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2.
Brain Behav ; : e2340, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial factors have been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer. This study aims (1) to test whether psychosocial factors (depression, anxiety, recent loss events, subjective social support, relationship status, general distress, and neuroticism) are associated with the incidence of any cancer (any, breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, smoking-related, and alcohol-related); (2) to test the interaction between psychosocial factors and factors related to cancer risk (smoking, alcohol use, weight, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, age, sex, education, hormone replacement therapy, and menopausal status) with regard to the incidence of cancer; and (3) to test the mediating role of health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, weight, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) in the relationship between psychosocial factors and the incidence of cancer. METHODS: The psychosocial factors and cancer incidence (PSY-CA) consortium was established involving experts in the field of (psycho-)oncology, methodology, and epidemiology. Using data collected in 18 cohorts (N = 617,355), a preplanned two-stage individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis is proposed. Standardized analyses will be conducted on harmonized datasets for each cohort (stage 1), and meta-analyses will be performed on the risk estimates (stage 2). CONCLUSION: PSY-CA aims to elucidate the relationship between psychosocial factors and cancer risk by addressing several shortcomings of prior meta-analyses.

3.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564446

RESUMO

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is becoming a global public health problem, but it is unclear how it impacts different generations over the life course. Here, a descriptive analysis of the age-related changes in anthropometric measures and related cardiometabolic risk factors across different generations was performed. METHODS: The development of anthropometric measures and related cardiometabolic risk factors was studied during 26 years of follow-up in the Doetinchem Cohort Study (N = 6,314 at baseline). All analyses were stratified by sex and generation, i.e., 10-year age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 years) at baseline. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for generational differences. RESULTS: Weight, BMI, waist circumference, and prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher, in general, in the younger generations during the first 10 to 15 years of follow-up. From age 50 to 59 years onward, these measures converged in all generations of men and women. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, only type 2 diabetes showed an unfavorable shift between the two oldest generations of men. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that, compared with the older generations, the younger generations had obesity at an earlier age but did not reach higher levels at midlife and beyond. This increased exposure to obesity was not (yet) associated with increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

6.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(9): 1196-1205, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279548

RESUMO

Importance: Premature death from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes is higher among persons with diabetes. Objective: To investigate the association between time spent cycling and all-cause and CVD mortality among persons with diabetes, as well as to evaluate the association between change in time spent cycling and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 7459 adults with diabetes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Questionnaires regarding medical history, sociodemographic, and lifestyle information were administered in 10 Western European countries from 1992 through 2000 (baseline examination) and at a second examination 5 years after baseline. A total of 5423 participants with diabetes completed both examinations. The final updated primary analysis was conducted on November 13, 2020. Exposures: The primary exposure was self-reported time spent cycling per week at the baseline examination. The secondary exposure was change in cycling status from baseline to the second examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively, adjusted for other physical activity modalities, diabetes duration, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Of the 7459 adults with diabetes included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 55.9 (7.7) years, and 3924 (52.6%) were female. During 110 944 person-years of follow-up, 1673 deaths from all causes were registered. Compared with the reference group of people who reported no cycling at baseline (0 min/wk), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61-0.99), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.91) for cycling 1 to 59, 60 to 149, 150 to 299, and 300 or more min/wk, respectively. In an analysis of change in time spent cycling with 57 802 person-years of follow-up, a total of 975 deaths from all causes were recorded. Compared with people who reported no cycling at both examinations, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.71-1.14) in those who cycled and then stopped, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46-0.92) in initial noncyclists who started cycling, and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80) for people who reported cycling at both examinations. Similar results were observed for CVD mortality. Conclusion and Relevance: In this cohort study, cycling was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk among people with diabetes independent of practicing other types of physical activity. Participants who took up cycling between the baseline and second examination had a considerably lower risk of both all-cause and CVD mortality compared with consistent noncyclists.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1300, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between shift work and perceived health, including potential underlying mechanisms such as unhealthy behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unhealthy behaviors mediate the relationship between shift work and perceived mental and physical health, taking into account potential differences by level of education. METHODS: Data from 1633 workers participating in the Doetinchem Cohort Study during 1995-2016 were used. Being engaged in shift work was determined at 1 year preceding the assessment of health behaviors. Mental and physical health were assessed after 5 years of follow-up by the 5-item Mental Health Inventory and the physical functioning scale of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and overweight were considered as potential mediators and education was treated as moderator. Moderated mediation analyses using generalized estimated equations were performed. RESULTS: Shift work was not statistically significantly related to either mental or physical health. Despite this, statistically significant mediation effects of smoking (Beta - 0.09; 95% Confidence Interval - 0.20 - -0.01, respectively B -0.09; 95%CI -0.21 - -0.01) and physical inactivity (B 0.11; 95%CI 0.03-0.23, respectively B 0.08; 95%CI 0.01-0.18) were found in the relationship between shift work and mental or physical health. Direct and indirect effects outweighed each other in the relationship between shift work and mental health, since the direction of these effects was opposite. The relationship between shift work, unhealthy behavior, and health was not different by educational level. CONCLUSION: Shift workers did not report lower mental or physical health than non-shift workers. Though mediation effects of unhealthy behavior were observed in the relationship between shift work and perceived health, these small effects had minor public health relevance.


