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2.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Characterize the state of vestibular compensation of subjects diagnosed with acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) of peripheral origin according to the temporal organization pattern of the refixation saccades (Perez and Rey (PR) score). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study using previously collected clinical data from a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Following the vestibular compensation criteria defined by Eisenman, we used the video head impulse test as the main vestibular function test and compared the results with other traditional tests: rotatory chair test (ROT), caloric test, videonystagmography, clinical situation (CLIN), and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) questionnaire from 28 subjects (17 men, 11 women), average age 60.21 years, who were in a compensated and noncompensated vestibular situation. We used the PR score to measure the differences between the study groups. A cluster was developed to define a cutoff point that objectively distinguishes the vestibular compensation status. RESULTS: Significant differences in the PR score were found in the state of vestibular compensation in the ROT test (P = .01), DHI (P = .04), and CLIN (P = .023). The vestibular compensation criteria that groups the original variables (PR-CLUSTER) cutoff point was 55 (P = .019). CONCLUSIONS: The PR score is a measure of temporal organization of the refixation saccades that enables us to distinguish clearly and objectively the vestibular situation of subjects with AUV. We suggest its clinical application. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2020.

3.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(3): 825-838, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090019

RESUMO

Plants colonised by dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi show increased uptake of nutrients available in the environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of DSE fungi on the activity of proton pumps, nitrogen (N) recovery from ammonium sulphate, and nutrient accumulation in rice plants. Treatments consisted of non-inoculated plants and plants inoculated with two isolates of DSE fungi, A101 and A103. To determine N recovery from the soil, ammonium sulphate enriched with 15N was added to a non-sterile substrate while parameters associated with the activity of proton pumps and with NO3- uptake were determined in a sterile environment. The A101 and A103 fungal isolates colonised the roots of rice plants, promoting 15N uptake, growth, and accumulation of nutrients as compared with the mock control. A103 induced the expression of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM H+-ATPase) isoforms OsA5 and OsA8, the activity of the PM H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase. Our results suggest that the inoculation of rice plants with DSE fungi represents a strategy to improve the N recovery from ammonium sulphate and rice plant growth through the induction of OsA5 and OsA8 isoforms and stimulation of the PM H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio/metabolismo , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Bombas de Próton/genética
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 613, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780402

RESUMO

An understanding of the interaction between rice and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, under green fertilization, may lead to sustainable agricultural practices. Nevertheless, this interaction is still poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the accumulation of macro- and micronutrients, dry matter, and protein and N recovery efficiency from Canavalia ensiformis (L.)-15N in rice inoculated with DSE fungi. An experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted in a randomized complete block design comprising split-plots, with five replicates of rice plants potted in non-sterilized soil. Rice (Piauí variety) seedlings were inoculated with DSE fungi, A101 and A103, or left uninoculated (control) and transplanted into pots containing 12 kg of soil, which had previously been supplemented with dry, finely ground shoot biomass of C. ensiformis enriched with 2.15 atom % 15N. Two collections were performed in the experiment: one at 54 days after transplanting (DAT) and one at 130 DAT (at maturation). Growth indicators (at 54 DAT), grain yield, nutrient content, recovery efficiency, and the amount of N derived from C. ensiformis were quantified. At 54 DAT, the N content, chlorophyll content, and plant height of inoculated plants had increased significantly compared with the control, and these plants were more proficient in the use of N derived from C. ensiformis. At maturation, plants inoculated with A103 were distinguished by the recovery efficiency and amount of N derived from C. ensiformis and N content in the grain and shoot being equal to that in A101 inoculation and higher than that in the control, resulting in a higher accumulation of crude protein and dry matter in the full grain and panicle of DSE-rice interaction. In addition, Fe and Ni contents in the grains of rice inoculated with these fungi doubled with respect to the control, and in A103 inoculation, we observed Mn accumulation that was three times higher than in the other treatments. Our results suggest that the inoculation of rice with DSE fungi represents a strategy to improve green manure-N recovery, grain yield per plant, and grain quality in terms of micronutrients contents in cropping systems with a low N input.

