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1.
J Res Adolesc ; 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697859

RESUMO

Not much is known regarding underlying biological pathways to adolescents' loneliness. Insight in underlying molecular mechanisms could inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing loneliness. Using latent growth curve modeling, baseline levels and development of loneliness were studied in two longitudinal adolescent samples. Genes (OXTR, OXT, AVPR1A, AVPR1B) were examined using SNP-based, gene-based, and polygenic risk score (PRS) approaches. In both samples, SNP- and gene-based tests showed involvement of the OXTR gene in development of loneliness, though, significance levels did not survive correction for multiple testing. The PRS approach provided no evidence for relations with loneliness. We recommend alternative phenotyping methods, including environmental factors, to consider epigenetic studies, and to examine possible endophenotypes in relation to adolescents' loneliness.

2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 102: 105-113, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537640

RESUMO

Inconsistent findings have been found on the relation between oxytocin levels and psychopathy or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in humans, potentially because the role of trauma in oxytocin secretion and the distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy have been overlooked so far. Primary psychopathy has a stronger biological background, whereas secondary psychopathy mainly develops due to environmental adversity, such as childhood trauma. This study investigated the interaction effects of CU traits and childhood trauma on daily salivary oxytocin levels in 57 males living in residential youth care facilities. Participants provided six saliva samples (morning, afternoon, and evening for two consecutive days) and completed self-report questionnaires on CU traits and childhood trauma. A mean daily oxytocin and an oxytocin pattern across the day were examined. A significant interaction between CU traits and one trauma category (emotional neglect) on mean daily oxytocin was observed, demonstrating that subjects with high CU traits and low levels of emotional neglect (primary psychopathy) exhibited lower daily oxytocin secretion compared to subjects with high CU traits and high levels of emotional neglect (secondary psychopathy). There were no significant interactions with the other trauma types or in daily oxytocin patterns. Our findings provided a first insight into the potentially distinct oxytocin concentrations in primary and secondary psychopathy, suggesting that primary psychopathy might be linked to lower daily oxytocin output. Future longitudinal studies are required to unravel the developmental patterns of oxytocin secretion and determine whether lower oxytocin output might be a biomarker of primary psychopathy.

3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315439

RESUMO

Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior in 323 adolescents (182 males) from 13 to 18 years. Annual assessments of reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and friends' delinquency, as well as DNA at age 17 were collected. Gene-based tests yielded no main effect of OXTR, but revealed a significant gene-environment interaction in proactive aggression and delinquency. Variation in the OXTR might affect the influence of deviant peer affiliation on antisocial behavior, contributing to a better understanding of individual differences in antisocial behavior.

4.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(8): 708-710, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is correlated negatively with subjective well-being and positively with depressive symptoms. Whether these associations reflect causal effects is unclear. METHODS: We examined bidirectional, causal effects between BMI and mental health with Mendelian randomisation using summary-level data from published genome-wide association studies (BMI: n=339 224; subjective well-being: n=204 966; depressive symptoms: n=161 460). Genetic variants robustly related to the exposure variable acted as instrumental variable to estimate causal effects. We combined estimates of individual genetic variants with inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis, weighted median regression and MR-Egger regression. RESULTS: There was evidence for a causal, increasing effect of BMI on depressive symptoms and suggestive evidence for a decreasing effect of BMI on subjective well-being. We found no evidence for causality in the other direction. CONCLUSION: This study provides support for a higher BMI causing poorer mental health. Further research should corroborate these findings and explore mechanisms underlying this potential causality.

