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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 104(2): 165-171, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of antimicrobials and increased rates of antimicrobial resistance is a challenge all over the world. Although antibiotic stewardship is recommended by the Brazilian government, data regarding antibiotic use in Brazilian hospitals are scarce. The aim of this study was to conduct a point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in 18 Brazilian hospitals. METHODS: Eighteen Brazilian hospitals conducted the Global Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance (Global-PPS) in 2017. The study enrolled inpatients on antimicrobials. Data collection included details on the antimicrobial prescriptions. A web-based programme was used for data-entry, validation and reporting. The Global-PPS was developed by the University of Antwerp and bioMérieux provided funding support. FINDINGS: A total of 1801 patients were evaluated, of which 941 (52.2%) were on antimicrobials. Four hundred (42.5%) patients were given at least two antimicrobials. Out of the 1317 antibacterials for systemic use, 514 (39%) were prescribed for community-acquired infections, 533 (40.5%) for healthcare-associated infections and 248 (18.8%) for prophylactic use. The most frequently used antimicrobials were ceftriaxone (12.8%), meropenem (12.3%) and vancomycin (10.3%). Pneumonia or lower respiratory tract infection was the most common site of infection (29.2%). In general, antimicrobials were given mainly parenterally (91%) and empirically (81.2%). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of antibiotic use was observed in the 18 Brazilian hospitals. The antibiotics were prescribed mainly empirically. Intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were the most frequent antimicrobials used, showing that reinforcement of de-escalation strategy is needed. The Global-PPS data can be very useful for monitoring stewardship programmes and intervention.

2.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 72-75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560667

RESUMO

The aims of our study were to determine antibiotic prescribing rates for prevention and treatment of infections in pediatric units, to evaluate the number and type of antimicrobial agents and administration route, reveal commonly used antibiotic subgroups and identify targets for improving the quality of antimicrobial prescribing. A 1-day PPS (Point Prevalence Study) on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was performed in Georgia from 2015 to 2019. 18 clinics in different regions of Georgia were included in the survey. Antimicrobial prevalence rates increased over the years from 60.1% in 2015 to 92.6% in 2018. The most commonly, antibiotics were prescribed for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In 2015 25.1% of LRTI were treated by ampicillin-sulbactam but the next year it replaced with ceftriaxone (37.1% in 2017 and 38.2% in 2018). In pediatric surgical ward, the antibiotics were commonly prescribed for surgical prevention (54.1% in 2015, 32.3% in 2018). The most common conditions treated with antibiotics in neonates were sepsis (30.1%) and LRTI (45.3%). The most used antibiotic was ceftriaxone (33.3% in 2015). Ampicilin-sulbactam was prescribed in 28.1% of pneumonia case in neonates in 2018. In 2015 antibiotics were mainly prescribed empirically (98.0%). In 2018 resistance of MRSA was 8.1%, and resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin 17.3%. Prevalence rate of antibiotics for prevention and treatment of infection disease in pediatric units increased in 2018. Main feasible targets for optimization of antibiotic prescribing have been identified: high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospitals, high frequency of empirical treatment, rarely performed culture tests, prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery patients and an alarming raise of resistant strains. The implementation of disease-specific clinical pathways associated with annual PPSs could be a good way to monitor and improve antibiotic prescription patterns in neonatal and pediatric inpatients over time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pediatria , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(3): 280-283, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170422

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial prescribing patterns, and variation in practice, in India. A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in October to December 2017 in 16 tertiary care hospitals across India. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antimicrobial on the day of PPS and collected data were analysed using a web-based application of the University of Antwerp. In all, 1750 patients were surveyed, of whom 1005 were receiving a total of 1578 antimicrobials. Among the antimicrobials prescribed, 26.87% were for community-acquired infections; 19.20% for hospital-acquired infections; 17.24% for medical prophylaxis; 28.70% for surgical prophylaxis; and 7.99% for other or undetermined reasons. Antibiotic prescribing quality indicators, such as reason in notes and post-prescription review score, were low. This PPS showed widespread antibiotic usage, underlining the need for antibiotic stewardship to promote evidence-based practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(8): 985-990, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690946

