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1.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2104004, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943127

RESUMO

The interaction of silicon and soil microorganisms stimulates crop enhancement to ensure sustainable agriculture. Silicon may potentially increase nutrient availability in rhizosphere with improved plants' growth, development as it does not produce phytotoxicity. The rhizospheric microbiome accommodates a variety of microbial species that live in a small area of soil directly associated with the hidden half plants' system. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play a major role in plant development in response to adverse climatic conditions. PGPRs may enhance the growth, quality, productivity in variety of crops, and mitigate abiotic stresses by reprogramming stress-induced physiological variations in plants via different mechanisms, such as synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, exopolysaccharides, volatile organic compounds, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and phosphate solubilization. Our article eye upon interactions of silicon and plant microbes which seems to be an opportunity for sustainable agriculture for series of crops and cropping systems in years to come, essential to safeguard the food security for masses.


Assuntos
Silício , Solo , Bactérias , Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2108253, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959678

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses are the foremost limiting factors for crop productivity. Crop plants need to cope with adverse external pressure caused by various environmental conditions with their intrinsic biological mechanisms to keep their growth, development, and productivity. Climate-resilient, high-yielding crops need to be developed to maintain sustainable food supply. Over the last decade, understanding of the genetic complexity of agronomic traits in sugarcane has prompted the integrated application of genetic engineering to address specific biological questions. Genes for adaptation to environmental stress and yield enhancement traits are being determined and introgressed to develop elite sugarcane cultivars with improved characteristics through genetic engineering approaches. Here, we discuss the advancement to provide a reference for future sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genetic engineering.

3.
ACS Omega ; 7(27): 22997-23008, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35847309

RESUMO

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a major crop for sugar and renewable bioenergy worldwide, grown in arid and semiarid regions. China, the world's fourth-largest sugar producer after Brazil, India, and the European Union, all share ∼80% of the global production, and the remaining ∼20% of sugar comes from sugar beets, mostly grown in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, also used as a raw material in production of bioethanol for renewable energy. In view of carboxylation strategies, sugar cane qualifies as one of the best C4 crop. It has dual CO2 concentrating mechanisms located in its unique Krantz anatomy, having dimorphic chloroplasts located in mesophylls and bundle sheath cells for integrated operation of C4 and C3 carbon fixation cycles, regulated by enzymes to upgrade/sustain an ability for improved carbon assimilation to acquire an optimum carbon economy by producing enhanced plant biomass along with sugar yield under elevated temperature and strong irradiance with improved water-use efficiency. These superior intrinsic physiological carbon metabolisms encouraged us to reveal and recollect the facts for moving ahead with the molecular approaches to reveal the expression of proteogenomics linked with plant productivity under abiotic stress during its cultivation in specific agrizones globally.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 865048, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677230

RESUMO

Conventional fertilizers and pesticides are not sustainable for multiple reasons, including high delivery and usage inefficiency, considerable energy, and water inputs with adverse impact on the agroecosystem. Achieving and maintaining optimal food security is a global task that initiates agricultural approaches to be revolutionized effectively on time, as adversities in climate change, population growth, and loss of arable land may increase. Recent approaches based on nanotechnology may improve in vivo nutrient delivery to ensure the distribution of nutrients precisely, as nanoengineered particles may improve crop growth and productivity. The underlying mechanistic processes are yet to be unlayered because in coming years, the major task may be to develop novel and efficient nutrient uses in agriculture with nutrient use efficiency (NUE) to acquire optimal crop yield with ecological biodiversity, sustainable agricultural production, and agricultural socio-economy. This study highlights the potential of nanofertilizers in agricultural crops for improved plant performance productivity in case subjected to abiotic stress conditions.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682919

