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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We address novelty regarding metabolomic profiling in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, in an attempt to postulate potential treatment strategies. METHODS: A large-scale literature search in existing scientific websites focusing on the keywords "renal cell carcinoma", "clear cell histology", "papillary histology", "metabolomic profiling", and "therapeutics" was performed. Results: The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is key in clear cell RCC metabolism and accordingly several drugs are presently available for routine use in clinical practice. Along this line, new treatment combinations against PI3K/Akt family members are currently under clinical investigation. On the other hand, new developed targets such as c-Met tyrosine kinase domain, glutathione (GSH) metabolism, and histone deacetylases enzymes (HDAC), as well as therapeutic strategies targeting them are currently being tested in clinical trials and here discussed. CONCLUSIONS: In RCC patients, the PI3K/Akt signaling is still the most effective targetable pathway. Targeting other metabolic pathways such as c-Met, GSH, and HDAC appears to be a promising approach and deserve further insights.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 732766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422672

RESUMO

Various definitions are currently in use to describe high-risk prostate cancer. This variety in definitions is important for patient counseling, since predicted outcomes depend on which classification is applied to identify patient's prostate cancer risk category. Historically, strategies for the treatment of localized high-risk prostate cancer comprise local approaches such as surgery and radiotherapy, as well as systemic approaches such as hormonal therapy. Nevertheless, since high-risk prostate cancer patients remain the group with higher-risk of treatment failure and mortality rates, nowadays, novel treatment strategies, comprising hypofractionated-radiotherapy, second-generation antiandrogens, and hadrontherapy, are being explored in order to improve their long-term oncological outcomes. This narrative review aims to report the current management of high-risk prostate cancer and to explore the future perspectives in this clinical setting.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

4.
Urol Oncol ; 39(10): 736.e1-736.e7, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report long-term oncological outcomes after penile-sparing surgery (PSS) for superficial (Ta-Tis) or initially invasive (T1) penile cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 85 patients with Ta/Tis/T1cN0cM0 penile cancer (1996-2018). All patients underwent PSS: circumcision, excision or laser ablation. First, Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression models tested tumor recurrence rates (any local/regional/metastatic). Second, Kaplan-Meier plots depicted progression-free survival (≥T2 or N1-3 or M1 disease). RESULTS: Median (IQR) follow-up time was 64 (48-95) months. Overall, 48 (56%) patients experienced tumor recurrence. Median (IQR) time to tumor recurrence was 34 (7-52) months. Higher recurrence rates were observed for Tis (65%) and T1 (64%), compared to Ta (40%), but these differences were not significant on multivariable Cox regression analyses (HR:2.0 with 95% CI [0.9-5.1] and HR:2.2 with 95% CI [0.9-5.9], respectively). Moreover, higher recurrence rates were observed for G2-3 tumors (74%), compared to G1 (57%), but these differences were not significant on multivariable Cox regression analyses (HR:1.6; 95% CI [0.8-3.2]). During follow-up, 15 (17.5%) vs. 18 (21.2%) vs. 10 (11.5%) patients underwent 1 vs. 2 vs. ≥3 PSS. Moreover, 26 (30.6%) and 4 (4.7%) men were treated with glansectomy and partial/total penile amputation due to local progression, tumor size or patient preference. Additionally, 24 (28%) men underwent invasive nodal staging. Last, 22 (25.9%) patients experienced disease progression. Median (IQR) time to disease progression was 51 (31-82) months. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with PSS for newly diagnosed superficial or initially invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis should be informed about the non-negligible risk of tumor recurrence and disease progression over time. In consequence, strict follow-up protocols are needed.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809465