5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889191

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Biomassa , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Potássio/metabolismo
6.
Braz J Microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888828

RESUMO

The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Biomassa , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Potássio/metabolismo
7.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 21(4): 351-355, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In assisted reproduction procedures, we need to develop and enhance new protocols to optimize sperm selection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the Z potential technique to select sperm with intact DNA in non-normospermic patients and evaluate the impact of this selection on embryonic development. METHODS: We analyzed a total of 174 human seminal samples with at least one altered parameter. We measured basal, post density gradients, and post density gradients + Z potential DNA fragmentation index. To evaluate the impact of this technique on embryo development, 54 cases were selected. The embryo development parameters evaluated were fertilization rate, cleavage rate, top quality embryos at the third day and blastocysts rate. RESULTS: We found significant differences in the study groups when we compared the sperm fragmentation index by adding the Z potential technique to density gradient selection vs. density gradients alone. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the embryo development parameters between the low sperm fragmentation index group vs. the moderate and high sperm fragmentation index groups, when selecting sperms with this new technique. CONCLUSIONS: The Z potential technique is a very useful tool for sperm selection; it significantly reduces the DNA fragmentation index and improves the parameters of embryo development. This technique could be considered routine for its simplicity and low cost.


Assuntos
Fragmentação do DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
8.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(3): 384-387, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-898672

RESUMO

Abstract Pastaza is the largest and least populated province in Ecuador, with seven native indigenous nationalities. The Kichwas from the Rio Chico community live near to the capital city Puyo, are recognized for their knowledge on stingless honey bees. From the 400 species of Neotropical Meliponini that make honey in cerumen pots, almost 100 thrive in Southern Ecuador, and confer such biodiversity to pot-honey. In this study sensory characteristics of Ecuadorian false and genuine honeys with diverse entomological origin: Apis mellifera - light amber and amber, Geotrigona leucogastra, Melipona grandis and Scaptotrigona sp. (S. ederi np Schwarz) were investigated with Kichwa assessors (four female and four male, aged 18-62 years old). The panel was asked to taste and to identify sensory attributes of honey (appearance, taste, smell, aroma, mouthfeel, other tactile sensations), and to score their intensities in 10 cm unstructured line scales anchored with the words weak and strong, using the Free-Choice Profile methodology The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was used on the data. The first and second dimensions accounted for by 61.1% of the variance. In the descriptive sensory evaluation, darker honeys (amber A. mellifera, false and Geotrigona) were separated from (light amber A. mellifera, Melipona and Scaptotrigona) by the first dimension; whereas thicker honeys (A. mellifera and false) were discriminated from thinner honeys (Geotrigona, Melipona and Scaptotrigona) by the second dimension. The assessors were able to evaluate and differentiate honey types without previous sensory training. Remarkably, two Kichwa ladies immediately spit out the false honey, in contrast to an acceptance study on 18-honeys, where the false honey was scored among the preferred ones by 58 participants of the First Congress on Apiculture and Meliponiculture in Ecuador. Therefore, results suggest that Ecuadorian native Kichwas keep a sensory legacy of ancestral knowledge with forest products such as honey.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 2437, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312163

RESUMO

Dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi are facultative biotrophs that associate with hundreds of plant species, contributing to their growth. These fungi may therefore aid in the search for sustainable agricultural practices. However, several ecological functions of DSE fungi need further clarification. The present study investigated the effects of DSE fungi inoculation on nutrient recovery efficiency, nutrient accumulation, and growth of tomato plants fertilized with organic and inorganic N sources. Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design, with five replicates of tomato seedlings grown in pots filled with non-sterile sandy soil. Tomato seedlings (cv. Santa Clara I-5300) inoculated with DSE fungi (isolates A101, A104, and A105) and without DSE fungi (control) were transplanted to pots filled with 12 kg of soil which had previously received finely ground plant material [Canavalia ensiformis (L.)] that was shoot enriched with 0.7 atom % 15N (organic N source experiment) or ammonium sulfate-15N enriched with 1 atom % 15N (mineral N source experiment). Growth indicators, nutrient content, amount of nitrogen (N) in the plant derived from ammonium sulfate-15N or C. ensiformis-15N, and recovery efficiency of 15N, P, and K by plants were quantified 50 days after transplanting. The treatment inoculated with DSE fungi and supplied with an organic N source showed significantly higher recovery efficiency of 15N, P, and K. In addition, the 15N, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn content, plant height, leaf number, leaf area (only for the A104 inoculation), and shoot dry matter increased. In contrast, the only positive effects observed in the presence of an inorganic N source were fertilizer-K recovery efficiency, content of K, and leaf area when inoculated with the fungus A104. Inoculation with A101, A104, and A105 promoted the growth of tomato using organic N source (finely ground C. ensiformis-15N plant material).