5.
Appetite ; 120: 565-570, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017907

RESUMO

A large proportion of adolescents eats too many energy-dense snacks, which is detrimental for their current and future health. To understand how to promote healthy dietary behaviors in adolescents, we need to identify factors that affect their snacking. While previous cross-sectional work has shown mother-child similarities in eating behavior, longitudinal studies are lacking. Hence, the first aim of this study was to examine whether maternal snacking predicted changes in adolescents' snacking over time. A second aim was to examine whether adolescents' television viewing magnified the strength of this longitudinal association. Television viewing may increase the motivation to eat the snacks consumed by mothers later on, for example through food advertisement exposure and mindless eating. To address both aims, 2051 adolescents (Mage baseline = 13.81; 51.5% boys) were asked to report on their snacking and television viewing three times, with intervals of one year. Moreover, a subsample of mothers of adolescents (N = 1080) reported on their snacking at baseline as well. The results indicate that maternal snacking indeed predicts adolescents' snacking over time and that this effect is more pronounced among adolescents who watch a great amount of television. These findings attest to the importance of mothers in forming adolescents' snacking, not only concurrently but also prospectively. Additionally, this study highlights the relevance of assessing other home environmental factors that may influence maternal effects on their children's snacking.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Relações Mãe-Filho , Lanches , Televisão , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Emotion ; 18(2): 229-236, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569537

RESUMO

An important element of understanding the genotype-phenotype link in psychiatric disorders lies in identifying the psychological mechanisms through which genetic variation impacts mental health. Here we examined whether emotional inertia, the tendency for a person's emotions to carry over from 1 moment to the next and a prospective predictor of the development of depression, is associated with a known genetic risk factor for emotional dysregulation, a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). Two hundred thirty-six adolescents recorded their positive and negative emotions in daily life 9 times a day for 6 consecutive days using smartphones, completed a depression questionnaire, and were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Carriers of the short 5-HTTLPR were characterized by higher inertia for negative emotions, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. These findings suggest a possible psychological pathway how the serotonin transporter gene contributes to risk for depression. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
J Pers ; 86(3): 498-507, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous work has linked high levels of belongingness needs to low well-being, suggesting that high desire for social connection causes problems. Against that view, we hypothesized that problems stem especially from unmet belongingness needs. To examine this, discrepancies between belongingness needs and relationship satisfaction were measured. METHOD: A total of 1,342 adolescents (Mage = 13.94 years, 48.6% boys) completed questionnaires about belongingness needs, relationship satisfaction, loneliness, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. A combination of polynomial regression analyses with response surface modeling examined the effects of both fulfilled and unmet belongingness needs on well-being. RESULTS: Fulfilled belongingness needs did not affect adolescents' well-being. However, larger discrepancies between high belongingness needs and low relationship satisfaction were related to higher loneliness, more depressive symptoms, and lower self-esteem. Thus, well-being was most strongly affected among adolescents reporting an unmet need to belong. CONCLUSIONS: We add to the current knowledge by emphasizing that especially belongingness needs that exceed relationship satisfaction, regardless of the actual levels of both, contribute to actual health outcomes. Thus, high need to belong is not detrimental per se, but only in combination with low relationship satisfaction. Implications for clinical practice could be to prevent unmet belongingness needs to ultimately alleviate negative affect and self-esteem.

8.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 46(5): 709-720, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514598

RESUMO

Friendship quantity and quality are related to adolescent loneliness, but the exact link between these constructs is not well understood. The present study aimed to examine whether adolescents' perception of friendship quantity and quality, and the perceptions of their peers, were related to loneliness. We examined the relation between loneliness and the number of unilateral and reciprocal friendships and compared the views of best friendship quality. Overall, 1,172 Dutch adolescents (49.1% male, M age = 12.81, SD = .43) nominated their friends and rated their friendship quality. Friendship quantity was measured using sociometrics to distinguish reciprocated and unilateral (i.e., one-sided) friendships. The analyses indicated that loneliness was related to fewer reciprocal and unilateral-received friendships (i.e., the adolescent received a friendship nomination but did not reciprocate that nomination) and a lower quality of best friendship. Actor-partner interdependence analyses revealed that adolescents' loneliness was related to a less positive evaluation of their friendship, as reported by adolescents themselves (i.e., a significant actor effect) but not by their friends (i.e., nonsignificant partner effect). These findings (a) indicate that loneliness is negatively related to the number of friends adolescents have, as perceived by themselves and their peers and (b) suggest that, once a friendship is established, lonely adolescents may interpret the friendship quality less positively compared to their friends. Implications of these findings for our current understanding of adolescent loneliness are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.


