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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510769

RESUMO

Background: Patients treated with antithrombotic drugs are at risk of bleeding. Bleeding may be the first manifestation of underlying cancer. Methods: We examined new cancers diagnosed in relation to gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding among patients enrolled in the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) trial, and determined the hazard of new cancer diagnosis after bleeding at these sites. Results: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68, women 21%), 2,678 (9.8%) experienced any (major or minor) bleeding, 713 (2.6%) experienced major bleeding, and 1,084 (4.0%) were diagnosed with cancer, during a mean follow-up of 23 months. Among 2,678 who experienced bleeding, 257 (9.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with a 20-fold higher hazard of new gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (7.4% versus 0.5%, hazard ratio [HR] 20.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.2-27.8), and 1.7-fold higher hazard of new non-gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (3.8% versus 3.1%, HR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.20-2.40). Genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 32-fold higher hazard of new genitourinary cancer diagnosis (15.8% versus 0.8%, HR 32.5, 95% CI: 24.7-42.9) and urinary bleeding was associated with a 98-fold higher hazard of new urinary cancer diagnosis (14.2% versus 0.2%, HR 98.5, 95% CI: 68.0-142.7). Non-gastrointestinal, non-genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of non-gastrointestinal, non-genitourinary cancers (4.4% versus 1.9%, HR 3.02, 95% CI: 2.32-3.91). Conclusions: In patients with atherosclerosis treated with antithrombotic drugs, any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding was associated with higher rates of new cancer diagnosis. Any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding should prompt investigation for cancers at these sites. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01776424.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections.(AU) in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
3.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380891

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who use a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) and request elective surgery or procedure present a common clinical situation yet perioperative management is uncertain. Objective: To investigate the safety of a standardized perioperative DOAC management strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Perioperative Anticoagulation Use for Surgery Evaluation (PAUSE) cohort study conducted at 23 clinical centers in Canada, the United States, and Europe enrolled and screened patients from August 1, 2014, through July 31, 2018. Participants (n = 3007) had AF; were 18 years of age or older; were long-term users of apixaban, dabigatran etexilate, or rivaroxaban; were scheduled for an elective surgery or procedure; and could adhere to the DOAC therapy interruption protocol. Interventions: A simple standardized perioperative DOAC therapy interruption and resumption strategy based on DOAC pharmacokinetic properties, procedure-associated bleeding risk, and creatinine clearance levels. The DOAC regimens were omitted for 1 day before a low-bleeding-risk procedure and 2 days before a high-bleeding-risk procedure. The DOAC regimens were resumed 1 day after a low-bleeding-risk procedure and 2 to 3 days after a high-bleeding-risk procedure. Follow-up of patients occurred for 30 days after the operation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Major bleeding and arterial thromboembolism (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, and transient ischemic attack) and the proportion of patients with an undetectable or minimal residual anticoagulant level (<50 ng/mL) at the time of the procedure. Results: The 3007 patients with AF (mean [SD] age of 72.5 [9.39] years; 1988 men [66.1%]) comprised 1257 (41.8%) in the apixaban cohort, 668 (22.2%) in the dabigatran cohort, and 1082 (36.0%) in the rivaroxaban cohort; 1007 patients (33.5%) had a high-bleeding-risk procedure. The 30-day postoperative rate of major bleeding was 1.35% (95% CI, 0%-2.00%) in the apixaban cohort, 0.90% (95% CI, 0%-1.73%) in the dabigatran cohort, and 1.85% (95% CI, 0%-2.65%) in the rivaroxaban cohort. The rate of arterial thromboembolism was 0.16% (95% CI, 0%-0.48%) in the apixaban cohort, 0.60% (95% CI, 0%-1.33%) in the dabigatran cohort, and 0.37% (95% CI, 0%-0.82%) in the rivaroxaban cohort. In patients with a high-bleeding-risk procedure, the rates of major bleeding were 2.96% (95% CI, 0%-4.68%) in the apixaban cohort and 2.95% (95% CI, 0%-4.76%) in the rivaroxaban cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, patients with AF who had DOAC therapy interruption for elective surgery or procedure, a perioperative management strategy without heparin bridging or coagulation function testing was associated with low rates of major bleeding and arterial thromboembolism.