Assuntos
Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Fumar , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
9.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 56, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy food environments may contribute to unhealthy diets and risk of overweight and obesity through increased consumption of fast-food. Therefore, we aimed to study the association of relative exposure to fast-food restaurants (FFR) with overall diet quality and risk of overweight and obesity in a sample of older adults. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data of the EPIC-NL cohort (n = 8,231). Data on relative FFR exposure was obtained through linkage of home address in 2015 with a retail outlet database. We calculated relative exposure to FFR by dividing the densities of FFR in street-network buffers of 400, 1000, and 1500 m around the home of residence by the density of all food retailers in the corresponding buffer. We calculated scores on the Dutch Healthy Diet 2015 (DHD15) index using data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. BMI was categorized into normal weight (BMI < 25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30). We used multivariable linear regression (DHD15-index) and multinomial logistic regression (weight status), using quartiles of relative FFR exposure as independent variable, adjusting for lifestyle and environmental characteristics. RESULTS: Relative FFR exposure was not significantly associated with DHD15-index scores in the 400, 1000, and 1500 m buffers (ßQ4vsQ1= -0.21 [95 %CI: -1.12; 0.70]; ßQ4vsQ1= -0.12 [95 %CI: -1.10; 0.87]; ßQ4vsQ1 = 0.37 [95 %CI: -0.67; 1.42], respectively). Relative FFR exposure was also not related to overweight in consecutive buffers (ORQ4vsQ1=1.10 [95 %CI: 0.97; 1.25]; ORQ4vsQ1=0.97 [95 %CI: 0.84; 1.11]; ORQ4vsQ1= 1.04 [95 %CI: 0.90-1.20]); estimates for obesity were similar to those of overweight. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of FFR around the home of residence was not associated with diet quality or overweight and obesity in this large Dutch cohort of older adults. We conclude that although the food environment may be a determinant of food choice, this may not directly translate into effects on diet quality and weight status. Methodological improvements are warranted to provide more conclusive evidence.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Restaurantes , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 340, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores whether a sex difference in sensitivity to (strength of the association) and/or in exposure to (prevalence) determinants of gait speed contributes to the observed lower gait speed among older women compared to men. METHODS: Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. In total 2407 men and women aged 55-81 years were included, with baseline measurements in 1992/2002 and follow-up measurements every 3-4 years for 15/25 years. Multivariable mixed model analysis was used to investigate sex differences in sensitivity (interaction term with sex) and in exposure to (change of the sex difference when adjusted) socio-demographic, lifestyle, social and health determinants of gait speed. RESULTS: Women had a 0.054 m/s (95 % CI: 0.076 - 0.033, adjusted for height and age) lower mean gait speed compared to men. In general, men and women had similar determinants of gait speed. However, higher BMI and lower physical activity were more strongly associated with lower gait speed in women compared to men (i.e. higher sensitivity). More often having a lower educational level, living alone and having more chronic diseases, pain and depressive symptoms among women compared to men also contributed to observed lower gait speed in women (i.e. higher exposure). In contrast, men more often being a smoker, having a lower physical activity and a smaller personal network size compared to women contributed to a lower gait speed among men (i.e. higher exposure). CONCLUSIONS: Both a higher sensitivity and higher exposure to determinants of gait speed among women compared to men contributes to the observed lower gait speed among older women. The identified (modifiable) contributing factors should be taken into account when developing prevention and/or treatment strategies aimed to enhance healthy physical aging. This might require a sex-specific approach in both research and clinical practice, which is currently often lacking.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino
11.
Stroke ; 52(8): 2583-2591, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The few epidemiological studies that addressed the association between age at menopause and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke risk in women had conflicting findings. We aimed to investigate whether age at (natural and surgical) menopause is a risk factor for total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke in women. METHODS: We analyzed data from 16 244 postmenopausal women, aged 26 to 70 years at recruitment who were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort between 1993 and 1997. Participants were followed for the occurrence of stroke until January 1, 2011. At baseline, participants filled in questionnaires about health, reproductive history including age at menopause, diet, and lifestyle. Cox regression was used to investigate the association between age at menopause and stroke. All analyses were adjusted for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. RESULTS: Mean age of menopause was 46.4 (7.0) years. A total of 830 strokes (571 ischemic, 162 hemorrhagic, 97 unclassified) were identified. Earlier menopause was associated with an increased risk of total stroke. Compared with women who experienced menopause between 50 and 54 years old, women who underwent menopause before age 40 years had 1.48× higher risk (95% CI, 1.19-1.85) of total stroke. In continuous analyses, we observed a 2% lower total stroke risk for each year menopause was delayed (hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.97-0.99]). The risk between earlier menopause and stroke was confined to ischemic stroke, earlier menopause was not associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The association with age at menopause was stronger for natural menopause (hazard ratio <40 versus 50-54 years, 1.74 [95% CI, 1.12-2.70]) than for surgical menopause (hazard ratio <40 versus 50-54 years, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.84-1.89]). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of total and ischemic stroke decreased with an increase in age at menopause. Whether this should have clinical consequences such as intensified risk factor control should be subject of further studies.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 871-881, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet, in particular the Mediterranean diet, has been associated with better cognitive function and less cognitive decline in older populations. OBJECTIVES: To quantify associations of a healthy diet, defined by adherence to either the Mediterranean diet, the WHO guidelines, or Dutch Health Council dietary guidelines, with cognitive function and cognitive decline from middle age into old age. METHODS: From the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a large population-based longitudinal study, 3644 participants (51% females) aged 45-75 y at baseline, were included. Global cognitive function, memory, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were assessed at 5-y time intervals up to 20-y follow-up. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured with the modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS), adherence to the WHO dietary guidelines with the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and adherence to the Dutch Health Council dietary guidelines 2015 with the modified Dutch Healthy Diet 2015 index (mDHD15-index). The scores on the dietary indices were classified in tertiles (low, medium, high adherence). Linear mixed models were used to model level and change in cognitive function by adherence to healthy diets. RESULTS: The highest tertiles of the mMDS, HDI, and mDHD15-index were associated with better cognitive function compared with the lowest tertiles (P values <0.01), for instance at age 65 y equal to being 2 y cognitively younger in global cognition. In addition, compared with the lowest tertiles, the highest tertiles of the mMDS, HDI, and mDHD15-index were statistically significantly associated with 6-7% slower global cognitive decline from age 55 to 75 y, but also slower decline in processing speed (for mMDS: 10%; 95% CI: 2, 18%; for mDHD15: 12%; 95% CI: 6, 21%) and cognitive flexibility (for mDHD15: 10%; 95% CI: 4, 18%). CONCLUSIONS: Healthier dietary habits, determined by higher adherence to dietary guidelines, are associated with better cognitive function and slower cognitive decline with aging from middle age onwards.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Disfunção Cognitiva , Dieta Saudável/normas , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564885

