infant formulas and follow-on formulas must contain 20-50 mg of DHA/100 kcal (0.5-1 % of total fatty acids, which is higher than in human milk and the majority of infant formulas in the market), and it is not necessary to add ARA. This new regulation, which is already applicable since February 2020, has resulted in profound controversy because there is no scientific evidence about its appropriateness and safety for healthy children. Then, different international expert groups have revised the research already published about the effects of ARA and DHA addition to infant formulas, and discussed different emerging questions from this European directive. The expert group led from the University of Granada (Spain) recommends the addition of ARA in similar or higher concentrations than those of DHA, at least equal to those present in human milk (0.3 % of total fatty acids), although preferably 0.5 % and up to around 0.64 % of total fatty acids, since new studies confirm the optimal intake of ARA and DHA during the different developmental stages. This recommendation could be of particular importance for infants carrying the haplotype A of FADS.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444964

RESUMO

Obesity is defined as a condition characterized by an excessive fat accumulation that has negative health consequences. Pediatric obesity is associated with an increased risk for many diseases, including impaired glycemic and lipidic control that may lead to the development of chronic, and potentially disabling, pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular events, in adult life. The therapeutic strategy initially starts with interventions that are aimed at changing lifestyle and eating behavior, to prevent, manage, and potentially reverse metabolic disorders. Recently, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been proposed as a promising dietary intervention for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors related to obesity in adults, and a possible beneficial role has also been proposed in children. KD is very low in carbohydrate, high in fat, and moderate to high in protein that may have the potential to promote weight loss and improve lipidic derangement, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. In this review, we present metabolic disorders on glycemic and lipidic control in children and adolescents with obesity and indication of KD in pediatrics, discussing the role of KD as a therapeutic tool for metabolic derangement. The results of this review may suggest the validity of KD and the need to further research its potential to address metabolic risk factors in pediatric obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444922

RESUMO

An allergy to cow's milk requires the avoidance of cow's milk proteins and, in some infants, the use of a hypoallergenic formula. This review aims to summarize the current evidence concerning different types of hydrolysed formulas (HF), and recommendations for the treatment of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and functional gastrointestinal disorders in infancy, for which some dietary intervention and HF may be of benefit to both immune and motor mechanisms. Current guidelines recommend cow's milk protein (i.e., whey or casein) extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) as the first choice for cow's milk allergy treatment, and amino acid formulas for more severe cases or those with reactions to eHF. Rice hydrolysed formulas (rHF) have also become available in recent years. Both eHF and rHF are well tolerated by the majority of children allergic to cow's milk, with no concerns regarding body growth or adverse effects. Some hydrolysates may have a pro-active effect in modulating the immune system due to the presence of small peptides and additional components, like biotics. Despite encouraging results on tolerance acquisition, evidence is still not conclusive, thus hampering our ability to draw firm conclusions. In clinical practice, the choice of hypoallergenic formula should be based on the infant's age, the severity, frequency and persistence of symptoms, immune phenotype, growth pattern, formula cost, and in vivo proof of tolerance and efficacy.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/dietoterapia , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Oryza
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371910

RESUMO

The management of patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is constantly evolving. In just a few decades, the medical approach has switched from an exclusively palliative therapy to a targeted therapy, transforming the natural history of the disease, improving survival time and quality of life and creating new challenges and goals. Many nutritional problems, gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic and endocrine alterations are commonly identified in patients affected by SMA1 during childhood and adolescence. For this reason, a proper pediatric multidisciplinary approach is then required in the clinical care of these patients, with a specific focus on the prevention of most common complications. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the clinician with a practical and usable tool about SMA1 patients care, through a comprehensive insight into the nutritional, gastroenterological, metabolic and endocrine management of SMA1. Considering the possible horizons opened thanks to new therapeutic frontiers, a nutritional and endo-metabolic surveillance is a crucial element to be considered for a proper clinical care of these patients.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Metabolismo Energético , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Estado Nutricional , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/terapia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nutrição Enteral , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactente , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/metabolismo , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371920