RESUMO

Cancer patients may be at high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2. Analyzing their prognosis, examining the effects of baseline characteristics and systemic anti-cancer active therapy (SACT) are critical to their management through the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. The AIOM-L CORONA was a multicenter, observational, ambispective, cohort study, with the intended participation of 26 centers in the Lombardy region (Italy). A total of 231 cases were included between March and September 2020. The median age was 68 years; 151 patients (62.2%) were receiving SACT, mostly chemotherapy. During a median follow-up of 138 days (range 12-218), 93 events occurred. Age ≥60 years, metastatic dissemination, dyspnea, desaturation, and interstitial pneumonia were all independent mortality predictors. Overall SACT had a neutral effect (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.83, 95%Confidence Interval [95%CI] 0.32-2.15); however, metastatic patients receiving SACT were less likely to die as compared to untreated counterparts, after adjusting for other confounding variables (OR 0.23, 95%CI 0.11-0.51, p < 0.001). Among cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, those with metastases were most at risk of death, especially in the absence of SACT. During the ongoing pandemic, these vulnerable patients should avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2, while treatment adjustments and prioritizing vaccination are being considered according to international recommendations.

6.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1521-1529, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850786

RESUMO

Over the last few years efficacy of immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has been investigated in patients with bladder cancer (BC) at all stages. The present article aims to assess new therapeutic options with emerging agents in BC patients, shedding light on ICI-based treatments encompassing all disease stages, from non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) to muscle-invasive (MIBC) BC, concluding with metastatic MIBC. In bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) unresponsive patients with carcinoma in situ, pembrolizumab has been recently approved. In the neoadjuvant setting, results from two clinical trials seem to identify pathological and genomic features of highly responsive tumors. Squamous cells and lymphoepithelioma/like histotypes, programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and high levels of activate T cells have been associated with higher response rate. In the metastatic setting, only 30% of patient may respond to ICI. A panel of biomarkers for patient selection is an actual need since the correlation between response and PD-L1 expression seem inconsistent across clinical trials, with some exceptions. Molecular characterization of BC, tumor mutation burden and immune-gene expression profiling might introduce new molecular biomarkers, hopefully transferable into the clinical-pathological practice.

7.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321757

RESUMO

Around 80-90% of prostate cancer (PCa) cases are dependent on androgens at initial diagnosis; hence, androgen ablation therapy directed toward a reduction in serum androgens and the inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) is generally the first therapy adopted. However, the patient's response to androgen ablation therapy is variable, and 20-30% of PCa cases become castration resistant (CRPCa). Several mechanisms can guide treatment resistance to anti-AR molecules. In this regard, AR-dependent and -independent resistance mechanisms can be distinguished within the AR pathway. In this article, we investigate the multitude of AR signaling aspects, encompassing the biological structure of AR, current AR-targeted therapies, mechanisms driving resistance to AR, and AR crosstalk with other pathways, in an attempt to provide a comprehensive review for the PCa research community. We also summarize the new anti-AR drugs approved in non-metastatic castration-resistant PCa, in the castration-sensitive setting, and combination therapies with other drugs.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 140-146, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of complicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is still unclear if the risk of mortality is influenced by cancer type or ongoing anti-cancer treatments. An interesting debate concerning the potential relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been opened in the case of prostate cancer (PC), and the aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with mCRPC who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recorded their baseline clinical characteristics, their history of PC and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their oncological status and treatment at the time of infection. The primary study end point was the death rate and the possible impact of the patients' PC-related history and treatments on mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 1433 patients with mCRPC attending the participating centres (2.3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 22 (64.7%) of whom were hospitalised. Most of the patients were symptomatic, the most frequent symptoms being fever (70.6%), dyspnoea (61.8%), cough (52.9%) and fatigue (38.2%). After a median follow-up of 21 days (interquartile range: 13-41), 13 patients had died (38.2%), 17 recovered (50.0%) and four (11.7%) were still infected. The number of treatments previously administered for mCRPC had a significant impact on mortality (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute additional data to the current debate concerning the postulated protective role of ADT, which seems to be less in patients with metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , COVID-19 , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Andrologia ; 52(6): e13613, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352182