7.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 606-613, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280648

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness and wave reflection predict cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and are associated with renal microvascular disease. We hypothesized that the retinal microvascular traits might be associated with central hemodynamic properties. In 735 randomly recruited Flemish (mean age, 50.3 years; 47.1% women), we derived central pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by applanation tonometry and calculated forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves, using an automated pressure-based wave separation algorithm. We measured central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and venular equivalent and their ratio, using IVAN software (Vasculomatic ala Nicola, version 1.1). Mean values for pulse wave velocity (n=554), Pf and Pb were 7.50 m/s, 32.0 mm Hg, and 21.5 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, CRAE was 4.62 µm and 1.26 µm smaller (P≤0.034) for a 1-SD increment in central mean arterial pressure (+11.3 mm Hg) and central pulse pressure (+15.2 mm Hg); a 1-SD increment in the augmentation ratio (+7.0%), aortic pulse wave velocity (+1.66 m/s), Pf (+10.0 mm Hg), and Pb (+8.5 mm Hg), was associated with smaller CRAE; the association sizes were -1.91 µm, -1.59 µm, -1.45 µm, and -2.38 µm (P≤0.014), respectively. Associations of arteriole-to-venule diameter ratio with the central hemodynamic traits mirrored those of CRAE. None of the multivariable-adjusted associations of central retinal venular diameter with the central hemodynamic traits reached significance with the exception of central diastolic blood pressure (-1.62 µm; P=0.030). In conclusion, in the general population, higher central pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, Pf, and Pb were associated with smaller CRAE.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(7): e011960, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025895

RESUMO

Background Stiffening and calcification of the large arteries are forerunners of cardiovascular complications. MGP (Matrix Gla protein), which requires vitamin K-dependent activation, is a potent locally acting inhibitor of arterial calcification. We hypothesized that the central hemodynamic properties might be associated with inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-uc MGP ). Methods and Results In 835 randomly recruited Flemish individuals (mean age, 49.7 years; 45.6% women), we measured plasma dp-uc MGP , using an ELISA -based assay. We derived central pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) from applanation tonometry and calculated forward and backward pulse waves using an automated, pressure-based wave separation analysis algorithm. Aortic PWV (n=657), central pulse pressure, forward pulse wave, and backward pulse wave mean± SD values were 7.34±1.64 m/s, 45.2±15.3 mm Hg, 33.2±10.2 mm Hg, and 21.8±8.6 mm Hg, respectively. The geometric mean plasma concentration of dp-uc MGP was 4.09 µg/L. All hemodynamic indexes increased across tertiles of dp-uc MGP distribution. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, a doubling of dp-uc MGP was associated with higher PWV (0.15 m/s; 95% CI, 0.01-0.28 m/s), central pulse pressure (1.70 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.49-2.91 mm Hg), forward pulse wave (0.93 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.01-1.84 mm Hg), and backward pulse wave (0.71 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.11-1.30 mm Hg). Categorization of aortic PWV by tertiles of its distribution highlighted a decreasing trend of PWV at low dp-uc MGP (<3.35 µg/L) and an increasing trend at high dp-uc MGP (≥5.31 µg/L). Conclusions In people representative for the general population, higher inactive dp-uc MGP was associated with greater PWV , central pulse pressure, forward pulse wave, and backward pulse wave. These observations highlight new avenues for preserving vascular integrity and preventing cardiovascular complications (eg, by improving a person's vitamin K status).

12.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945735

RESUMO

AIMS: The pathogenesis of endocarditis is not well understood resulting in unsuccessful attempts at prevention. Clinical observations suggest that Staphylococcus aureus infects either damaged or inflamed heart valves. Using a newly developed endocarditis mouse model, we therefore studied the initial adhesion of S. aureus in both risk states. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using 3D confocal microscopy, we examined the adhesion of fluorescent S. aureus to murine aortic valves. To mimic different risk states we either damaged the valves with a surgically placed catheter or simulated valve inflammation by local endothelium activation. We used von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene-deficient mice, induced platelet and fibrinogen depletion and used several S. aureus mutant strains to investigate the contribution of both host and bacterial factors in early bacterial adhesion. Both cardiac valve damage and inflammation predisposed to endocarditis, but by distinct mechanisms. Following valve damage, S. aureus adhered directly to VWF and fibrin, deposited on the damaged valve. This was mediated by Sortase A-dependent adhesins such as VWF-binding protein and Clumping factor A. Platelets did not contribute. In contrast, upon cardiac valve inflammation, widespread endothelial activation led to endothelial cell-bound VWF release. This recruited large amounts of platelets, capturing S. aureus to the valve surface. Here, neither fibrinogen, nor Sortase A were essential. CONCLUSION: Cardiac valve damage and inflammation predispose to S. aureus endocarditis via distinct mechanisms. These findings may have important implications for the development of new preventive strategies, as some interventions might be effective in one risk state, but not in the other.