RESUMO

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the world's highly significant commercial crops. The amounts of synthetic nitrogen (N2) fertilizer required to grow the sugarcane plant at its initial growth stages are higher, which increases the production costs and adverse environmental consequences globally. To combat this issue, sustainable environmental and economic concerns among researchers are necessary. The endophytic diazotrophs can offer significant amounts of nitrogen to crops through the biological nitrogen fixation mediated nif gene. The nifH gene is the most extensively utilized molecular marker in nature for studying N2 fixing microbiomes. The present research intended to determine the existence of novel endophytic diazotrophs through culturable and unculturable bacterial communities (EDBCs). The EDBCs of different tissues (root, stem, and leaf) of five sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Badila, S. barberi Jesw.cv Pansahi, S. robustum, S. spontaneum, and S. sinense Roxb.cv Uba) were isolated and molecularly characterized to evaluate N2 fixation ability. The diversity of EDBCs was observed based on nifH gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing and a culturable approach. In this study, 319766 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from 15 samples. The minimum number of OTUs was recorded in leaf tissues of S. robustum and maximum reads in root tissues of S. spontaneum. These data were assessed to ascertain the structure, diversity, abundance, and relationship between the microbial community. A total of 40 bacterial families with 58 genera were detected in different sugarcane species. Bacterial communities exhibited substantially different alpha and beta diversity. In total, 16 out of 20 genera showed potent N2-fixation in sugarcane and other crops. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (Bray-Curtis dis) evaluation of OTUs, bacterial microbiomes associated with root tissues differed significantly from stem and leaf tissues of sugarcane. Significant differences often were observed in EDBCs among the sugarcane tissues. We tracked and validated the plethora of individual phylum strains and assessed their nitrogenase activity with a culture-dependent technique. The current work illustrated the significant and novel results of many uncharted endophytic microbial communities in different tissues of sugarcane species, which provides an experimental system to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) mechanism in sugarcane. The novel endophytic microbial communities with N2-fixation ability play a remarkable and promising role in sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Saccharum , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Saccharum/genética
6.
Front Nutr ; 9: 868209, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662938

RESUMO

Asparagus [Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.] is a traditional herbal medicine plant commonly used to nourish yin, moisten dryness, and clear fire cough symptoms. Drying is an excellent option to conserve food materials, i.e., grains, fruits, vegetables, and herbs, reducing the raw materials volume and weight. This study aims to evaluate different drying approaches that could increase the value of asparagus, particularly as an ingredient in fast foods or as nutraceutical byproducts. The volatile components of asparagus roots were analyzed by using headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy under different drying conditions, i.e., natural drying (ND) at ambient air temperature in the dark, well-ventilated room, temperature range 28-32°C, blast or oven drying at 50°C, heat pump or hot-air drying at temperature 50°C and air velocity at 1.5 ms-1 and vacuum freeze-drying at the temperature of -45°C and vacuum pressure of 10-30 Pa for 24 h. The findings revealed that the various drying processes had multiple effects on the color, odor index, and volatile compounds of the asparagus roots. As a result of the investigations, multiple characteristics of components, therefore, exploitation and comparison of various flavors; a total of 22 compounds were identified, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, esters, heterocyclic, and terpene. The present findings may help understand the flavor of the processed asparagus roots and find a better option for drying and processing.

7.
Bioengineered ; 13(4): 8135-8163, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297313

RESUMO

Combating climate change and ensuring energy supply to a rapidly growing global population has highlighted the need to replace petroleum fuels with clean, and sustainable renewable fuels. Biofuels offer a solution to safeguard energy security with reduced ecological footprint and process economics. Over the past years, lignocellulosic biomass has become the most preferred raw material for the production of biofuels, such as fuel, alcohol, biodiesel, and biohydrogen. However, the cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose into biofuels remains an unsolved challenge at the industrial scale. Recently, intensive efforts have been made in lignocellulose feedstock and microbial engineering to address this problem. By improving the biological pathways leading to the polysaccharide, lignin, and lipid biosynthesis, limited success has been achieved, and still needs to improve sustainable biofuel production. Impressive success is being achieved by the retouring metabolic pathways of different microbial hosts. Several robust phenotypes, mostly from bacteria and yeast domains, have been successfully constructed with improved substrate spectrum, product yield and sturdiness against hydrolysate toxins. Cyanobacteria is also being explored for metabolic advancement in recent years, however, it also remained underdeveloped to generate commercialized biofuels. The bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are also being engineered to have cell surfaces displaying hydrolytic enzymes, which holds much promise for near-term scale-up and biorefinery use. Looking forward, future advances to achieve economically feasible production of lignocellulosic-based biofuels with special focus on designing more efficient metabolic pathways coupled with screening, and engineering of novel enzymes.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lignina , Biomassa , Etanol , Lignina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 829337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283913