10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(4): 250-254, ago. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-796810

RESUMO

Introducción: Con mayor aporte de proteínas y energía en la primera semana se ha observado hipofosfemia en prematuros extremos. Los menores niveles de fósforo se han presentado en prematuros con antecedentes de restricción de crecimiento intrauterino. Objetivos: Caracterizar los niveles plasmáticos bioquímicos en el cordón de prematuros extremos, nacidos adecuados (AEG) y pequeños para edad gestacional (PEG) y la relación con calcemia y fosfemia en la primera semana de vida. Pacientes y método: Estudio clínico realizado en Neonatología del Hospital Doctor Sótero del Río, en los años 2013 y 2014. Se analiza el perfil bioquímico en el cordón y la calcemia y fosfemia en los primeros 7 días de vida, registrados en la ficha clínica según fueran AEG o PEG, según las curvas de Alarcón-Pittaluga. Análisis con significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: Los niveles de colesterol, transaminasas, albúmina y creatinina fueron similares para los PEG y AEG. Los niveles de pH, fósforo, calcio, y fosfatasas alcalinas fueron menores en los PEG. El nitrógeno ureico, el ácido úrico y los triglicéridos fueron mayores en los PEG. Los PEG muestran marcada reducción de fosfemia en la primera semana, la calcemia tiende a subir proporcionalmente al descenso de la fosfemia. Conclusiones: En prematuros extremos la desnutrición intrauterina se expresa en modificación de los niveles plasmáticos de calcio, fósforo, fosfatasas alcalinas, nitrógeno ureico, ácido úrico y triglicéridos. Posnatalmente, al recibir aporte nutricional, se manifiesta una disminución de la fosfemia y un aumento de calcemia, concordante con aportes insuficientes de fósforo durante el período.


Introduction: The use of greater amounts of protein and energy during the first week of life is associated with hypophosphataemia in extreme preterm babies. The lowest phosphorus levels are described in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies. Objectives: To describe biochemistry levels in cord blood plasma in extreme premature, adequate and small for gestational age babies (AGA/SGA) and their relationship with plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week of life. Patients and method: A descriptive clinical study was performed in the Neonatology Service at Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río during 2013 and 2014. A biochemical analysis of cord blood was performed on 43 premature babies, as well as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week. The adequacy for gestational age was obtained using Alarcón- Pittaluga growth curves. Statistical significance was P < .05. Results: Cholesterol, transaminases, albumin and creatinine levels were similar for both AGA and SGA babies. Levels of pH, phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in SGA babies. Urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides levels were higher in SGA. The analysis during the first week showed a strong reduction in phosphorus levels, as well as an increase in calcium levels in proportion to the decrease in phosphorus in the SGA sub- group. Conclusions: Intrauterine malnutrition in preterm babies is expressed in the modulation of plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides. During post-natal life, when nutritional intake begins, a decrease in phosphorus and an increase in calcium levels appear, consistent with insufficient phosphorus intake during this period.

