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1.
Neurogenetics ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655922

RESUMO

Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene encoding gigaxonin. Patients develop a progressive sensorimotor neuropathy affecting peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). Methods: In this multicenter observational retrospective study, we recorded French patients with GAN mutations, and 10 patients were identified. Mean age of patients was 9.7 years (2-18), eight patients were female (80%), and all patients met infant developmental milestones and had a family history of consanguinity. Mean age at disease onset was 3.3 years (1-5), and progressive cerebellar ataxia and distal motor weakness were the initial symptoms in all cases. Proximal motor weakness and bulbar symptoms appeared at a mean age of 12 years (8-14), and patients used a wheelchair at a mean age of 16 years (14-18). One patient died at age 18 years from aspiration pneumonia. In all cases, nerve conduction studies showed a mixed demyelinating and axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and MRI showed brain and cerebellum white matter abnormalities. Polyneuropathy and encephalopathy both aggravated during the course of the disease. Patients also showed a variety of associated findings, including curly hair (100% of cases), pes cavus (80%), ophthalmic abnormalities (30%), and scoliosis (30%). Five new GAN mutations were found, including the first synonymous mutation and a large intragenic deletion. Our findings expand the genotypic spectrum of GAN mutations, with relevant implications for molecular analysis of this gene, and confirm that GAN is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease involving PNS and CNS.

3.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(8): 103704, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207318

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing undertaken in two siblings with delayed psychomotor development, absent speech, severe intellectual disability and postnatal microcephaly, with brain malformations consisting of cerebellar atrophy in the eldest affected and hypoplastic corpus callosum in the younger sister; revealed a homozygous intragenic deletion in VPS51, which encodes the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein, one the four subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes that promotes the fusion of endosome-derived vesicles with the trans-Golgi network (GARP) and recycling endosomes (EARP). This observation supports a pathogenic effect of VPS51 variants, which has only been reported previously once, in a single child with microcephaly. It confirms the key role of membrane trafficking in normal brain development and homeostasis.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 121, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151468

RESUMO

Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multiple malformations/intellectual disability (ID) syndrome caused by 7q11.23 microdeletion and clinically characterized by a typical neurocognitive profile including excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition, often defined as "overfriendliness" and "hyersociability". WBS is generally considered as the polar opposite phenotype to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Surprisingly, the prevalence of ASD has been reported to be significantly higher in WBS (12%) than in general population (1%). Our study aims to investigate the molecular basis of the peculiar association of ASD and WBS. We performed chromosomal microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing in six patients presenting with WBS and ASD, in order to evaluate the possible presence of chromosomal or gene variants considered as pathogenic.Our study shows that the presence of ASD in the recruited WBS patients is due to i) neither atypically large deletions; ii) nor the presence of pathogenic variants in genes localized in the non-deleted 7q11.23 allele which would unmask recessive conditions; iii) moreover, we did not identify a second, indisputable independent genetic diagnosis, related to pathogenic Copy Number Variations or rare pathogenic exonic variants in known ID/ASD causing genes, although several variants of unknown significance were found. Finally, imprinting effect does not appear to be the only cause of autism in WBS patients, since the deletions occurred in alleles of both maternal and paternal origin.The social disinhibition observed in WBS does not follow common social norms and symptoms overlapping with ASD, such as restricted interests and repetitive behavior, can be observed in "typical" WBS patients: therefore, the terms "overfriendliness" and "hypersociability" appear to be a misleading oversimplification.The etiology of ASD in WBS is likely to be heterogeneous. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to clarify the observed variability in WBS social communication, ranging from excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition to absence of verbal language and social deficit.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1223-1232, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130282