RESUMO

Considering the significant role of genetic background in plant-microbe interactions and that most crop rhizospheric microbial research was focused on cultivars, understanding the diversity of root-associated microbiomes in wild progenitors and closely related crossable species may help to breed better cultivars. This study is aimed to fill a critical knowledge gap on rhizosphere and diazotroph bacterial diversity in the wild progenitors of sugarcane, the essential sugar and the second largest bioenergy crop globally. Using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) platform, we studied the rhizosphere and diazotroph bacterial community of Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Badila (BRS), Saccharum barberi (S. barberi) Jesw. cv Pansahi (PRS), Saccharum robustum [S. robustum; (RRS), Saccharum spontaneum (S. spontaneum); SRS], and Saccharum sinense (S. sinense) Roxb. cv Uba (URS) by sequencing their 16S rRNA and nifH genes. HTS results revealed that a total of 6,202 bacteria-specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, that were distributed as 107 bacterial groups. Out of that, 31 rhizobacterial families are commonly spread in all five species. With respect to nifH gene, S. barberi and S. spontaneum recorded the highest and lowest number of OTUs, respectively. These results were validated by quantitative PCR analysis of both genes. A total of 1,099 OTUs were identified for diazotrophs with a core microbiome of 9 families distributed among all the sugarcane species. The core microbiomes were spread across 20 genera. The increased microbial diversity in the rhizosphere was mainly due to soil physiochemical properties. Most of the genera of rhizobacteria and diazotrophs showed a positive correlation, and few genera negatively correlated with the soil properties. The results showed that sizeable rhizospheric diversity exists across progenitors and close relatives. Still, incidentally, the rhizosphere microbial abundance of progenitors of modern sugarcane was at the lower end of the spectrum, indicating the prospect of Saccharum species introgression breeding may further improve nutrient use and disease and stress tolerance of commercial sugarcane. The considerable variation for rhizosphere microbiome seen in Saccharum species also provides a knowledge base and an experimental system for studying the evolution of rhizobacteria-host plant association during crop domestication.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269257

RESUMO

The advancements in nanoparticles (NPs) may be lighting the sustainable and eco-friendly path to accelerate the removal of toxic compounds from contaminated soils. Many efforts have been made to increase the efficiency of phytoremediation, such as the inclusion of chemical additives, the application of rhizobacteria, genetic engineering, etc. In this context, the integration of nanotechnology with bioremediation has introduced new dimensions for revamping the remediation methods. Hence, advanced remediation approaches combine nanotechnological and biological remediation methods in which the nanoscale process regulation supports the adsorption and deterioration of pollutants. Nanoparticles absorb/adsorb a large variety of contaminants and also catalyze reactions by lowering the energy required to break them down, owing to their unique surface properties. As a result, this remediation process reduces the accumulation of pollutants while limiting their spread from one medium to another. Therefore, this review article deals with all possibilities for the application of NPs for the remediation of contaminated soils and associated environmental concerns.

10.
Environ Res ; 210: 112891, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183514

RESUMO

Currently, the applications of biochar (BC) in agricultural practices and for environmental remediation purposes have demonstrated multifaceted advantages despite a few limitations. Nano-BC offers considerable opportunities especially for the remediation of hazardous contaminants as well as the improvement of crop productivity. Positive outcomes of nano-BC on soil physico-chemical and biological characteristics have indicated its suitability for agricultural applications. Nano-BC may effectively regulate the mobilization and sorption of important micro- and macro-nutrients, along with the hazardous contaminants including potentially toxic metals, pesticides, etc. Additionally, the sorption characteristics of nano-BC depends substantially on feedstock materials and pyrolysis temperatures. Nevertheless, the conducted investigations regarding nano-BC are in infant stages, requiring extensive field investigations. The nano-enhanced properties of BC on one hand dramatically improve its effectiveness and sustainability, on the other hand, there may be associated with toxicity development in diverse aquatic and/or terrestrial environments. Therefore, risk assessment on soil organisms and its indirect impact on human health is another area of concern linked with the field application of nano-BC. The present review delineates the potentiality of nano-BC as an emerging sorbent for sustainable agriculture and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010126