14.
J Vasc Surg ; 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the technical and short- and long-term clinical outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with urokinase for occluded infrainguinal bypass grafts. In addition, factors associated with technical success and amputation-free survival were assessed. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients treated with catheter-directed urokinase-based thrombolysis for occluded infrainguinal bypass grafts was conducted between January 2000 and December 2015. Demographics, procedural data, and short- and long-term outcome data, including patency rates of the bypasses, limb salvage, and overall survival, were collected. Statistical models for clustered data were applied to assess predictive factors. RESULTS: In 177 patients, 251 CDTs were performed on 204 bypasses. In 209 procedures (83.3%), the occluded bypass was reopened; clinical disappearance of ischemic symptoms occurred after 157 procedures (62.6%). Premature cessation of thrombolysis occurred in 33 procedures (13.2%), and periprocedural and postprocedural complications were noted in 91 patients (36.3%). Factors associated with long-term limb salvage are fewer vascular interventions before CDT (P = .0003), higher number of patent outflow vessels before start of CDT (P < .0001), and higher number of patent outflow vessels after CDT (P < .0001). The 1- and 5-year patency rates of bypasses after successful CDT were 64.6% and 48.9%; amputation-free survival after 1 year, 5 years, and 7 years was 81.5%, 71.3%, and 70.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical success after CDT was observed in 62% of procedures with an associated complication rate of 36%. Patent outflow vessels before and after CDT are factors associated with long-term limb salvage. Amputation-free survival after 5 years is 71.3%.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 380(14): 1326-1335, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Andexanet alfa is a modified recombinant inactive form of human factor Xa developed for reversal of factor Xa inhibitors. METHODS: We evaluated 352 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients received a bolus of andexanet, followed by a 2-hour infusion. The coprimary outcomes were the percent change in anti-factor Xa activity after andexanet treatment and the percentage of patients with excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours after the end of the infusion, with hemostatic efficacy adjudicated on the basis of prespecified criteria. Efficacy was assessed in the subgroup of patients with confirmed major bleeding and baseline anti-factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ≥0.25 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin). RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 77 years, and most had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly intracranial (in 227 patients [64%]) or gastrointestinal (in 90 patients [26%]). In patients who had received apixaban, the median anti-factor Xa activity decreased from 149.7 ng per milliliter at baseline to 11.1 ng per milliliter after the andexanet bolus (92% reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 91 to 93); in patients who had received rivaroxaban, the median value decreased from 211.8 ng per milliliter to 14.2 ng per milliliter (92% reduction; 95% CI, 88 to 94). Excellent or good hemostasis occurred in 204 of 249 patients (82%) who could be evaluated. Within 30 days, death occurred in 49 patients (14%) and a thrombotic event in 34 (10%). Reduction in anti-factor Xa activity was not predictive of hemostatic efficacy overall but was modestly predictive in patients with intracranial hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute major bleeding associated with the use of a factor Xa inhibitor, treatment with andexanet markedly reduced anti-factor Xa activity, and 82% of patients had excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours, as adjudicated according to prespecified criteria. (Funded by Portola Pharmaceuticals; ANNEXA-4 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02329327.).


Assuntos
Coagulantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/metabolismo , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Curva ROC
16.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(4): 576-585, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703812

RESUMO

The most common causes of ischaemic stroke are represented by carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD) and atrial fibrillation. While oral anticoagulants substantially reduce the incidence of thromboembolic stroke (< 1%/year), the rate of ischaemic stroke and other cardiovascular disease events in patients with CAAD remains high, ranging from 8.4 to 18.1 events per 100 patient-years. Similar to any other atherosclerotic disease, anti-thrombotic therapies are proposed for CAAD to reduce stroke and other cardiovascular events. The 2017 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) guidelines recommend for patients with asymptomatic CAAD ≥60% the use of aspirin 75 to 100 mg once daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily at the exception of patient at very high bleeding risk. For patients with symptomatic CAAD ≥50%, the use of aspirin 75 to 100 mg once daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily is recommended. New perspectives for anti-thrombotic therapy for the treatment of patients with CAAD come from the novel dual pathway strategy combining a low-dose anticoagulant (i.e. rivaroxaban) and aspirin that may help reduce long-term ischaemic complications in patients with CAAD. This review summarizes current evidence and recommendations for the anti-thrombotic management of patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic CAAD or those undergoing carotid revascularization.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cardiologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem
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