RESUMO

Aberrant signaling through pathways controlling cell response to extracellular stimuli constitutes a central theme in disorders affecting development. Signaling through RAS and the MAPK cascade controls a variety of cell decisions in response to cytokines, hormones, and growth factors, and its upregulation causes Noonan syndrome (NS), a developmental disorder whose major features include a distinctive facies, a wide spectrum of cardiac defects, short stature, variable cognitive impairment, and predisposition to malignancies. NS is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in more than ten genes have been reported to underlie this disorder. Despite the large number of genes implicated, about 10%-20% of affected individuals with a clinical diagnosis of NS do not have mutations in known RASopathy-associated genes, indicating that additional unidentified genes contribute to the disease, when mutated. By using a mixed strategy of functional candidacy and exome sequencing, we identify RRAS2 as a gene implicated in NS in six unrelated subjects/families. We show that the NS-causing RRAS2 variants affect highly conserved residues localized around the nucleotide binding pocket of the GTPase and are predicted to variably affect diverse aspects of RRAS2 biochemical behavior, including nucleotide binding, GTP hydrolysis, and interaction with effectors. Additionally, all pathogenic variants increase activation of the MAPK cascade and variably impact cell morphology and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Finally, we provide a characterization of the clinical phenotype associated with RRAS2 mutations.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.

8.
Dev Neurosci ; : 1-21, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878996

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus (GA) is involved in a whole spectrum of activities, from lipid biosynthesis and membrane secretion to the posttranslational processing and trafficking of most proteins, the control of mitosis, cell polarity, migration and morphogenesis, and diverse processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and the stress response. In keeping with its versatility, mutations in GA proteins lead to a number of different disorders, including syndromes with multisystem involvement. Intriguingly, however, > 40% of the GA-related genes known to be associated with disease affect the central or peripheral nervous system, highlighting the critical importance of the GA for neural function. We have previously proposed the term "Golgipathies" in relation to a group of disorders in which mutations in GA proteins or their molecular partners lead to consequences for brain development, in particular postnatal-onset microcephaly (POM), white-matter defects, and intellectual disability (ID). Here, taking into account the broader role of the GA in the nervous system, we refine and enlarge this emerging concept to include other disorders whose symptoms may be indicative of altered neurodevelopmental processes, from neurogenesis to neuronal migration and the secretory function critical for the maturation of postmitotic neurons and myelination.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 525-534, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622331

RESUMO

Split-hand-split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition that occurs in 1 in 8500-25,000 newborns and accounts for 15% of all limb reduction defects. SHFM is heterogeneous and can be isolated, associated with other malformations, or syndromic. The mode of inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Seven loci are currently known: SHFM1 at 7q21.2q22.1 (DLX5 gene), SHFM2 at Xq26, SHFM3 at 10q24q25, SHFM4 at 3q27 (TP63 gene), SHFM5 at 2q31 and SHFM6 as a result of variants in WNT10B (chromosome 12q13). Duplications at 17p13.3 are seen in SHFM when isolated or associated with long bone deficiency. Tandem genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24 involving at least the DACTYLIN gene are associated with SHFM3. No point variant in any of the genes residing within the region has been identified so far, but duplication of exon 1 of the BTRC gene may explain the phenotype, with likely complex alterations of gene regulation mechanisms that would impair limb morphogenesis. We report on 32 new index cases identified by array-CGH and/or by qPCR, including some prenatal ones, leading to termination for the most severe. Twenty-two cases were presenting with SHFM and 7 with monodactyly only. Three had an overlapping phenotype. Additional findings were identified in 5 (renal dysplasia, cutis aplasia, hypogonadism and agenesis of corpus callosum with hydrocephalus). We present their clinical and radiological findings and review the literature on this rearrangement that seems to be one of the most frequent cause of SHFM.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2019 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664951

RESUMO

Mutations in LZTR1, already known to be causal in familial schwannomatosis type 2, have been recently involved in a small proportion of patients with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. LZTR1 is also a driver gene in non syndromal glioblastoma. We report a 26-year-old patient with typical Noonan syndrome, and the dominantly transmitted c.850C > T (p.(Arg284Cys)) variant in LZTR1. An oligoastrocytoma was diagnosed in the patient at the age of 22 years; recurrence of the tumor occurred at age 26, as a ganglioblastoma. The patient had been transiently treated with growth hormone between ages 15 and 17. Considering the implication of LZTR1 in sporadic tumors of the nervous system, we hypothesize that gliomas are a possible complication of LZTR1-related Noonan syndrome. This report also supports a possible link between occurrence of a cerebral tumor in Noonan syndrome and a previous treatment with growth hormone.