RESUMO

Nano-fertilizers (NFs) significantly improve soil quality and plant growth performance and enhance crop production with quality fruits/grains. The management of macro-micronutrients is a big task globally, as it relies predominantly on synthetic chemical fertilizers which may not be environmentally friendly for human beings and may be expensive for farmers. NFs may enhance nutrient uptake and plant production by regulating the availability of fertilizers in the rhizosphere; extend stress resistance by improving nutritional capacity; and increase plant defense mechanisms. They may also substitute for synthetic fertilizers for sustainable agriculture, being found more suitable for stimulation of plant development. They are associated with mitigating environmental stresses and enhancing tolerance abilities under adverse atmospheric eco-variables. Recent trends in NFs explored relevant agri-technology to fill the gaps and assure long-term beneficial agriculture strategies to safeguard food security globally. Accordingly, nanoparticles are emerging as a cutting-edge agri-technology for agri-improvement in the near future. Interestingly, they do confer stress resistance capabilities to crop plants. The effective and appropriate mechanisms are revealed in this article to update researchers widely.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 852886, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371161

RESUMO

Sugarcane is a cash crop that plays an integral part in the sugar industry. The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) has been adopted globally, ensuring enough and aiming for more yield, helping increase disease-free sugarcane cultivation. Single-bud seeds could be the best approach for sugarcane cultivation. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is a rooting agent utilized significantly in seedling propagation. Greenhouse experiment results discovered the significant growth promotion in sugarcane seedlings and accumulation of plant hormones at 100 ppm IBA. Next, we performed transcriptomic analysis of sugarcane buds using RNA sequencing and compared their gene expression during root development due to affect of IBA (100 ppm). A total of 113,475 unigenes were annotated with an average length of 836 bp (N50 = 1,536). The comparative RNA-seq study between the control (CK) and IBA-treated (T) buds showed significant differentially expressed unigenes (494 upregulated and 2086 downregulated). The IBA influenced major biological processes including metabolic process, the cellular process, and single-organism process. For cellular component category, cell, cell part, organelle, membrane, and organelle part were mainly affected. In addition, catalytic activity and binding were primarily affected in the molecular function categories. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to plant hormones and signaling pathways was analyzed by qRT-PCR, which was consistent with the RNA-seq expression profile. This study provides new insights into the IBA response to the bud sprouting in sugarcane based on RNA sequencing, and generated information could help further research on breeding improvement of sugarcane.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 727741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887881

RESUMO

Plant endophytic bacteria have many vital roles in plant growth promotion (PGP), such as nitrogen (N) fixation and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the seedlings of sugarcane varieties B8 (requires a low concentration of nitrogen for growth) and GT11 (requires a high concentration of nitrogen for growth) were inoculated with endophytic diazotroph Enterobacter roggenkampii ED5, which exhibits multiple PGP traits, isolated from sugarcane roots. The results showed that the inoculation with E. roggenkampii ED5 promoted the growth of plant significantly in both sugarcane varieties. 15N detection at 60 days post-inoculation proved that the inoculation with strain ED5 increased the total nitrogen concentration in the leaf and root than control in both sugarcane varieties, which was higher in B8. Biochemical parameters and phytohormones in leaf were analyzed at 30 and 60 days after the inoculation. The results showed that the inoculation with E. roggenkampii ED5 improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS), and endo-ß-1,4-glucanase, and the contents of proline and indole acetic acid (IAA) in leaf, and it was generally more significant in B8 than in GT11. Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to perform comparative proteomic analysis in the sugarcane leaves at 30 days after inoculation with strain ED5. A total of 27,508 proteins were detected, and 378 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in the treated sugarcane variety B8 (BE) as compared to control (BC), of which 244 were upregulated and 134 were downregulated. In contrast, a total of 177 DEPs were identified in the treated sugarcane variety GT11 (GE) as compared to control (GC), of which 103 were upregulated and 74 were downregulated. The DEPs were associated with nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, starch, sucrose metabolism, response to oxidative stress, hydrolase activity, oxidative phosphorylation, glutathione metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolic process, and response to stresses in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomic approach to investigate the molecular basis of the interaction between N-fixing endophytic strain E. roggenkampii ED5 and sugarcane.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961197