Assuntos
Amigos/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(2): 429-441, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27055683

RESUMO

Loneliness and depressive symptoms are distinct, but partly overlapping constructs. The current study examined whether clusters of loneliness and depressive symptoms could be identified through latent profile analysis in two samples of 417 and 1140 adolescents (48.40 and 48.68 % male, respectively), on average 12.47 and 12.81 years old, respectively. Four clusters were identified, (1) low on loneliness and depressive symptoms, (2) low on loneliness and high on depressive symptoms, (3) high on loneliness and low on depressive symptoms, and (4) high on loneliness and depressive symptoms. We found that these four clusters were differentially related to friendship quantity and quality as well as to happiness and self-esteem. The current study stresses the importance of assessing both loneliness and depressive symptoms, as their mutual relation within individuals is differentially related to various aspects of adjustment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Felicidade , Solidão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino
10.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1797, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920735

RESUMO

Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the 'No Fun No Glory' study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated with approach and avoidance mechanisms in social interaction, these mechanisms may hold the key to understanding the associations between facial emotion identification and a wide range of psychiatric problems.

12.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-12, 2016 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191708

RESUMO

According to the differential reactivity hypothesis, lonely individuals respond differently to their environment compared to nonlonely individuals, which may sustain their loneliness levels. However, this interesting hypothesis has not yet been explored in daily life: Do lonely individuals feel lonely all the time, or do they feel more or less lonely in specific social contexts? The main aim of the present study was to test the differential reactivity hypothesis in daily life by examining in three samples whether trait levels of loneliness affected the levels of state loneliness in different social contexts. We used baseline questionnaires to measure trait loneliness and the Experience Sampling Method to collect data on state loneliness, in early adolescents (N = 269, Mage = 14.49, 59% female) and late adolescents (N = 223, Mage = 19.60, 91% female) from the Netherlands and late adolescents from the United States (N = 126, Mage = 19.20, 51% female). Results provided evidence for the differential reactivity hypothesis in the total sample, as high lonely adolescents experienced higher levels of state loneliness in situations in which they were alone than low lonely adolescents, but also benefited more from being with intimate company than low lonely adolescents. In sum, the present study provided evidence for the differential reactivity hypothesis and showed that the experience of loneliness in daily life was remarkably similar across age and culture. Our findings provide important insights into the daily experiences of trait lonely people, which may provide starting points for interventions.

13.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 44(5): 999-1009, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26496738

RESUMO

Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Prazer , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anedonia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Br J Psychol ; 107(1): 135-53, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854912

RESUMO

Based on the belongingness regulation theory (Gardner et al., 2005, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 31, 1549), this study focuses on the relationship between loneliness and social monitoring. Specifically, we examined whether loneliness relates to performance on three emotion recognition tasks and whether lonely individuals show increased gazing towards their conversation partner's faces in a real-life conversation. Study 1 examined 170 college students (Mage = 19.26; SD = 1.21) who completed an emotion recognition task with dynamic stimuli (morph task) and a micro(-emotion) expression recognition task. Study 2 examined 130 college students (Mage = 19.33; SD = 2.00) who completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and who had a conversation with an unfamiliar peer while their gaze direction was videotaped. In both studies, loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3 (Russell, 1996, J. Pers. Assess., 66, 20). The results showed that loneliness was unrelated to emotion recognition on all emotion recognition tasks, but that it was related to increased gaze towards their conversation partner's faces. Implications for the belongingness regulation system of lonely individuals are discussed.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Solidão , Tempo de Reação , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Adolesc ; 45: 274-83, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545263