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the association between past level of physical activity (PA) and risk for death during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) in a pooled analysis of cohort studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: European cohorts including participants with a baseline assessment of PA, conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and available follow-up on MI and death were eligible. Patients with an incident MI were included. Leisure-time PA was grouped as sedentary (<7 MET-hours), low (7-16 MET-hours), moderate (16.1-32 MET-hours), or high (>32 MET-hours) based on calculated net weekly energy expenditure. The main outcome measures were instant and 28-day case fatality of MI. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate random-effects models. Adjustments for age, sex, CV risk factors, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status were made. From 10 cohorts including a total of 1 495 254 participants, 28 140 patients with an incident MI comprised the study population. A total of 4976 (17.7%) died within 28 days-of these 3101 (62.3%) were classified as instant fatal MI. Compared with sedentary individuals, those with a higher level of PA had lower adjusted odds of instant fatal MI: low PA [OR, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.60-1.04)], moderate PA [0.67 (0.51-0.89)], and high PA [0.55 (0.40-0.76)]. Similar results were found for 28-day fatal MI: low PA [0.85 (0.71-1.03)], moderate PA [0.64 (0.51-0.80)], and high PA [0.72 (0.51-1.00)]. A low-to-moderate degree of heterogeneity was detected in the analysis of instant fatal MI (I2 = 47.3%), but not in that of 28-day fatal MI (I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION: A moderate-to-high level of PA was associated with a lower risk of instant and 28-day death in relation to a MI.