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals, including vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, lactoferrin, polyphenols coenzyme Q, magnesium, and selenium, are implicated in the modulation of the complex molecular pathways involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. A common element of the activity of nutraceuticals is their ability to enhance the innate immune response against pathogens by acting on the major cellular subsets and inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In some cases, this action is accompanied by a direct antimicrobial effect, as evidenced in the specific case of lactoferrin. Furthermore, nutraceuticals act through complex molecular mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by the activation of the immune system against pathogens, reducing the oxidative damage, influencing the antigen presentation, enhancing the differentiation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, driving the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets, and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we review the main molecular mechanisms responsible for the immunomodulatory function of nutraceuticals, focusing on the most relevant aspects for the prevention and treatment of viral infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(7): 4606-4614, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: it has previously been described that dietary patterns established early in life tracked to late childhood. The aim of the present work was to analyse the association of dietary patterns that tracked from 2 to 8y with cardiometabolic markers at 8y of age. METHODS: The 3 identified patterns at 2y (that previous analyses showed to track to age 8y) were: "CoreDP", loaded for vegetables, fruits, fish, olive oil, etc.; "F&SDP", loaded by poor-quality fats and sugars; and "ProteinDP", mainly loaded by animal protein sources. Cardiometabolic markers at 8y were systolic blood pressure (SBP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides, and BMI z-score. To examine whether the association of diet with the outcomes was the result of a direct effect of diet at either two or 8y, or synergy between them, we used structural equation models. RESULTS: the associations between the patterns and the health outcomes were: CoreDP was inversely associated with SBP and HOMA-IR; ProteinDP was directly associated with HOMA-IR and SBP; and adherence to F&SDP was directly associated with triglycerides and SBP. The associations between the patterns and the health outcomes were independent of BMI and were the result of a direct effect of diet at 2y, an indirect effect of diet at 2y through diet at 8y or a combination between both pathways. CONCLUSION: dietary patterns acquired in early life, persisting to later childhood, were associated with cardiometabolic markers at school age independently of BMI.

14.
Children (Basel) ; 8(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073195

RESUMO

New indexes of adiposity have been introduced to evaluate body-fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk. However, data on the correlation between Insulin Resistance (IR) and these new indexes are limited. We therefore evaluated the relationship between IR and adiposity indexes in children and adolescents with obesity, focusing on gender differences. We retrospectively enrolled 586 patients with obesity (10.80 ± 2.63; 306F/279M). As adiposity indexes we considered body mass index (BMI), BMI-z score, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), a body shape index (ABSI), triponderal mass index (TMI), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and conicity index (ConI). The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA of percentage ß-cell function (HOMA-ß), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and triglyceride and glucose index (TyG-index) were measured and recorded as IR surrogates. In both sexes, WC and VAI significantly correlated with all IR measurements (p < 0.001). BMI significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with all IR parameters except for the TyG-index in females. Fat mass and TMI correlated with IR parameters only in females, BMI-z score with IR markers except for HOMA-ß in males, WHtR with HOMA-ß in both sexes (p < 0.05), free fat mass with HOMA-IR and QUICKI only in females (p < 0.01), ConI correlated with the TyG index in females (p = 0.01). Tryglicerides and SBP were correlated with all IR measurements (p < 0.001), in both sexes. Correlations between different sex parameters were significantly more evident in middle puberty. The relationship between IR surrogates and obesity indexes is influenced by gender in pediatrics. Sex-specific differences in obesity-related complications should be considered in preventive intervention decision-making.

15.
Children (Basel) ; 8(6)2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072065

RESUMO

Pediatric obesity is a multifaceted disease that can impact physical and mental health. It is a complex condition that interweaves biological, developmental, environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. In most cases lifestyle and behavioral modification as well as medical treatment led to poor short-term weight reduction and long-term failure. Thus, bariatric surgery should be considered in adolescents with moderate to severe obesity who have previously participated in lifestyle interventions with unsuccessful outcomes. In particular, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is considered the most commonly performed bariatric surgery worldwide. The procedure is safe and feasible. The efficacy of this weight loss surgical procedure has been demonstrated in pediatric age. Nevertheless, there are barriers at the patient, provider, and health system levels, to be removed. First and foremost, more efforts must be made to prevent decline in nutritional status that is frequent after bariatric surgery, and to avoid inadequate weight loss and weight regain, ensuring successful long-term treatment and allowing healthy growth. In this narrative review, we considered the rationale behind surgical treatment options, outcomes, and clinical indications in adolescents with severe obesity, focusing on LSG, nutritional management, and resolution of metabolic comorbidities.