11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 33-44, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843258

RESUMO

AbstractEcologists have been largely interested in the description and understanding of the power scaling relationships between body size and abundance of organisms. Many studies have focused on estimating the exponents of these functions across taxonomic groups and spatial scales, to draw inferences about the processes underlying this pattern. The exponents of these functions usually approximate -3/4 at geographical scales, but they deviate from this value when smaller spatial extensions are considered. This has led to propose that body size-abundance relationships at small spatial scales may reflect the impact of environmental changes. This study tests this hypothesis by examining body size spectra of benthic shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) and snails (Gastropoda) in the Tamiahua lagoon, a brackish body water located in the Eastern coast of Mexico. We measured water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, water temperature, sediment organic matter and chemical oxygen demand) and sampled benthic macrofauna during three different climatic conditions of the year (cold, dry and rainy season). Given the small size of most individuals in the benthic macrofaunal samples, we used body volume, instead of weight, to estimate their body size. Body size-abundance relationships of both taxonomic groups were described by tabulating data from each season into base-2 logarithmic body size bins. In both taxonomic groups, observed frequencies per body size class in each season were standardized to yield densities (i.e., individuals/m3). Nonlinear regression analyses were separately performed for each taxonomic group at each season to assess whether body size spectra followed power scaling functions. Additionally, for each taxonomic group, multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether these relationships varied among seasons. Our results indicated that, while body size-abundance relationships in both taxonomic groups followed power functions, the parameters defining the shape of these relationships varied among seasons. These variations in the parameters of the body size-abundance relationships seems to be related to changes in the abundance of individuals within the different body size classes, which seems to follow the seasonal changes that occur in the environmental conditions of the lagoon. Thus, we propose that these body size-abundance relationships are influenced by the frequency and intensity of environmental changes affecting this ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (1): 33-44. Epub 2016 March 01.


ResumenLos ecólogos han estado muy interesados en describir y comprender las relaciones escalares de potencia entre el tamaño corporal y la abundancia de los organismos. Muchos estudios se han centrado en la estimación de los exponentes de estas funciones a través de grupos taxonómicos y escalas espaciales, para sacar conclusiones acerca de los procesos que subyacen a este patrón. Los exponentes de estas funciones generalmente se aproximan -3/4 a escalas geográficas, pero se apartan de este valor cuando se consideran extensiones espaciales más pequeñas. Esto ha llevado a proponer que las relaciones tamaño corporal-abundancia en pequeñas escalas espaciales puede reflejar el impacto de cambios ambientales. Este estudio pone a prueba esta hipótesis mediante el examen de los espectros de tamaño corporal de camarones bentónicos (Decapoda: Caridea) y caracoles (Gastropoda) en la laguna de Tamiahua, un cuerpo de agua salobre situado en la costa oriental de México. Medimos parámetros de calidad del agua (oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, pH, temperatura del agua, materia orgánica en los sedimentos y demanda química de oxígeno) y muestreamos la macrofauna bentónica en tres momentos del año que difieren en sus condiciones climáticas (estaciones fría, seca y de lluvias). Dado el pequeño tamaño de la mayoría de los individuos en las muestras de macrofauna bentónica, se utilizó el volumen del cuerpo, en lugar de peso, para estimar su tamaño corporal. Las relaciones tamaño corporalabundancia de ambos grupos taxonómicos fueron descritas ordenando los datos de cada estación en clases de tamaño corporal cuya amplitud estaba establecida por una escala logarítmica de base 2. En ambos grupos taxonómicos, las frecuencias observadas por clase de tamaño corporal en cada estación se estandarizaron a densidades de captura (es decir, individuos/m3). Análisis de regresión no-lineal se realizaron separadamente para cada grupo taxonómico en cada estación del año para evaluar si los espectros de tamaño corporal seguían funciones escalares de potencia. Además, para cada grupo taxonómico, se utilizaron análisis de regresión múltiple para determinar si estas relaciones variaban entre estaciones. Nuestros resultados indicaron que, mientras las relaciones tamaño corporal-abundancia en ambos grupos taxonómicos siguieron funciones potenciales, los parámetros que definen la forma de estas relaciones variaron entre estaciones. Estas variaciones en los parámetros de las relaciones tamaño corporal-abundancia parecen estar relacionadas con cambios en la abundancia de los individuos dentro de las diferentes clases de tamaño corporal, que parece seguir los cambios estacionales que se producen en las condiciones ambientales de la laguna. Por lo tanto, proponemos que estas relaciones tamaño corporalabundancia se ven influidas por la frecuencia e intensidad de los cambios ambientales que afectan este ecosistema.