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has gained popularity in recent years owing to its established potential for application and implementation in various sectors such as medical drugs, medicine, catalysis, energy, material, and plant science. Nanoparticles (NPs) are smaller in size (1-100 nm) with a larger surface area and have many fruitful applications. The extraordinary functions of NPs are utilized in sustainable agriculture due to nano-enabled products, e.g., nano-insecticides, nano-pesticides, and nano-fertilizers. Nanoparticles have lately been suggested as an alternate method for controlling plant pests such as insects, fungi, and weeds. Several NPs exhibit antimicrobial properties considered in food packaging processes; for example, Ag-NPs are commonly used for such purposes. Apart from their antimicrobial properties, NPs such as Si, Ag, Fe, Cu, Al, Zn, ZnO, TiO2, CeO2, Al2O3, and carbon nanotubes have also been demonstrated to have negative impacts on plant growth and development. This review examines the field-use of nano-enabled products in sustainable agriculture, future perspectives, and growing environmental concerns. The remarkable information on commercialized nano-enabled products used in the agriculture and allied sectors are also provided.

15.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835329

RESUMO

Soil salinity causes severe environmental stress that affects agriculture production and food security throughout the world. Salt-tolerant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and nitric oxide (NO), a distinctive signaling molecule, can synergistically assist in the alleviation of abiotic stresses and plant growth promotion, but the mechanism by which this happens is still not well known. In the present study, in a potential salt-tolerant rhizobacteria strain, ASN-1, growth up to 15% NaCl concentration was achieved with sugarcane rhizosphere soil. Based on 16S-rRNA gene sequencing analysis, the strain ASN-1 was identified as a Bacillus xiamenensis. Strain ASN-1 exhibits multiple plant-growth-promoting attributes, such as the production of indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, and exopolysaccharides as well as solubilized phosphate solubilization. Biofilm formation showed that NO enhanced the biofilm and root colonization capacity of the PGPR strain ASN-1 with host plants, evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The greenhouse study showed that, among the different treatments, the combined application of PGPR and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as an NO donor significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced sugarcane plant growth by maintaining the relative water content, electrolyte leakage, gas exchange parameters, osmolytes, and Na+/K+ ratio. Furthermore, PGPR and SNP fertilization reduced the salinity-induced oxidative stress in plants by modulating the antioxidant enzyme activities and stress-related gene expression. Thus, it is believed that the acquisition of advanced information about the synergistic effect of salt-tolerant PGPR and NO fertilization will reduce the use of harmful chemicals and aid in eco-friendly sustainable agricultural production under salt stress conditions.

16.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685972

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) has never been acknowledged as a vital nutrient though it confers a crucial role in a variety of plants. Si may usually be expressed more clearly in Si-accumulating plants subjected to biotic stress. It safeguards several plant species from disease. It is considered as a common element in the lithosphere of up to 30% of soils, with most minerals and rocks containing silicon, and is classified as a "significant non-essential" element for plants. Plant roots absorb Si, which is subsequently transferred to the aboveground parts through transpiration stream. The soluble Si in cytosol activates metabolic processes that create jasmonic acid and herbivore-induced organic compounds in plants to extend their defense against biotic stressors. The soluble Si in the plant tissues also attracts natural predators and parasitoids during pest infestation to boost biological control, and it acts as a natural insect repellent. However, so far scientists, policymakers, and farmers have paid little attention to its usage as a pesticide. The recent developments in the era of genomics and metabolomics have opened a new window of knowledge in designing molecular strategies integrated with the role of Si in stress mitigation in plants. Accordingly, the present review summarizes the current status of Si-mediated plant defense against insect, fungal, and bacterial attacks. It was noted that the Si-application quenches biotic stress on a long-term basis, which could be beneficial for ecologically integrated strategy instead of using pesticides in the near future for crop improvement and to enhance productivity.

17.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440021

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is considered a non-essential element similar to cadmium, arsenic, lead, etc., for plants, yet Si is beneficial to plant growth, so it is also referred to as a quasi-essential element (similar to aluminum, cobalt, sodium and selenium). An element is considered quasi-essential if it is not required by plants but its absence results in significant negative consequences or anomalies in plant growth, reproduction and development. Si is reported to reduce the negative impacts of different stresses in plants. The significant accumulation of Si on the plant tissue surface is primarily responsible for these positive influences in plants, such as increasing antioxidant activity while reducing soil pollutant absorption. Because of these advantageous properties, the application of Si-based nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in agricultural and food production has received a great deal of interest. Furthermore, conventional Si fertilizers are reported to have low bioavailability; therefore, the development and implementation of nano-Si fertilizers with high bioavailability could be crucial for viable agricultural production. Thus, in this context, the objectives of this review are to summarize the effects of both Si and Si-NPs on soil microbes, soil properties, plant growth and various plant pathogens and diseases. Si-NPs and Si are reported to change the microbial colonies and biomass, could influence rhizospheric microbes and biomass content and are able to improve soil fertility.

