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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956402

RESUMO

Background: The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Methods: Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Results: Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported indications were pneumonia (23.2%), urinary tract infections (15.2%) and skin and soft tissue infections (11.9%). The reason for antimicrobial use was recorded for 81.9% of the prescriptions, a stop/review date for 40.8% and compliance with local antibiotic guidelines for 76.6%. In the ECDC-PPS, the crude prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 7.3% (95%CI 6.8-7.7%). Most frequently reported HAIs were pneumonia (21.6%) and urinary tract infections (21.3%). Conclusions: HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence remained stable in comparison with the previous PPS (7.1% and 27.4% in 2011 and 2015, respectively). Belgian hospitals should be further stimulated to set local targets to improve antibiotic prescribing and reduce HAI.

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(11): 1104-1106, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425329

RESUMO

We used data from 2 global point prevalence surveys of antibiotic prescribing to describe the treatment of sepsis in hospitalized neonates and children. One hundred eighty-five of 824 neonates (22.5%) and 9/786 children (1.1%) received a World Health Organization-recommended first-line treatment; of the remainder, 9/639 neonates (1.4%) and 102/777 children (13.1%) received a World Health Organization-recommended second-line treatment. Reasons for this low adherence to guidance should be explored.

3.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 26(3): 146-151, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428322

RESUMO

Objectives: There are no reliable data on antibiotic use in Kosovo hospitals. The aim of this survey was to monitor volumes and patterns of antibiotic use in hospitalised patients in order to identify targets for quality improvement. Methods: Data on antimicrobial use were collected from seven hospitals in Kosovo during 2013 using the standardised point prevalence survey (PPS) methodology as developed by the ESAC (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption) and ARPEC (Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children). The survey included all inpatients receiving an antimicrobial agent on the day of the PPS. Results: Overall, 1667 patients were included in the study: adults 1345 (81%) and children 322 (19%). Of the hospital inpatients, 579/1345 (43%) adults and 188/322 (58%) children received at least one antibiotic during a hospital stay. The top three antibacterial subgroups (ATC level 3) were ß-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. In all hospital centres, the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone (39% for adult and 36% for children). Antibiotics were administered mainly parenterally in 74% of adults and 94% of children. Empirical prescribing was higher in adults 498/579 (86%) and children 181/188 (96%), compared with targeted treatment based on susceptibility testing-81 (14%) and 8 (4%), respectively. Conclusions: Antibiotic use in Kosovo's hospitals is very high. Gathered data will be an important tool to identify targets for quality improvement and will support preparation of guidelines and protocols for the prudent use of antibiotics.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(7): e861-e871, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the quality of hospital antibiotic use is a major goal of WHO's global action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance. The WHO Essential Medicines List Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification could facilitate simple stewardship interventions that are widely applicable globally. We aimed to present data on patterns of paediatric AWaRe antibiotic use that could be used for local and national stewardship interventions. METHODS: 1-day point prevalence survey antibiotic prescription data were combined from two independent global networks: the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children and the Global Point Prevalence Survey on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance networks. We included hospital inpatients aged younger than 19 years receiving at least one antibiotic on the day of the survey. The WHO AWaRe classification was used to describe overall antibiotic use as assessed by the variation between use of Access, Watch, and Reserve antibiotics, for neonates and children and for the commonest clinical indications. FINDINGS: Of the 23 572 patients included from 56 countries, 18 305 were children (77·7%) and 5267 were neonates (22·3%). Access antibiotic use in children ranged from 7·8% (China) to 61·2% (Slovenia) of all antibiotic prescriptions. The use of Watch antibiotics in children was highest in Iran (77·3%) and lowest in Finland (23·0%). In neonates, Access antibiotic use was highest in Singapore (100·0%) and lowest in China (24·2%). Reserve antibiotic use was low in all countries. Major differences in clinical syndrome-specific patterns of AWaRe antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infection and neonatal sepsis were observed between WHO regions and countries. INTERPRETATION: There is substantial global variation in the proportion of AWaRe antibiotics used in hospitalised neonates and children. The AWaRe classification could potentially be used as a simple traffic light metric of appropriate antibiotic use. Future efforts should focus on developing and evaluating paediatric antibiotic stewardship programmes on the basis of the AWaRe index. FUNDING: GARPEC was funded by the PENTA Foundation. GARPEC-China data collection was funded by the Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen (SZSM2015120330). bioMérieux provided unrestricted funding support for the Global-PPS.

