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1.
Personal Disord ; 9(1): 81-92, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27775412

RESUMO

Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction. PDs are conceptualized using 2 dimensional maladaptive trait models, that is, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire in Study 1 and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 in Study 2. A total of 167 heterosexual couples participated in Study 1 and 52 heterosexual couples in Study 2. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to examine the associations between traits and relationship satisfaction, whereas the coefficient of profile agreement was used for the couple-centered analyses. Overall, results showed that the presence of maladaptive traits within romantic relationships has a detrimental effect on relationship satisfaction. Self-ratings on maladaptive traits, how we perceive our partners, and how we are perceived by our partners on maladaptive traits make significant contributions to our relationship (dis)satisfaction. Among the maladaptive traits, negative affect and detachment were most consistently negatively associated with relationship satisfaction. The couple-centered perspective showed less explanatory value but nontrivial associations between perceptual similarity and relationship satisfaction were found in Study 2. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Satisfação Pessoal , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 114(1): 110-130, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557471

RESUMO

This study advanced knowledge on charisma by (a) introducing a new personality-based model to conceptualize and assess charisma and by (b) investigating curvilinear relationships between charismatic personality and leader effectiveness. Moreover, we delved deeper into this curvilinear association by (c) examining moderation by the leader's level of adjustment and by (d) testing a process model through which the effects of charismatic personality on effectiveness are explained with a consideration of specific leader behaviors. Study 1 validated HDS charisma (Hogan Development Survey) as a useful trait-based measure of charisma. In Study 2 a sample of leaders (N = 306) were assessed in the context of a 360-degree development center. In line with the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect, an inverted U-shaped relationship between charismatic personality and observer-rated leader effectiveness was found, indicating that moderate levels are better than low or high levels of charisma. Study 3 (N = 287) replicated this curvilinear relationship and further illustrated the moderating role of leader adjustment, in such a way that the inflection point after which the effects of charisma turn negative occurs at higher levels of charisma when adjustment is high. Nonlinear mediation modeling further confirmed that strategic and operational leader behaviors fully mediate the curvilinear relationship. Leaders low on charisma are less effective because they lack strategic behavior; highly charismatic leaders are less effective because they lack operational behavior. In sum, this work provides insight into the dispositional nature of charisma and uncovers the processes through which and conditions under which leader charisma translates into (in)effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Liderança , Personalidade , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 126(7): 843-858, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106271

RESUMO

The dark triad of personality has traditionally been defined by 3 interrelated constructs, defined as Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Psychopathy. Although the content of each of these constructs is clearly represented in childhood maladaptive trait measures, no studies have jointly addressed the prospective developmental course of this core set of maladaptive characteristics throughout childhood and adolescence. The current study uses latent growth modeling to explore how early dark traits develop over time, relying on a selected set of 6 childhood maladaptive traits that conceptually cover the adult dark triad. Across a 5-wave multi-informant design spanning 10 years of childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood (Nwave 1 = 717, 54.4% girls, age range T1 = 8-14.7 years, mean age = 10.73), results indicate that childhood dark traits show to some extent shared growth across time, although notable unique growth variance was also observed. Early dark traits further demonstrate significant association patterns with an adult dark triad measure across informants and are increasingly able to discriminate among more and less prototypical profiles of adult dark triad scores. Findings are discussed from a developmental psychopathology framework, underscoring that the proposed set of childhood dark traits represents a meaningful developmental precursor of the adult dark triad. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Narcisismo
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