12.
Rev Biol Trop ; 64(1): 33-44, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861990

RESUMO

Ecologists have been largely interested in the description and understanding of the power scaling relationships between body size and abundance of organisms. Many studies have focused on estimating the exponents of these functions across taxonomic groups and spatial scales, to draw inferences about the processes underlying this pattern. The exponents of these functions usually approximate -3/4 at geographical scales, but they deviate from this value when smaller spatial extensions are considered. This has led to propose that body size-abundance relationships at small spatial scales may reflect the impact of environmental changes. This study tests this hypothesis by examining body size spectra of benthic shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) and snails (Gastropoda) in the Tamiahua lagoon, a brackish body water located in the Eastern coast of Mexico. We mea- sured water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, water temperature, sediment organic matter and chemical oxygen demand) and sampled benthic macrofauna during three different climatic conditions of the year (cold, dry and rainy season). Given the small size of most individuals in the benthic macrofaunal samples, we used body volume, instead of weight, to estimate their body size. Body size-abundance relationships of both taxonomic groups were described by tabulating data from each season into base-2 logarithmic body size bins. In both taxonomic groups, observed frequencies per body size class in each season were standardized to yield densities (i.e., individuals/m(3)). Nonlinear regression analyses were separately performed for each taxonomic group at each season to assess whether body size spectra followed power scaling functions. Additionally, for each taxonomic group, multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether these relationships varied among seasons. Our results indicated that, while body size-abundance relationships in both taxonomic groups followed power functions, the parameters defining the shape of these relationships varied among seasons. These variations in the parameters of the body size-abundance relationships seems to be related to changes in the abundance of individuals within the different body size classes, which seems to follow the seasonal changes that occur in the environmental conditions of the lagoon. Thus, we propose that these body size-abundance relation- ships are influenced by the frequency and intensity of environmental changes affecting this ecosystem.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Palaemonidae/anatomia & histologia , Palaemonidae/classificação , Caramujos/anatomia & histologia , Caramujos/classificação , Qualidade da Água , Animais , México , Estações do Ano
13.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 133: 73-82, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26678506

RESUMO

Bumblebees are highly valued for their pollination services in natural ecosystems as well as for agricultural crops. These precious pollinators are known to be declining worldwide, and one major factor contributing to this decline are infections by parasites. Knowledge about parasites in wild bumblebee populations is thus of paramount importance for conservation purposes. We here report the geographical distribution of Crithidia and Nosema, two common parasites of bumblebees, in a yet poorly investigated country: Mexico. Based on sequence divergence of the Cytochrome b and Glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate deshydrogenase (gGPDAH) genes, we discovered the presence of a new Crithidia species, which is mainly distributed in the southern half of the country. It is placed by Bayesian inference as a sister species to C. bombi. We suggest the name Crithidia mexicana for this newly discovered organism. A population of C. expoeki was encountered concentrated on the flanks of the dormant volcanic mountain, Iztaccihuatl, and microsatellite data showed evidence of a bottleneck in this population. This study is the first to provide a large-scale insight into the health status of endemic bumblebees in Mexico, based on a large sample size (n=3,285 bees examined) over a variety of host species and habitats.


Assuntos
Abelhas/parasitologia , Crithidia/fisiologia , Nosema/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crithidia/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , México , Repetições de Microssatélites , Nosema/genética , Filogenia , Densidade Demográfica
14.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 87(4): 250-4, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26712652

