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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, a small body of evidence suggests that sleep problems are positively associated with subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). However, no studies on this topic exist from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between sleep problems and SCC in a large sample of middle-age and older adults from 45 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative, community-based data were analyzed from the World Health Survey. Sleep problems (such as difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning) in the last 30 days were self-reported. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 (No SCC) to 100 (worse SCC). Multivariable linear regression was conducted to explore the association between sleep problems (exposure) and SCC (outcome). RESULTS: Data on 60,228 adults aged ≥ 50 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 61.4 (9.9) years; 53.9% females]. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those without sleep problems, the mean SCC score for the multivariable model was 13.32 (95% CI 12.01, 14.63), 19.46 (95% CI 17.95, 20.98), 24.17 (95% CI 22.02, 26.33), and 31.39 (95% CI 28.13, 34.65) points higher for mild, moderate, severe, and extreme sleep problems, respectively. Similar results were found for analyses stratified by age and country-income level. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems were positively associated in a dose-response manner with SCC among middle-aged and older adults in multiple LMICs. Addressing sleep problems may aid in the prevention of SCC and ultimately dementia, pending future longitudinal research.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 532-539, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no multi-country studies on the association between informal caregiving and anxiety from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated this relationship in a large predominantly nationally representative sample from 47 LMICs. METHODS: Cross sectional data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe or extreme problems with worries or anxiety in the past 30 days. Information on caregiving in the past 12 months was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, household size, employment, disability, and country was conducted. Data on 237,952 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 50.8% female] were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, caregiving was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.65). Greater number of caregiving activities was associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms dose-dependently, with the OR (95%CI) for engagement in 5 activities (vs. no caregiving) being 2.19 (1.86-2.58). CONCLUSION: Caregiving is associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms among adults in LMICs. Given the increasing importance of informal caregivers in long-term care provision and the fact that good health of caregivers is vital to sustain this system, interventions to address mental health of caregivers in LMICs are urgently needed.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 763110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867290

RESUMO

Frailty is an aging related condition, which has been defined as a state of enhanced vulnerability to stressors, leading to a limited capacity to meet homeostatic demands. Cognitive impairment is also frequent in older people, often accompanying frailty. Age is the main independent risk factor for both frailty and cognitive impairment, and compelling evidence suggests that similar age-associated mechanisms could underlie both clinical conditions. Accordingly, it has been suggested that frailty and cognitive impairment share common pathways, and some authors proposed "cognitive frailty" as a single complex phenotype. Nevertheless, so far, no clear common underlying pathways have been discovered for both conditions. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key fine-tuning regulators in most physiological processes, as well as pathological conditions. Importantly, miRNAs have been proposed as both peripheral biomarkers and potential molecular factors involved in physiological and pathological aging. In this review, we discuss the evidence linking changes of selected miRNAs expression with frailty and cognitive impairment. Overall, miR-92a-5p and miR-532-5p, as well as other miRNAs implicated in pathological aging, should be investigated as potential biomarkers (and putative molecular effectors) of cognitive frailty.

4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 73: 101534, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861456

RESUMO

Animal models have indicated that influenza vaccination may prevent or delay the onset of dementia. However, the epidemiological evidence in human beings is still limited. Given this background, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current state of the art of observational studies investigating the association between influenza vaccination and the risk of dementia. We searched Scopus and Pubmed/Medline until 24 September 2021 for studies investigating the risk of dementia by influenza vaccination status. After adjustment for potentially important confounding variables, data were reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 273 articles initially evaluated, five were included for a total of 292,157 older people free from dementia at baseline (mean age=75.5 ± 7.4 years; 46.8% females). All studies were of high quality. Over a mean follow-up of 9 years, influenza vaccination mitigated the risk of dementia (RR=0.97; 95%CI: 0.94-1.00; I2 =99%). This association held after adjustment for a mean of nine potential confounders (RR=0.71; 95%CI: 0.60-0.94; I2 =95.9%). In sensitivity analysis, removing one study from the adjusted analyses, the adjusted RR remained similar (RR= 0.67; 95%CI: 0.63-0.70), but the heterogeneity disappears (I2 =0%). In conclusion, influenza vaccination was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia suggesting that the vaccination of older people against influenza may also aid in the prevention of dementia.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886161

RESUMO

Frailty is a common syndrome in older people that carries an increased risk of mortality. Two main models describe frailty, either as a loss of physical functions or as an accumulation of multiple deficits. The aim of our study was to compare the physical frailty index developed in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) with a multidimensional frailty tool, the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), in predicting death in community-dwelling older subjects. Four hundred and seven community-dwelling older subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) with calculation of the MPI and CHS index. Mortality was recorded over the following 5 years. In the overall sample (mean age of 77.9 ± 4.5 years; 51.6% female), 53 subjects (13%) died during the 5-year follow-up period. Both the MPI and CHS index were able to predict mortality; however, the MPI was significantly more accurate than the CHS index in predicting mortality (C-index = 0.69 and 0.59, respectively; p < 0.001), with a statistically significant difference of 10%. In conclusion, multidimensional frailty, assessed by the MPI, predicts five-year mortality in community-dwelling older people better than physical frailty, as assessed by the CHS index. These findings suggest the usefulness of assessing frailty by means of CGA-based tools to predict relevant health-negative outcomes in older people.