18.
ACS Omega ; 6(30): 19811-19821, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368568

RESUMO

Water stress may become one of the most inevitable factors in years to come regulating crop growth, development, and productivity globally. The application of eco-friendly stress mitigator may sustain physiological fitness of the plants as uptake and accumulation of silicon (Si) found to alleviate stress with plant performance. Our study focused on the mitigative effects of Si using calcium metasilicate (wollastonite powder, CaO·SiO2) in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) prior to the exposure of water stress created by the retention of 50-45% soil moisture capacity. Si (0, 50, 100, and 500 ppm L-1) was supplied through soil irrigation in S. officinarum L. grown at about half of the soil moisture capacity for a period of 90 days. Water stress impaired plant growth, biomass, leaf relative water content, SPAD value, photosynthetic pigments capacity, and photochemical efficiency (F v/F m) of photosystem II. The levels of antioxidative defense-induced enzymes, viz., catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, enhanced. Silicon-treated plants expressed positive correlation with their performance index. A quadratic nonlinear relation observed between loss and gain (%) in physiological and biochemical parameters during water stress upon Si application. Si was found to be effective in restoring the water stress injuries integrated to facilitate the operation of antioxidant defense machinery in S. officinarum L. with improved plant performance index and photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

19.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203954

RESUMO

Abiotic stress in plants is a crucial issue worldwide, especially heavy-metal contaminants, salinity, and drought. These stresses may raise a lot of issues such as the generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, loss of photosynthetic efficiency, etc. that could alter crop growth and developments by affecting biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes, causing a significant loss in productivity. To overcome the impact of these abiotic stressors, many strategies could be considered to support plant growth including the use of nanoparticles (NPs). However, the majority of studies have focused on understanding the toxicity of NPs on aquatic flora and fauna, and relatively less attention has been paid to the topic of the beneficial role of NPs in plants stress response, growth, and development. More scientific attention is required to understand the behavior of NPs on crops under these stress conditions. Therefore, the present work aims to comprehensively review the beneficial roles of NPs in plants under different abiotic stresses, especially heavy metals, salinity, and drought. This review provides deep insights about mechanisms of abiotic stress alleviation in plants under NP application.

20.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 19, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238380

RESUMO

In the era of climate change, due to increased incidences of a wide range of various environmental stresses, especially biotic and abiotic stresses around the globe, the performance of plants can be affected by these stresses. After oxygen, silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. It is not considered as an important element, but can be thought of as a multi-beneficial quasi-essential element for plants. This review on silicon presents an overview of the versatile role of this element in a variety of plants. Plants absorb silicon through roots from the rhizospheric soil in the form of silicic or monosilicic acid. Silicon plays a key metabolic function in living organisms due to its relative abundance in the atmosphere. Plants with higher content of silicon in shoot or root are very few prone to attack by pests, and exhibit increased stress resistance. However, the more remarkable impact of silicon is the decrease in the number of seed intensities/soil-borne and foliar diseases of major plant varieties that are infected by biotrophic, hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. The amelioration in disease symptoms are due to the effect of silicon on a some factors involved in providing host resistance namely, duration of incubation, size, shape and number of lesions. The formation of a mechanical barrier beneath the cuticle and in the cell walls by the polymerization of silicon was first proposed as to how this element decreases plant disease severity. The current understanding of how this element enhances resistance in plants subjected to biotic stress, the exact functions and mechanisms by which it modulates plant biology by potentiating the host defence mechanism needs to be studied using genomics, metabolomics and proteomics. The role of silicon in helping the plants in adaption to biotic stress has been discussed which will help to plan in a systematic way the development of more sustainable agriculture for food security and safety in the future.


Assuntos
Silício , Estresse Fisiológico , Agricultura , Plantas , Solo
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