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of greater amounts of protein and energy during the first week of life is associated with hypophosphataemia in extreme preterm babies. The lowest phosphorus levels are described in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies. OBJECTIVES: To describe biochemistry levels in cord blood plasma in extreme premature, adequate and small for gestational age babies (AGA/SGA) and their relationship with plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week of life. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A descriptive clinical study was performed in the Neonatology Service at Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río during 2013 and 2014. A biochemical analysis of cord blood was performed on 43 premature babies, as well as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week. The adequacy for gestational age was obtained using Alarcón- Pittaluga growth curves. Statistical significance was P<.05. RESULTS: Cholesterol, transaminases, albumin and creatinine levels were similar for both AGA and SGA babies. Levels of pH, phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in SGA babies. Urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides levels were higher in SGA. The analysis during the first week showed a strong reduction in phosphorus levels, as well as an increase in calcium levels in proportion to the decrease in phosphorus in the SGA sub- group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrauterine malnutrition in preterm babies is expressed in the modulation of plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides. During post-natal life, when nutritional intake begins, a decrease in phosphorus and an increase in calcium levels appear, consistent with insufficient phosphorus intake during this period.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Hipofosfatemia/epidemiologia , Fósforo/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(1): 146-51, 2016 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26621730

RESUMO

Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25-50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/fisiologia , Polinização , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/fisiologia
16.
Univ. med ; 57(4): 450-466, oct. - dic. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1007161

RESUMO

Introducción: En el 2010, la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali (PUJ Cali) ofertó por primera vez la carrera de Medicina. Debido a que el programa académico es relativamente nuevo y ofrece un plan de estudios innovador, basado en un currículo por competencias que integra las ciencias básicas, las clínicas médicas y la salud pública, es necesario verificar que el perfil de ingreso propuesto de los neojaverianos se adapte a las exigencias académicas, científicas y humanas requerida en la formación de los médicos javerianos. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los estudiantes del programa de medicina de la PUJ Cali, a partir de aspectos sociodemográficos. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal que caracterizó a los estudiantes de Medicina de la PUJ Cali. De los 423 estudiantes matriculados en el primer periodo (enero-junio) de 2013, 299 diligenciaron una encuesta diseñada en el software Cardiff TELEform® versión 10.0. Resultados: De los 299 estudiantes que diligenciaron la encuesta, el 64,3 % son mujeres y el 35,7 % son hombres; el 90,9 % son mayores de 18 años; el 59 % nacieron en la ciudad de Cali. La vivienda se distribuye en el 69,9 % en los estratos 4, 5 y 6. Conclusión: La muestra estudiada corresponde a una población homogénea donde un poco más de la mitad de los estudiantes nacieron y residen en la ciudad de Cali. Asimismo, los estratos socioeconómicos predominantes son el 4, 5 y 6, teniendo en cuenta que una cantidad considerable de estudiantes desconocen el estrato donde residen.


In 2010 the Pontificia Universi - dad Javeriana Cali (PUJ Cali) offered for the first time the program of medicine. Due to that the academic program is relatively new and it offers an innovative study plan based on the curriculum by competencies that integrates the basic scien- ces, the medical clinics and the public health. It becomes necessary to verify that the admission profile proposed for the new students adapts to the academic, scientific and humanistic require - ments for the formation of Xaverian physicians. Objective: To characterize the students from the program of medicine belonging to the PUJ Cali based on the socio-demographic aspects. Mate- rials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study that characterized medical students from PUJ Cali. Out of the 423 students registered in the program of medicine in the first period of 2013, 299 filled up a poll designed in the Cardiff TELEform® Ver. 10.0 software. Results: Out of the 299 students that filled up the poll, 64,3 % were women and 35,7 % are men. 90,9 % are older than 18 years old. 59 % were born in the city of Cali. 69,9 % of the dwelling is located in the socioeconomic strata 4, 5 and 6. Conclusion: The sample that was studied corresponds to a ho- mogeneous population where a Little more than half of the students were born and reside in the city of Cali. Further, the socio-economic strata that predominates is 4, 5 and 6, is important to mention that a considerable amount of students don't know the strata in which they reside.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina , Características da População , Demografia
17.
Science ; 339(6127): 1608-11, 2013 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23449997

RESUMO

The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively; an increase in wild insect visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so pollination by managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/fisiologia , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia
18.
Lima; s.n; 2013. 35 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Espanhol | PERNAL | ID: pnc-15012