6.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 5, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905117

RESUMO

In this longitudinal study, with a follow-up of 8 years, multidimensional prognostic index (MPI), a product of the comprehensive geriatric assessment, significantly predicted the onset of fractures in older people affected by knee osteoarthritis. PURPOSE: Frailty may be associated with higher fracture risk, but limited research has been carried out using a multidimensional approach to frailty assessment and diagnosis. The present research aimed to investigate whether the MPI, based on comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), is associated with the risk of fractures in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) study. METHODS: Community-dwellers affected by knee OA or at high risk for this condition were followed-up for 8 years. A standardized CGA including information on functional, nutritional, mood, comorbidity, medication, quality of life, and co-habitation status was used to calculate the MPI. Fractures were diagnosed using self-reported information. Cox's regression analysis was carried out and results are reported as hazard ratios (HRs), with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 4024 individuals (mean age 61.0 years, females = 59.0%). People with incident fractures had a significant higher MPI baseline value than those without (0.42 ± 0.18 vs. 0.40 ± 0.17). After adjusting for several potential confounders, people with an MPI over 0.66 (HR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-2.00) experienced a higher risk of fractures. An increase in 0.10 point in MPI score corresponded to an increase in fracture risk of 4% (HR = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.008-1.07). Higher MPI values were also associated with a higher risk of non-vertebral clinical fractures. CONCLUSION: Higher MPI values at baseline were associated with an increased risk of fractures, reinforcing the importance of CGA in predicting fractures in older people affected by knee OA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of weight modification on future dementia risk is currently a subject of debate and may be modified by age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (a preclinical stage of dementia) in middle-aged and older adults residing in six low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative data. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) were analyzed. MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. BMI (kg/m2) was based on measured weight and height and categorized as: underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30.0). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Data on 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities were analyzed [mean (SD) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 51.7% females]. Among those aged 50-64 years, compared to normal weight, underweight (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.14-1.81), overweight (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.002-1.37), and obesity (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.09-1.94) were all significantly associated with higher odds for MCI. In those aged ≥65 years, underweight (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54-0.95) and overweight (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.55-0.94) were associated with significantly lower odds for MCI, while obesity was not significantly associated with MCI. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that the association between BMI and MCI is likely moderated by age. Future longitudinal studies are required to confirm or refute the present findings before recommendations for policy and practice can be made.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present article reports an overview of the studies about combination treatment with citicoline of Alzheimer's (AD) and mixed dementia (MD). METHODS: A Medline search was carried out by using the keywords Alzheimer's dementia, mixed dementia, older people, treatment with citicoline, memantine, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs). RESULTS: Six studies were found to match the combination treatment of citicoline with AcheIs and/or memantine. The CITIRIVAD and CITICHOLINAGE studies were the first to report the potential benefits of adding citicoline to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs). Then, we added citicoline to memantine in the CITIMEM study, and finally, we demonstrated benefits in terms of delay in cognitive worsening with the triple therapy (citicoline + AchEIs + memantine). Other authors also reinforced our hypothesis through two further studies. CONCLUSIONS: Open, prospective studies are advised to confirm the utility of combination therapy with citicoline for the treatment of AD and MD.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary acrylamide is found in certain foods, such as deep frying, baking and roasting, and is associated with higher inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. The association between dietary acrylamide and physical performance has not yet been explored. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dietary acrylamide intake and physical performance tests in a large cohort of North American individuals affected by knee osteoarthritis or at high risk for this condition. METHODS: Dietary acrylamide intake was obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and reported in quartiles and as an increase in deciles. Physical performance was explored using the 20-meter usual pace test, the 400-meter walking distance, and the chair stands time. The association between dietary acrylamide and physical performance tests was explored using linear regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: 4,436 participants (2,578 women, mean age: 61.3) were enrolled. People in the highest quartile of dietary acrylamide reported significantly longer 20-meter walking (15.53±3.32 vs. 15.15±2.91 s), 400-meter walking (312±54 vs. 305±58 s) and chair stands (11.36±4.08 vs. 10.67±3.50 s) times than their counterparts in Q1. In adjusted linear regression analyses, each increase in one decile in dietary acrylamide was associated with a longer time in walking for 20 meters (beta = 0.032; 95%CI: 0.016-0.048; p = 0.04), 400 meters (beta = 0.048; 95%CI: 0.033-0.063; p = 0.002) and chair stands (beta = 0.016; 95%CI: 0.005-0.037; p = 0.04) times. CONCLUSION: Higher dietary acrylamide intake was significantly associated with poor physical performance, also after accounting for potential confounders, suggesting a role for this food contaminant as a possible risk factor for sarcopenia.