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the incidence of prosthesis-related complications in patients who received a testicular prosthesis at the time of radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and were then treated with chemotherapy (ChT) or radiotherapy (RT). We reviewed the records of the patients who underwent radical orchiectomy at our Institute since 1999; we also retrieved data from patients who underwent surgery elsewhere and then received ChT or RT at our Institution since 1999. We used the chi-square test to evaluate differences in the incidence of prosthesis-related complications between the groups. We retrieved the records of 587 patients; 393 had a testicular prosthesis implanted. Median follow-up was 57.7 months. One hundred thirty-eight patients (35.11%) received ChT, 129 RT (38.82%) and 10 (2.55%) both ChT and RT; of them, 6 (4.34%), 8 (6.20%) and 0 reported problems respectively. Seven (6.03%) of the 116 patients (29.52%) who had no further treatment had complications. The incidence of complications was not significantly different between patients who had no further treatment versus patients who underwent ChT (p = .75) or RT (p = .83). Testicular prosthesis insertion at the time of radical orchiectomy is safe even in patients subsequently undergoing ChT or RT.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Remoção de Dispositivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Orquiectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Testículo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(6): 381-387, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) is the most common and successful chemotherapy regimen for germ-cell tumor (GCT) patients, accompanied by a bleomycin-induced dose-dependent lung toxicity in certain patients. In an attempt to reduce bleomycin-toxicity, we developed a modified-BEP (mBEP) regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2008 and February 2018, 182 unselected mainly testicular GCT patients (39 with adjuvant purpose and 143 with curative purpose) received a tri-weekly 5-day hospitalization schedule with bleomycin 15 U intravenous (IV) push on day 1 and 10 U IV continuous infusion over 12 hours on days 1 to 3, cisplatin 20 mg/m IV, and etoposide 100 mg/m IV on days 1 to 5. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed through chest computed tomography scan and clinical monitoring. RESULTS: Median number of mBEP cycles was 3 (range: 1 to 4). In the curative setting, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) prognostic system, 112, 21, and 9 patients had good-risk, intermediate-risk, and poor-risk class, respectively; 66 (46%) patients had complete response (CR), 67 (47%) had partial response (52 of whom became CR afterwards), 6 (4%) had stable disease (that in 3 became CR afterwards), 3 (2%) progressed, and 1 (1%) died of brain stroke. At a median follow-up of 2.67 years (interquartile range: 1.23-5.00 y), 1 and 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 99% and 95%, and 90% and 88%, respectively. In the entire patient population, there was grade 3/4 neutropenia in 92 patients (51%), febrile neutropenia in 11 patients (6%), grade 1/2 nausea in 74 patients (41%), and no death due to pulmonary toxicity. CONCLUSION: In GCT patients, our mBEP-schedule would suggest an effective treatment modality without suffering meaningful pulmonary toxicity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Institutos de Câncer , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Oncol ; 59(5): 541-548, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090645