RESUMO

Introducción: Los pacientes con diagnóstico de hemorragia subaracnoidea y angiografía o angioTHEM negativo inicial se encuentran en riesgo significativo de resangrado que puede conducir a disfunción severa y la muerte. El propósito de este estudio fue describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y radiológicas de este grupo de pacientes. Métodos: Se identificó un total de 256 pacientes con diagnóstico de hemorragia subaracnoidea espontánea. Veintiuno fueron seleccionados por inclusión ya que se les realizó una segunda angiografía al no encontrarse la etiología en la angiografía inicial. Todas las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y radiológicas fueron obtenidas usando la hoja de recolección de datos. Resultados: De los 256 pacientes, 21 (8,2 por ciento) no presentaron anormalidad en la angiografía inicial. Los promedios de edad masculino y femenino fueron 33,71 y 53,07 años respectivamente. Los pacientes con segunda angiografía positiva fueron 4 (19 por ciento), tuvieron un Glasgow promedio de 14 y un grado de severidad WFNS promedio de 2,25. Además 25 por ciento de ellos presentó patrón de sangrado perimesencefálico en la tomografía y 75 por ciento patrón no perimesencefálico. En contraste, los pacientes con segunda angiografía negativa fueron 17 (81 por ciento), tuvieron un Glasgow promedio de 14,76 y un grado de severidad WFNS promedio de 1,29. Además 76,5 por ciento de ellos presentó patrón de sangrado perimesencefálico en la tomografía y 23,5 por ciento patrón no perimesencefálico. Conclusión: Encontramos algunas diferencias entre las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y radiológicas de los pacientes con segunda angiografía positiva y los pacientes con segunda angiografía negativa. En concordancia con los resultados del estudio debemos prestar atención a los pacientes con HSA espontánea y patrón de sangrado no perimesencefálico. Para evitar la morbimortalidad resultante de la ausencia de diagnóstico etiológico resulta...(AU)


Introduction: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and negative initial angiography or angioTHEM are at significant risk for re-bleeding, which can lead to severe disability and death. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, epidemiological and radiological characteristics of this group of patients. Methods: A total of 256 spontaneous SAH patients were identified. Twenty one patients were selected for inclusion in this study because repeated angiography performed due to the etiology of the SAH could not be demonstrated on the initial angiography. All clinical epidemiological and radiological characteristics were obtained using data collection sheet. Results: Of the 256 patients, 21 (8.2 per cent) had no vascular abnormality on initial angiography. Average male and female ages were 33.71 and 53.07 years respectively. Patients with positive second angiography were 4 (19 per cent), they had average Glasgow of 14 and average WFNS grade of 2.25. Also 25 per cent of them had perimesencephalic pattern and 75 per cent had non perimesencephalic pattern. In contrast, patients with negative second angiography were 17 (81 per cent), they had average Glasgow of 14.76 and average WFNS grade of 1.29. Also 76.5 per cent of them had perimesencephalic pattern and 23.5 per cent had non perimesencephalic pattern. Conclusion: We found some differences in clinical a radiological characteristics between the patients with positive second angiography and patients with negative second angiography. In the line with the results of the current study, we should be highly suspicious of patients with non perimesencephalic pattern SAH. In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from a misdiagnosis, to repeat angiography is necessary. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Angiografia , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Pesqui. homeopática ; 25(2): 25-28, jul.-dez. 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-599341

RESUMO

El glaucoma es una patología ocular caracterizada por una lesión progresiva del nervio óptico debido al menos por el aumento de la presión intraocular (PIO). Es la segunda causa de ceguera en varios países, puede presentarse a cualquier edad, aunque e 6 veces más frecuente en mayores de 60 años. Los signos y síntomas varían según el tipo de glaucoma.


Assuntos
Humanos , Glaucoma , Homeopatia
20.
Pesqui. homeopática ; 25(2): 33-34, jul.-dez. 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-599344

RESUMO

Demostrar la eficacia del tratamiento homeopático en el asma bronquial. Determinar la prevalencia por grupo de edad y sexo. Evaluar el comportamiento de las crisis de asma de nuestros pacientes tratados con homeopatía. Relacionar los medicamentos utilizados en este estudio.


Assuntos
Humanos , Asma , Homeopatia
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