16.
Life (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Creatine (Cr) levels are strongly dependent on diets, including animal-derived proteins. Cr is an important metabolite as it represents a source of stored energy to support physical performance and potentially sustain positive effects such as improving memory or intelligence. This study was planned to assess Cr levels in PKU children adhering to a diet low in phenylalanine (Phe) content and compared with those of children with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) on a free diet. METHODS: This retrospective pilot study analyzed Cr levels from Guthrie cards in 25 PKU and 35 MHP subjects. Anthropomorphic and nutritional data of the study populations were assessed, compared and correlated. RESULTS: Cr levels of PKU subjects were significantly lower than those of MHP subjects and correlated to the low intake of animal proteins. Although no deficiencies in PKU subjects were identified, PKU subjects were found to have a 26-fold higher risk of displaying Cr levels <25° percentile than MHP counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that Cr levels might be concerningly low in PKU children adhering to a low-Phe diet. Confirmatory studies are needed in PKU patients of different age groups to assess Cr levels and the potential benefits on physical and intellectual performance of Cr supplementation.

17.
Children (Basel) ; 8(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067965

RESUMO

An interaction between metabolic glucose impairment and coronavirus disease 2019 is reported. The development of a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described. We evaluated the impact of MIS-C on glycemic patterns in pediatric patients. A group of 30 children and adolescents affected by MIS-C were considered; all patients were normal weight. Clinical and biochemical assessments, including surrogate markers of insulin resistance (IR) such as homeostasis model analysis-IR (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) indexes, were recorded. Patients were also invited to undergo an intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM). HOMA-IR index was calculated in 18 patients (60%), of which 17 (94%) revealed a pathological value. TyG index was computed for all patients and pathological values were detected in all cases. In 15 patients, isCGM data were recorded on average for 9 days (±3 days). Overall, average glucose was 105 mg/dL (±16 mg/dL) and average time spent in the 70-180 mg/dL range (TIR) was 93.76%, with nearly 10% of glucose readings in the 141-180 mg/dL range; glycemic fluctuations over the hyperglycemic threshold were detected in four patients. Regular glucose monitoring may be useful to prevent metabolic imbalance and obtain a better outcome.

18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071499

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in young reproductive-aged women. PCOS is often associated with obesity and impairs reproductive health. Even though several theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenic mechanism of PCOS, the role of insulin resistance (IR) as a key etiological component, independently of (but amplified by) obesity, is well recognized. The consequent hyperinsulinemia activates excessive ovarian androgen production, leading to PCOS. Additionally, the state of chronic inflammation related to obesity impacts ovarian physiology due to insulin sensitivity impairment. The first-line treatment for adolescents with obesity and PCOS includes lifestyle changes; personalized dietary interventions; and, when needed, weight loss. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and the use of specific food supplements in these patients aim at improving symptoms and signs, including insulin resistance and metabolic and reproductive functions. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss PCOS in adolescents with obesity, its relationship with IR and the role of MNT and food supplements in treatment. Appropriate early dietary intervention for the management of adolescents with obesity and PCOS should be considered as the recommended approach to restore ovulation and to protect fertility.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/dietoterapia
19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(3): 293-298, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872290

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Immune maturation and response to inflammation depend on good nutritional status. Protein and amino acid deficiencies can compromise innate and adaptive immune functions, particularly following injury or during illness. Dietary omega-3 long-chain fatty acids, prebiotics and micronutrients are beneficial to the immune system. A complex interplay exists between diet, microbiome, and epigenetic factors. The effect of single nutrients on immune function may hence be difficult to study. Well-designed intervention studies, investigating the effects of whole dietary pattern on the immune system, are needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Criança , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunomodulação , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923364

RESUMO

Pediatric obesity remains a challenge in modern society. Recently, research has focused on the role of the brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a potential target of intervention. In this review, we revised preclinical and clinical works on factors that may promote BAT or browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) from fetal age to adolescence. Maternal lifestyle, type of breastfeeding and healthy microbiota can affect the thermogenic activity of BAT. Environmental factors such as exposure to cold or physical activity also play a role in promoting and activating BAT. Most of the evidence is preclinical, although in clinic there is some evidence on the role of omega-3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) supplementation on BAT activation. Clinical studies are needed to dissect the early factors and their modulation to allow proper BAT development and functions and to prevent onset of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis , Camundongos , Prebióticos , Probióticos
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