RESUMO

Objective: To compare radiation-induced toxicity and dosimetry parameters in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (LANPC) treated with a mixed-beam (MB) approach (IMRT followed by proton therapy boost) with an historic cohort of patients treated with a full course of IMRT-only.Material and methods: Twenty-seven patients with LANPC treated with the MB approach were compared to a similar cohort of 17 patients treated with IMRT-only. The MB approach consisted in a first phase of IMRT up to 54-60 Gy followed by a second phase delivered with a proton therapy boost up to 70-74 Gy (RBE). The total dose for patients treated with IMRT-only was 69.96 Gy. Induction chemotherapy was administrated to 59 and 88% and concurrent chemoradiotherapy to 88 and 100% of the MB and IMRT-only patients, respectively. The worst toxicity occurring during the entire course of treatment (acute toxicity) and early-late toxicity were registered according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V4.03.Results: The two cohorts were comparable. Patients treated with MB received a significantly higher median total dose to target volumes (p = .02). Acute grade 3 mucositis was found in 11 and 76% (p = .0002) of patients treated with MB and IMRT-only approach, respectively, while grade 2 xerostomia was found in 7 and 35% (p = .02) of patients treated with MB and IMRT-only, respectively. There was no statistical difference in late toxicity. Local progression-free survival (PFS) and progression-free survival curves were similar between the two cohorts of patients (p = .17 and p = .40, respectively). Local control rate was 96% and 81% for patients treated with MB approach and IMRT-only, respectively.Conclusions: Sequential MB approach for LANPC patients provides a significantly lower acute toxicity profile compared to full course of IMRT. There were no differences in early-late morbidities and disease-related outcomes (censored at two-years) but a longer follow-up is required to achieve conclusive results.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosite/diagnóstico , Mucosite/epidemiologia , Mucosite/etiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Xerostomia/diagnóstico , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Urol Oncol ; 37(8): 529.e1-529.e7, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if a first-line treatment delay (TD) can negatively affect the outcomes of patients affected by metastatic renal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of metastatic renal cancer who were ineligible for active surveillance were included in the sample. A TD was defined as the time from the diagnosis of metastatic disease to the start of first-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. RESULTS: A total of 835 patients were assessed and 635 were included in the final analysis. The median TD was 6.3 weeks. No significant differences were found in baseline characteristics between patients experiencing a TD below/equal to or above the median value, with the exceptions being the rate of bone metastases (25.3% vs. 35.9%) and advanced disease at diagnosis (34.7% vs. 54.9%). In patients who had received a previous nephrectomy for localized disease, the TD was 5.3 compared to 8.0 weeks for those with metastatic disease at diagnosis (P = 0.001). Among this latter group, 68.7% had received a cytoreductive nephrectomy. In patients with a TD below/equal to and above the median value, the median progression-free survival was 10.3 and 11.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence intervals, 0.86-1.22; P = 0.78); the median overall survival was 27.3 and 28.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence intervals, 0.86-1.27; P = 0.68). The lack of differences was confirmed when adjusted for prognostic factors and baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports that patients with bone metastases and advanced disease at diagnosis have a significant probability of experiencing delayed first-line therapy of more than 6 weeks from the time of diagnosis. However, a TD does not significantly affect outcomes and survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento
15.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 137: 154-164, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No compelling evidence is available about surveillance and follow-up of patients with testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT). METHODS: In the light of the best clinical evidence, the Italian Germ cell cancer Group (IGG) and the Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica (AIOM) set up a multidisciplinary national consensus conference, involving 42 leading experts and 3 TGCT survivors. A minimum of 50% of votes was required in order to achieve a consensus recommendation on 29 questions. RESULTS: Recommendations have been summarized in three tables, divided by stage I seminoma, stage I nonseminoma and the advanced disease, which may be useful for clinicians to appropriately choose the clinical investigation and its timing during the surveillance and follow-up of TGCT patients based on an accurate estimation of their risk of disease relapse. CONCLUSIONS: The IGG-AIOM consensus recommendations may help clinicians to choose appropriate clinical investigations for the surveillance and follow-up of TGCT patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Consenso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Seminoma/diagnóstico
16.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 15(4): e609-e614, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pazopanib is a standard first-line treatment for metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Very few data on its activity in non-clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) are currently available. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze efficacy and toxicity of pazopanib in nccRCC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records from advanced nccRCC patients (consecutive sample) treated with first-line pazopanib between 2010 and 2015 at 17 Italian centers were reviewed. Response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Univariate and descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with nccRCC were treated with first-line pazopanib; 51% had papillary histology, 24% chromophobe, 22% unclassified, and 3% had Xp11.2 translocation. Dose reductions/temporary interruptions for toxicity were required in 46% of cases. Grade (G) 3/4 toxicity was seen in 32%, G1/2 in 89% of cases; 81% achieved disease control, with 10 partial responses (27%) and 20 cases of stable disease (54%); 16% of patients had disease progression as best response. Median PFS and OS were 15.9 and 17.3 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, nephrectomy (P = .020), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) score (P < .001), basal neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR; P = .009) and performance status (PS) (P = .001) were associated with PFS; MSKCC score (P < .001), International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium score (P = .003), PS (P < .0001), nephrectomy (P = .002), histology (P = .035), dose reductions/interruptions (P = .039), best response to treatment (P < .001), and NLR (P = .008) were associated with OS. CONCLUSION: In nccRCC patients, treatment with pazopanib was effective and feasible; dose reductions required for toxicity were similar as expected in ccRCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Anticancer Drugs ; 28(2): 206-212, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27754995