11.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Task Force for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation (AF) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published in 2020 the updated Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation with the contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the ESC and the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this narrative viewpoint, we approach AF from the perspective of aging medicine and try to provide the readers with information usually neglected in clinical routine, mainly due to the fact that while the large majority of AF patients in real life are older, frail and cognitively impaired, these are mostly excluded from clinical trials, and physicians' attitudes often prevail over standardized algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of existing evidence, (1) opportunistic AF screening by pulse palpation or ECG rhythm strip is cost-effective, and (2) whereas advanced chronological age by itself is not a contraindication to AF treatment, a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) including frailty, cognitive impairment, falls and bleeding risk may assist in clinical decision making to provide the best individualized treatment.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836329

RESUMO

There is a large and growing body of literature focusing on the use of oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation for improving glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters in participants with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes, compared with a placebo. Several databases were searched investigating the effect of oral Mg supplementation vs placebo in patients with diabetes or conditions at high risk of diabetes. Data were reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using follow-up data of glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters. Compared with placebo, Mg supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose in people with diabetes. In people at high risk of diabetes, Mg supplementation significantly improved plasma glucose per se, and after a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, Mg supplementation demonstrated an improvement in insulin sensitivity markers. In conclusion, Mg supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes. Moreover, our work indicates that Mg supplementation may improve insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes.

13.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836334

RESUMO

Multiple factors combined are currently recognized as contributors to cognitive decline. The main independent risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia is advanced age followed by other determinants such as genetic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors, including nutrition and physical activity. In the next decades, a rise in dementia cases is expected due largely to the aging of the world population. There are no hitherto effective pharmaceutical therapies to treat age-associated cognitive impairment and dementia, which underscores the crucial role of prevention. A relationship among diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors with cognitive function has been intensively studied with mounting evidence supporting the role of these determinants in the development of cognitive decline and dementia, which is a chief cause of disability globally. Several dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have been investigated in this regard, with some encouraging and other disappointing results. This review presents the current evidence for the effects of dietary patterns, dietary components, some supplements, physical activity, sleep patterns, and social engagement on the prevention or delay of the onset of age-related cognitive decline and dementia.

14.
Exp Gerontol ; 156: 111624, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that multimorbidity is associated with sarcopenia. However, to date, this association has not been extensively investigated longitudinally. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to explore the association between multimorbidity at baseline and sarcopenia onset over 12 years of follow-up in a large representative sample of the English older adult population. METHODS: Representative data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. Multimorbidity at baseline was defined as ≥2 medical conditions, of 17 conditions included. Participants were considered to have sarcopenia if they had low handgrip strength and skeletal muscle mass (i.e., lower skeletal mass index) at waves 4, 6, 8. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess prospective associations between multimorbidity at baseline and sarcopenia at follow-up. RESULTS: 2873 older participants (mean age: 69.1 years, 54% females) who did not have sarcopenia at baseline were included. The prevalence of multimorbidity at baseline was 57.3%. Over twelve years of follow-up, 394 participants (=13.7% of the initial population) became sarcopenic. The presence of multimorbidity at baseline was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia during follow-up (OR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.61-2.62) in the univariable analysis, and even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: In this large representative sample of older adults from the UK, multimorbidity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia during twelve-year follow-up. It may be prudent to target those with multimorbidity to aid in the prevention of sarcopenia.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Loss of weight is associated with cognitive decline as well as several adverse outcomes in dementia. The aim of this study was to assess whether weight loss is associated with mortality and hospitalization in dementia subtypes. METHODS: A cohort of 11,607 patients with dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) was assembled from a large dementia care health records database in Southeast London. A natural language processing algorithm was developed to established whether loss of weight was recorded around the time of dementia diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to examine the associations of reported weight loss with mortality and emergency hospitalization. RESULTS: Weight loss around the time of dementia was recorded in 25.5% of the whole sample and was most common in patients with DLB. A weight loss-related increased risk for mortality was detected after adjustment for confounders (Hazard ratio (HR):1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-1.15) and in patients with AD (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.20), but not in DLB and VD. Weight loss was associated with a significantly increased emergency hospitalization risk (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.08-1.20) and in all three subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: While there were associations with increased hospitalization risk for all three subtype diagnoses, weight loss was only associated with increased mortality in AD. Weight loss should be considered as an accompanying symptom in dementia and interventions should be considered to ameliorate risk of adverse outcomes.