14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 60-66, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is still unclear whether a healthy diet can prevent heart failure (HF). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, reflected by modified Mediterranean Diet Scores (mMDS), and the incidence of HF in men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: This observational study comprised 9316 men and 27,645 women from the EPIC-NL cohort free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. mMDS was calculated using a 9-point scale based on consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruit, nuts, seeds, grains, fish, fat ratio, dairy, meat and alcohol. HF events were ascertained by linkage to nation-wide registries. Multivariable Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Over a median follow-up of 15 years (IQR 14-16), 633 HF events occurred: 144 in men (1.5%) and 489 in women (1.8%). The median mMDS was 4 (IQR 3-5). There was significant effect modification by sex (P-value for interaction <0.001), therefore results are stratified for men and women. For men, a higher mMDS associated with lower HF risk (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per point increase in mMDS; HR upper category: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.86), whereas no association was found in women (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.04 per point increase; HR upper category: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.36). CONCLUSION: Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet may reduce HF risk, particularly in men. The underlying reasons for the differences in findings between men and women need further study.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Diabetologia ; 64(2): 375-384, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048171

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Given its role in ovarian follicle development, circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered to be a marker of reproductive ageing. Although accelerated reproductive ageing has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, research on the relationship between AMH and type 2 diabetes risk is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age-specific AMH levels and age-related AMH trajectories are associated with type 2 diabetes risk in women. METHODS: We measured AMH in repeated plasma samples from 3293 female participants (12,460 samples in total), aged 20-59 years at recruitment, from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a longitudinal study with follow-up visits every 5 years. We calculated age-specific AMH tertiles at baseline to account for the strong AMH-age correlation. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to assess the association between baseline age-specific AMH tertiles and incident type 2 diabetes. We applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories for women who developed type 2 diabetes with trajectories for women who did not develop diabetes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20 years, 163 women developed type 2 diabetes. Lower baseline age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk (HRT2vsT3 1.24 [95% CI 0.81, 1.92]; HRT1vsT3 1.62 [95% CI 1.06, 2.48]; ptrend = 0.02). These findings seem to be supported by predicted AMH trajectories, which suggested that plasma AMH levels were lower at younger ages in women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not. The trajectories also suggested that AMH levels declined at a slower rate in women who developed type 2 diabetes, although differences in trajectories were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed that lower age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Longitudinal analyses did not show clear evidence of differing AMH trajectories between women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not, possibly because these analyses were underpowered. Further research is needed to investigate whether AMH is part of the biological mechanism explaining the association between reproductive ageing and type 2 diabetes. Graphical abstract.