11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472488

RESUMO

The SPECC1L protein plays a role in adherens junctions involved in cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton organization, microtubule stabilization, spindle organization and cytokinesis. It modulates PI3K-AKT signaling and controls cranial neural crest cell delamination during facial morphogenesis. SPECC1L causative variants were first identified in individuals with oblique facial clefts. Recently, causative variants in SPECC1L were reported in a pedigree reported in 1988 as atypical Opitz GBBB syndrome. Six families with SPECC1L variants have been reported thus far. We report here eight further pedigrees with SPECC1L variants, including a three-generation family, and a further individual of a previously published family. We discuss the nosology of Teebi and GBBB, and the syndromes related to SPECC1L variants. Although the phenotype of individuals with SPECC1L mutations shows overlap with Opitz syndrome in its craniofacial anomalies, the canonical laryngeal malformations and male genital anomalies are not observed. Instead, individuals with SPECCL1 variants have branchial fistulae, omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernias, and uterus didelphis. We also point to the clinical overlap of SPECC1L syndrome with mild Baraitser-Winter craniofrontofacial syndrome: they share similar dysmorphic features (wide, short nose with a large tip, cleft lip and palate, blepharoptosis, retrognathia, and craniosynostosis), although intellectual disability, neuronal migration defect, and muscular problems remain largely specific to Baraitser-Winter syndrome. In conclusion, we suggest that patients with pathogenic variants in SPECC1L should not be described as "dominant (or type 2) Opitz GBBB syndrome", and instead should be referred to as "SPECC1L syndrome" as both disorders show distinctive, non overlapping developmental anomalies beyond facial communalities.

12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 179(6): 409-418, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325180

RESUMO

Context Abnormalities in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis have long been reported in Noonan syndrome (NS) males with only few data available in prepubertal children. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the gonadal function of NS males from childhood to adulthood. Design It is a retrospective chart review. Patients and methods A total of 37 males with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of NS were included. Clinical and genetic features, as well as serum hormone levels (LH, FSH, testosterone, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and inhibin B) were analysed. Results Of the 37 patients, 16 (43%) children had entered puberty at a median age of 13.5 years (range: 11.4-15.0 years); age at pubertal onset was negatively correlated with BMI SDS (r = -0.541; P = 0.022). In pubertal boys, testosterone levels were normal suggesting a normal Leydig cell function. In contrast, NS patients had significant lower levels of AMH (mean SDS: -0.6 ± 1.1; P = 0.003) and inhibin B (mean SDS: -1.1 ± 1.2; P < 0.001) compared with the general population, suggesting a Sertoli cell dysfunction. Lower AMH and inhibin B levels were found in NS-PTPN11 patients, whereas these markers did not differ from healthy children in SOS1 patients. No difference was found between cryptorchid and non-cryptorchid patients for AMH and inhibin B levels (P = 0.43 and 0.62 respectively). Four NS-PTPN11 patients had a severe primary hypogonadism with azoospermia/cryptozoospermia. Conclusions NS males display Sertoli cell-specific primary testicular insufficiency, whereas Leydig cell function seems to be unaffected.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1611-1622, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006632

RESUMO

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(7): 996-1006, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695756

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of human genome coding regions allows the simultaneous screen of a large number of genes, significantly improving the diagnosis of non-syndromic intellectual disabilities (ID). HTS studies permit the redefinition of the phenotypical spectrum of known disease-causing genes, escaping the clinical inclusion bias of gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing. We studied a cohort of 903 patients with ID not reminiscent of a well-known syndrome, using an ID-targeted HTS of several hundred genes and found de novo heterozygous variants in TCF4 (transcription factor 4) in eight novel patients. Piecing together the patients from this study and those from previous large-scale unbiased HTS studies, we estimated the rate of individuals with ID carrying a disease-causing TCF4 mutation to 0.7%. So far, TCF4 molecular abnormalities were known to cause a syndromic form of ID, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), which combines severe ID, developmental delay, absence of speech, behavioral and ventilation disorders, and a distinctive facial gestalt. Therefore, we reevaluated ten patients carrying a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in TCF4 (eight patients included in this study and two from our previous ID-HTS study) for PTHS criteria defined by Whalen and Marangi. A posteriori, five patients had a score highly evocative of PTHS, three were possibly consistent with this diagnosis, and two had a score below the defined PTHS threshold. In conclusion, these results highlight TCF4 as a frequent cause of moderate to profound ID and broaden the clinical spectrum associated to TCF4 mutations to nonspecific ID.