RESUMO

Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 124(4): 791-802, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595468

RESUMO

Gene by environment (G × E) research has been increasingly appreciated as it relates to the development of psychopathology. In particular, interactions between dopaminergic genotypes and maladaptive parenting have been prominently in the spotlight. In this study, we investigated whether high parental psychological control and low support would be differentially related to the development of delinquency in adolescents based on their genetic background (i.e., DRD4 and DRD2 genotypes). Data were derived from a 5-wave longitudinal survey among adolescents (N = 308; Mage = 13.4 at Time 1). After accounting for possible passive genetic effects (i.e., parents' genotype, Parents' Genotype × Adolescents' Genotype, and Parents' Genotype × Parenting, cf. Keller, 2014), latent growth modeling revealed a significant interaction of DRD2 × Parental Support, indicating that adolescents with the DRD2 A2A2 genotype were more vulnerable for low parental support, developing more delinquent behavior as a consequence. No significant interactions emerged for DRD4 with parental support and psychological control, nor for DRD2 with parental psychological control. The observed effect size of the identified DRD2 × parental support interaction was modest, emphasizing that replication is essential to confirm the present evidence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0125141, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25915656

RESUMO

The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Solidão/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 10(2): 213-26, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910391

RESUMO

As a complex trait, loneliness is likely to be influenced by the interplay of numerous genetic and environmental factors. Studies in behavioral genetics indicate that loneliness has a sizable degree of heritability. Candidate-gene and gene-expression studies have pointed to several genes related to neurotransmitters and the immune system. The notion that these genes are related to loneliness is compatible with the basic tenets of the evolutionary theory of loneliness. Research on gene-environment interactions indicates that social-environmental factors (e.g., low social support) may have a more pronounced effect and lead to higher levels of loneliness if individuals carry the sensitive variant of these candidate genes. Currently, there is no extant research on loneliness based on genome-wide association studies, gene-environment-interaction studies, or studies in epigenetics. Such studies would allow researchers to identify networks of genes that contribute to loneliness. The contribution of genetics to loneliness research will become stronger when genome-wide genetics and epigenetics are integrated and used along with well-established methods in psychology to analyze the complex process of gene-environment interplay.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Solidão , Evolução Biológica , Epigênese Genética , Pesquisa em Genética , Humanos
19.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 10(2): 250-64, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910393

RESUMO

Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of loneliness-a component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents the motivation to reconnect with others that is triggered by perceived social isolation. Loneliness is often a transient experience because the RAM leads to reconnection, but sometimes this motivation can fail, leading to prolonged loneliness. We review evidence of how aspects of the RAM change across development and how these aspects can fail for different reasons across the life span. We conclude with a discussion of age-appropriate interventions that may help to alleviate prolonged loneliness.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Humano , Solidão/psicologia , Humanos
20.
Dev Psychopathol ; 27(3): 915-25, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25215437

RESUMO

Alcohol use and depressive feelings are often related among early adolescents. However, the nature and underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-development of alcohol use and depressive feelings over time and to examine the effects of the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G genotype on such co-development. Data from a five-wave longitudinal, genetically informed survey study, with intervals of 4 months among a group of 739 normative early adolescents (12-13 years of age at baseline), were analyzed using a dual latent growth curve approach. OPRM1 status was evaluated from saliva-derived DNA samples. The results indicated a positive association between alcohol use and depressive feelings both at the initial levels and over time, indicating co-development in early adolescence. Compared to OPRM1 118G carriers, homozygous 118A carriers showed a greater increase in frequency of alcohol use and higher levels of depressive feelings over time. Evidence for co-development was only found within the group of homozygous 118A carriers, whereas in OPRM1 118G carriers the development of alcohol use and depressive feelings over time were not significantly associated. These results highlight the potential of OPRM1 as a common etiological factor for the development of alcohol use and depressive feelings in early adolescence.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Depressão/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
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