17.
Maturitas ; 143: 216-222, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine if age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are associated with cancer risk; and to investigate if age-related AMH trajectories differ between women who develop cancer and women who do not. More specifically, we examined associations with breast cancer, cancers in other tissues expressing AMH receptor AMHR2, and cancers in non-AMHR2-expressing tissues. STUDY DESIGN: We included longitudinal data from 3025 women in the prospective Doetinchem Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of baseline age-specific AMH tertiles with cancer. We applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories between women who were diagnosed with cancer and women who were not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer (n = 385; 139 breast cancers, 112 cancers in other AMHR2-expressing tissues, 134 cancers in non-AMHR2-expressing tissues). RESULTS: Overall, baseline age-specific AMH levels were not associated with cancer risk, although in women ≤ 40 years an increased risk was suggested for breast cancer (HRT2:T1 = 2.06, 95%CI = 0.95-4.48; HRT3:T1 = 2.03, 95%CI = 0.91-4.50). Analysis of age-related AMH trajectories suggested that AMH levels were higher at younger ages and declined faster in women who were diagnosed with cancer compared with women who were not, but our results did not provide evidence for actual differences in trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not provide evidence for an association between age-specific AMH levels and age-related trajectories and risk of cancer. However, effect estimates for breast cancer were in line with risk-increasing effects found in previous studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the patterns of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption in the Netherlands; to test if exposure to the food environment is associated with UPFs consumption; and if this association differed across educational levels and neighbourhood urbanisation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using 2015-data of 8104 older adults from the Dutch EPIC cohort. Proportion of UPFs consumption was calculated from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Exposure to the food environment was defined as proximity and availability of supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, full-service restaurants, convenience stores, candy stores and cafés. Consumption of UPFs was expressed as both percentage of total grams and total kilocalories. RESULTS: The study population was aged 70(± 10 SD) years and 80.5% was female. Average UPFs consumption was 17.8% of total food intake in grams and 37% of total energy intake. Those who consumed greater amounts of UPFs had a poorer overall diet quality. Adjusted linear regression models showed that closer proximity and larger availability to any type of food retailer was associated with lower UPFs consumption (both in grams and kilocalories). Somewhat stronger significant associations were found for proximity to restaurants (ß = - 1.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = - 2.6; - 0.6), and supermarkets (ß = - 2.2%, 95%CI = - 3.3; - 1.1); i.e., Individuals living within 500 m from the closest supermarket, as compared to 1500 m, had 2.6% less calories from UPFs. No differences were found on analyses stratified for urbanisation and education. CONCLUSIONS: Using various measures of exposure to the food environment, we found that exposure to restaurants and supermarkets was associated with somewhat lower consumption of UPFs.

19.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Older women report lower mental health compared to men, yet little is known about the nature of this sex difference. Therefore, this study investigates time trends and possible risk groups. METHOD: Data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS) and the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. General mental health was assessed every 5 years, from 1995 to 1998 onwards (DCS, n = 1412, 20-year follow-up, baseline age 55-64 years). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed for two birth cohorts, from 1992/1993 onwards (LASA cohort 1, n = 967, 24-year follow-up, age 55-65 years,) and 2002/2003 onwards (LASA cohort 2, n = 1002, 12-year follow-up, age 55-65 years) with follow-up measurements every 3-4 years. RESULTS: Mixed model analyses showed that older women had a worse general mental health (-6.95; -8.36 to 5.53; range 0-100, ∼10% lower), more depressive symptoms (2.09; 1.53-2.63; range 0-60, ∼30% more) and more anxiety symptoms (0.86; 0.54-1.18; range 0-11, ∼30% more) compared to men. These sex differences remained stable until the age of 75 years, where after they decreased due to an accelerated decline in mental health for men compared to women. Sex differences and their course by age were consistent over successive birth cohorts, educational levels and ethnic groups (Caucasian vs. Turkish/Moroccan). CONCLUSION: There is a consistent female disadvantage in mental health across different sociodemographic groups and over decennia (1992 vs. 2002) with no specific risk groups.

20.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1303-1313, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199917

RESUMO

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Fumar/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
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