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a limiting factor for the success of the treatment of infectious diseases and is associated with increased morbidity and cost. The present study aims to evaluate prescribing patterns of antimicrobials and quantify progress in relation to targets for quality improvement in the prescription of antimicrobials in Northern Ireland's secondary care sector using three repetitive point prevalence surveys (PPS) over a 6-year period: the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC-PPS) in 2009 and 2011 and the Global-PPS on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in 2015. Out of 3605 patients surveyed over the three time points, 1239 (34.4%) were treated with an antibiotic, the most frequently prescribed antibiotic groups were a combination of penicillins, including ß-lactamase inhibitors. Compliance with hospital antibiotic policies in 2009, 2011 and 2015 were 54.5%, 71.5% and 79.9%, respectively. Likewise, an indication for treatment was recorded in patient notes 88.5%, 87.7% and 90.6% in 2009, 2011 and 2015, respectively, and surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions for >24 h was 3.9%, 3.2% and 0.7% in 2009, 2011 and 2015, respectively. Treatment based on biomarker data was used in 61.5% of cases. In conclusion, a general trend in the improvement of key antimicrobial-related quality indicators was noted. The PPS tool provided a convenient, inexpensive surveillance system of antimicrobial consumption and should be considered an essential component to establish and maintain informed antibiotic stewardship in hospitals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte
5.
Arch Dis Child ; 101(1): 72-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26416900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability and source of guidelines for common infections in European paediatric hospitals and determine their content and characteristics. DESIGN: Participating hospitals completed an online questionnaire on the availability and characteristics of antibiotic prescribing guidelines and on empirical antibiotic treatment including duration of therapy for 5 common infection syndromes: respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, osteoarticular and sepsis in neonates and children. RESULTS: 84 hospitals from 19 European countries participated in the survey of which 74 confirmed the existence of guidelines. Complete guidelines (existing guidelines for all requested infection syndromes) were reported by 20% of hospitals and the majority (71%) used a range of different sources. Guidelines most commonly available were those for urinary tract infection (UTI) (74%), neonatal sepsis (71%) and sepsis in children (65%). Penicillin and amoxicillin were the antibiotics most commonly recommended for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (up to 76%), cephalosporin for UTI (up to 50%) and for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and bone infection (20% and 30%, respectively). Antistaphylococcal penicillins were recommended for SSTIs and bone infections in 43% and 36%, respectively. Recommendations for neonatal sepsis included 20 different antibiotic combinations. Duration of therapy guidelines was mostly available for RTI and UTI (82%). A third of hospitals with guidelines for sepsis provided recommendations for length of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive antibiotic guideline recommendations are generally lacking from European paediatric hospitals. We documented multiple antibiotics and combinations for most infections. Considerable improvement in the quality of guidelines and their evidence base is required, linking empirical therapy to resistance rates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Hospitais Pediátricos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Esquema de Medicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 59(2): 782-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25403672

RESUMO

The appropriate use of systemic antifungals is vital in the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in immunosuppressed children and neonates. This multicenter observational study describes the inpatient prescribing practice of antifungal drugs for children and neonates and identifies factors associated with prescribing variability. A single-day point prevalence study of antimicrobial use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed between October and December 2012. The data were entered through a study-specific Web-based portal using a standardized data entry protocol. Data were recorded from 17,693 patients from 226 centers. A total of 136 centers recorded data from 1,092 children and 380 neonates receiving at least one antifungal agent. The most frequently prescribed systemic antifungals were fluconazole (n=355) and amphotericin B deoxycholate (n=195). The most common indications for antifungal administration in children were medical prophylaxis (n=325), empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia (n=122), and treatment of confirmed or suspected IFI (n=100 [14%]). The treatment of suspected IFI in low-birthweight neonates accounted for the majority of prescriptions in the neonatal units (n=103). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated no significant effect of clinical indication (prophylaxis or treatment of systemic or localized infection) on the total daily dose (TDD). Fewer than one-half of the patients (n=371) received a TDD within the dosing range recommended in the current guidelines. Subtherapeutic doses were prescribed in 416 cases (47%). The predominance of fluconazole and high incidence of subtherapeutic doses in participating hospitals may contribute to suboptimal clinical outcomes and an increased predominance of resistant pathogenic fungi. A global consensus on antifungal dosing and coordinated stewardship programs are needed to promote the consistent and appropriate use of antifungal drugs in neonates and children.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Desoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácido Desoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fluconazol/administração & dosagem , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
7.
Br J Psychiatry ; 187: 35-42, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15994569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between physical health and depression are consistent across cultures among adults up to 65 years of age. In later life, the impact of physical health on depression is much more substantial and may depend on sociocultural factors. AIMS: To examine cross-national differences in the association between physical health and depressive symptoms in elderly people across western Europe. METHOD: Fourteen community-based studies on depression in later life in nine western European countries contributed to a total study sample of 22 570 respondents aged 65 years and older. Measures were harmonized for depressive symptoms (EURO-D scale), functional limitations and chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: In the majority of the participating samples, the association of depressive symptoms with functional disability was stronger than with chronic physical conditions. Associations were slightly more pronounced in the UK and Ireland. CONCLUSIONS: The association between physical health and depressive symptoms in later life is consistent across western Europe.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
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