16.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101498, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700009

RESUMO

Frailty is a common condition in older people. The epidemiological data available, however, are mainly based on the physical frailty phenotype. An extensive literature has suggested that frailty should be identified using a multidimensional approach. Based on these recommendations, we estimated the prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty in the older population, using the multidimensional prognostic index (MPI), a common tool for defining multidimensional frailty. We searched several databases until 10th May 2021 for studies reporting the prevalence of frailty according to MPI values. MPI was categorized, where possible, in < 0.33 (robustness), 0.33-0.66 (pre-frailty) and > 0.66 (frailty) or using a RECursive Partition and AMalgamation approach. A meta-analysis of the prevalence, with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pre-frailty and frailty was performed stratified by setting (population-based, ambulatory, nursing home, and hospital). Among 177 papers initially screened, we included 57 studies for a total of 56,407 older people. The mean age was 78.6 years, with a slight prevalence of women (58%). The overall prevalence of multidimensional frailty (MPI-3) was 26.8% (95%CI: 22.1-31.5), being higher in nursing home setting (51.5%) and lower in population-based studies (13.3%). The prevalence of pre-frailty (MPI-2) was 36.4% (95%CI: 33.1-39.7), being higher in hospital setting (39.3%) and lower in nursing home (20%). In conclusion, frailty and pre-frailty, according to a multidimensional definition, are common in older people affecting, respectively, one person over four and one over three. Our work further strengths the importance of screening frailty in older people using a multidimensional approach.

18.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight may be a risk factor for anxiety; however, there is a scarcity of studies on this association in older adults especially from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The BMI was based on measured weight and height and was categorized as: < 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), 30.0-34.9 kg/m2 (obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity class II), and ≥ 40 kg/m2 (obesity class III). Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥ 50 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD 16.0 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed. Overall, compared to normal weight, only underweight was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.26-1.95). Obesity class III (vs. normal weight) was associated with significantly increased odds for anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.15; 95%CI = 1.49-11.59) only among males. CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of older adults from LMICs, underweight was associated with anxiety symptoms in males and females. Class III obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only in males. Future studies to shed light on the reason why severe obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only among males in LMICs are needed.

19.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101489, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662744

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to have more severe health outcomes in older people specifically in relation to mortality and disability. Vaccination seems to be efficacious and safe for preventing the negative consequences of COVID-19, but vaccine hesitancy seems to be high in older adults. We therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of unwillingness and the uncertainty to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older people and the factors that can be associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate. For this work, we searched several databases until 18th June 2021 for studies reporting the prevalence of unwillingness and the uncertainty to vaccinate against COVID-19 in people aged >60 years. A meta-analysis of the prevalence, with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals (CIs), was proposed. Factors that can be associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 were explored through multivariable analyses and reported as odds ratios (ORs). Among 662 papers initially screened, we included 15 studies for a total of 9753 older adults. The prevalence of unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older people was 27.03% (95%CI: 15.10-38.95%), whilst the correspondent figure of uncertainty was 19.33% (95%CI: 12.28-26.39). The risk of being unvaccinated was significantly higher in Hispanics (OR=1.197; 95%CI: 1.010-1.418) and in case of low education (OR=1.678; 95%CI: 1.170-2.408) and low income (OR=1.287; 95%CI: 1.127-1.469). In conclusion, the hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccination is a relevant problem in older people, particularly in those with a low income, a low level of education, and in Hispanics living in the United States.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza , Vacinação
20.
Schizophr Res ; 237: 131-140, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite respiratory disease being a major cause of excess mortality in people with schizophrenia, the prevalence of respiratory conditions in this population is poorly defined. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to establish the prevalence and association of respiratory diseases in people with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from inception to 27 April 2020 for articles reporting respiratory disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], pneumonia, and tuberculosis) in people with schizophrenia and, where possible, a control group. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018115137). RESULTS: Of 1569 citations, 21 studies consisting of 619,214 individuals with schizophrenia and 52,159,551 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia had significantly higher rates of COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.28-2.57), asthma (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.02-2.83), and pneumonia (OR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.10-6.23). In people with schizophrenia, the prevalence of COPD was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.0-14.4), asthma 7.5% (95% CI: 4.9-11.3), pneumonia 10.3% (95% CI 5.4-18.6), and tuberculosis 0.3% (95% CI 0.1 -0.8). After adjusting for publication bias, the prevalence of COPD increased to 19.9% (95% CI: 9.6-36.7). DISCUSSION: All respiratory diseases examined were significantly more prevalent in people with schizophrenia compared with the general population. Future studies should focus on improving the prevention and management of respiratory disease in this group to reduce associated excess mortality.

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