16.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 2(1): e000182, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637184

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of infantile Pompe disease (IPD) in French Guiana, a French overseas territory, by combining a retrospective case records study and a prospective anonymous genotyping in a sample of mothers followed in the two major maternity units of French Guiana. Methods: We identified 19 newborns with IPD born within a 13-year-period in French Guiana, corresponding to 1/4528 births. All children were born within the African-American Maroon (Bushinengue) community originating from slaves who settled along the Maroni river in the 19th century. We also performed an anonymised screening for all women in postpartum, in the two main maternity units of French Guiana. Results: Genetic investigations revealed that all patients with IPD were homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for two known pathogenic variations: c.2560C>T p.(Arg854*) that has already been reported in African-Americans and c.1942G>A p.(Gly648Ser), a rare previously considered to be variant. We identified no heterozygotes among 453 mothers of various ethnicities in Cayenne, but 15 heterozygotes among 425 mothers (1/27) in Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (95% CI 1/45 to 1/17), all from the Maroon community, which corresponds to an expected IPD incidence in Maroons of 1/1727 (95% CI 1/1156 to 1/8100). Conclusion: The incidence of IPD in the Maroon community is roughly 50 times higher than elsewhere in the world. The presence of only two different variants in all affected patients is compatible with a double founder effect in a relatively small population that has seldom mixed with other regional populations in the past and therefore has a reduced pool of genotypes.

17.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 422-429, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. RESULTS: Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6, two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3, and one in MESP2 and HES7, were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). CONCLUSION: After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV.

18.
Brain ; 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390050

RESUMO

Members of the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases are involved in the unfolding of proteins and disassembly of protein complexes and aggregates. ATAD1 encoding the ATPase family, AAA+ domain containing 1-protein Thorase plays an important role in the function and integrity of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Postsynaptically, Thorase controls the internalization of excitatory, glutamatergic AMPA receptors by disassembling complexes between the AMPA receptor-binding protein, GRIP1, and the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the last exon of ATAD1 [c.1070_1071delAT; p.(His357Argfs*15)] in three siblings who presented with a severe, lethal encephalopathy associated with stiffness and arthrogryposis. Biochemical and cellular analyses show that the C-terminal end of Thorase mutant gained a novel function that strongly impacts its oligomeric state, reduces stability or expression of a set of Golgi, peroxisomal and mitochondrial proteins and affects disassembly of GluA2 and Thorase oligomer complexes. Atad1-/- neurons expressing Thorase mutantHis357Argfs*15 display reduced amount of GluA2 at the cell surface suggesting that the Thorase mutant may inhibit the recycling back and/or reinsertion of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane. Taken together, our molecular and functional analyses identify an activating ATAD1 mutation as a new cause of severe encephalopathy and congenital stiffness.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 319-332, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243349

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive microcephaly or microcephaly primary hereditary (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a reduction in brain volume, indirectly measured by an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 2 standard deviations or more below the age- and sex-matched mean (-2SD) at birth and -3SD after 6 months, and leading to intellectual disability of variable severity. The abnormal spindle-like microcephaly gene (ASPM), the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster "abnormal spindle" gene (asp), encodes ASPM, a protein localized at the centrosome of apical neuroprogenitor cells and involved in spindle pole positioning during neurogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in ASPM cause MCPH5, which affects the majority of all MCPH patients worldwide. Here, we report 47 unpublished patients from 39 families carrying 28 new ASPM mutations, and conduct an exhaustive review of the molecular, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological features of the 282 families previously reported (with 161 distinct ASPM mutations). Furthermore, we show that ASPM-related microcephaly is not systematically associated with intellectual deficiency and discuss the association between the structural brain defects (strong reduction in cortical volume and surface area) that modify the cortical map of these patients and their cognitive abilities.

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