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related toxicities have been reported to be predictive and/or prognostic factors in patients affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We aim to investigate the incidence of cumulative toxicity and its prognostic role in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib. mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan were reviewed for the incidence of adverse events. Cumulative toxicity was defined as the presence of more than one selected adverse event of any grade. Prognoses were evaluated by the International mRCC Database Consortium criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis. A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis. Only 18.3% did not experience any of the selected toxicities: 26.9% had one, 35.6% had two and 19.2% all three toxicities. Accordingly, 54.8% of patients experienced cumulative toxicity. In those with or without cumulative toxicity, the median PFS was 27.6 versus 7.2 months and the median OS was 61.2 versus 18.7 months, respectively. When cumulative toxicity was adjusted for International mRCC Database Consortium prognostic groups, it maintained its prognostic role for both PFS (hazard ratio: 0.31, 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.49; P<0.001) and OS (hazard ratio: 0.27, 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.48; P<0.001). A major limitation was the retrospective and monocentric nature of the analysis. We reported the prognostic role of cumulative toxicity because of hypertension, hypothyroidism and hand-foot syndrome in patients affected by mRCC and treated with sunitinib or pazopanib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 10: 657, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563352

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to access the feasibility, toxicity profile, and tumour outcome of an organ preservation curative approach in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients affected by M0 bladder cancer, who refused cystectomy and were treated with a curative approach. The standard bladder preservation scheme included maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and combination of radiotherapy and platin-based chemotherapy, followed by endoscopic evaluation, urine cytology, and instrumental evaluation. Thirteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. TNM stage was cT2cN0M0 and cT2cNxM0, in 12 and one patients, respectively. All patients had transitional cell cancer. Twelve patients completed the whole therapeutic programme (a bimodal treatment without chemotherapy for one patient). Median follow-up is 36 months. None of the patients developed severe urinary or intestinal acute toxicity. In 10 patients with a follow-up > 6 months, no cases of severe late toxicity were observed. Response evaluated in 12 patients included complete response and stable disease in 11 patients (92%), and one patient (8%), respectively. At the time of data analysis (March 2016), 10 patients (77%) are alive with no evidence of disease, two patients (15%) died for other reasons, and one patient has suspicious persistent local disease. The trimodality approach, including maximal TURBT, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, is well-tolerated and might be considered a valid and feasible option in fit patients who refuse radical cystectomy.

19.
Future Oncol ; 12(17): 2001-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255717

RESUMO

AIM: To shed light on the clinical role of HER2 status in serum as extracellular domain (ECD) and corresponding circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic breast cancer patients. METHODS: 68 patients were analyzed. Serum HER2 was determined by ADVIA Centaur(®) Serum HER2 test. CellSearch System was performed for CTC quantification. RESULTS: HER2 was overexpressed in 21 primary tumors. In total, 19 patients had ECD >15 ng/ml (the cut-off used), 48 patients had at least one CTC. ECD positivity was associated with CTC number (p = 0.01), HER2-positive CTC (p = 0.01) and the ratio HER2-positive CTC/total CTC (p = 0.02). ECD was not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: ECD in combination with HER2 CTC status would deserve further investigation in larger series for addressing its putative prognostic relevance.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Espaço Extracelular , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Medições Luminescentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Altern Complement Med ; 22(6): 486-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115042

RESUMO

Patients with cancer frequently use dietary supplementation and herbal therapies to control symptoms of disease and adverse effects of cancer therapy. Despite the widespread use of dietary supplementation and herbal therapies in oncology, robust scientific evidence in this area is lacking. Not only do these products need to be tested in large and well-designed observational or randomized studies, but their manufacturing process must be improved to achieve higher levels of standardization in product quality. Ginger is frequently used to counteract chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and some suggestions that it might be effective against CINV come from randomized and/or crossover clinical trials. However, several limitations in the methods of these studies limit their power and generalizability. The authors are conducting a randomized, double-blind study with a large sample size and homogeneous inclusion criteria in order to evaluate the efficacy of a well-standardized ginger extract in reducing nausea in patients with cancer. The widespread use of standardized herbal therapies and natural components among patients requires that scientific and rigorous research strategies are applied in this field to guide the physicians and the patients in safer use.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Gengibre/química , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Antieméticos/química , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
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