5.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 17(4): 285-293, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In line with the recent global action plan for antimicrobial resistance, this is the first time such a comprehensive antimicrobial point prevalence survey has been undertaken in Pakistan, the sixth most populous country. METHODS: This point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in 13 hospitals among 7 different cities of Pakistan. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antibiotic on the day of PPS. A web-based application was used for data entry, validation, and reporting as designed by the University of Antwerp (www.global-pps.com). RESULTS: Out of 1954 patients, 1516 (77.6%) were treated with antibiotics. The top three most reported indications for antibiotic use were prophylaxis for obstetrics or gynaecological indications (16.5%), gastrointestinal indications (12.6%) and lower respiratory tract infections (12.0%). The top three most commonly prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (35.0%), metronidazole (16.0%) and ciprofloxacin (6.0%). Out of the total indications, 34.2% of antibiotics were prescribed for community-acquired infections (CAI), 5.9% for healthcare-associated infections (HAI), and 57.4% for either surgical or medical prophylaxis. Of the total use for surgical prophylaxis, 97.4% of antibiotics were given for more than one day. CONCLUSIONS: Unnecessary prophylactic antibiotic use is extremely high, and broad-spectrum prescribing is common among hospitals in Pakistan. There is an urgent need to work on the  national action plan of Pakistan on antibiotic resistance to address this.

6.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 17: 291-295, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial prescribing practices and use contribute to the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to global health. Information on antimicrobial prescribing and use are lacking in most developing countries, including Nigeria. This information is crucial for antimicrobial stewardship programmes, an effective tool in minimising AMR. This study was performed to gather baseline information on antimicrobial prescribing practices in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all inpatients of a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. All patients on admission on the day of the survey formed the study population. A standardised questionnaire, web-based data entry and validation process designed by the University of Antwerp, Belgium, were adopted. Information on basic patient demographics, antimicrobial agents used, indication for treatment, laboratory data prior to treatment and stop/review date was collected. RESULTS: Of 220 inpatients surveyed, 78.2% were receiving at least one antimicrobial agent. The highest prevalence of antimicrobial use was in the ICU (100%), adult surgical ward (82.9%) and paediatric medical ward (82.9%). Agents used were mainly third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone 25.1%) and nitroimidazole (metronidazole 24.6%). Antimicrobial prescription was empirical (91.1% in medical wards, 96.8% in surgical wards and 100% in ICU). There was limited use of guidelines but clear documentation of stop/review dates and reasons for antimicrobial use. CONCLUSION: Although a majority of antimicrobial prescriptions were made with indications, they were mostly prescribed empirically and the majority of prescriptions were parenteral formulations. There is a need to develop antibiotic guidelines, to educate prescribers on antimicrobial stewardship and to encourage targeted prescription.

7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(2): 143-151, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess the variation in prescription practices for systemic antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized in 41 countries worldwide. METHODS: Using the standardized Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children Point Prevalence Survey protocol, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey was conducted at 226 pediatric hospitals in 41 countries from October 1 to November 30, 2012. RESULTS: Overall, 17693 pediatric patients were surveyed and 36.7% of them received antibiotics (n = 6499). Of 6818 inpatient children, 2242 (32.9%) received at least 1 antimicrobial for prophylactic use. Of 11899 prescriptions for antimicrobials, 3400 (28.6%) were provided for prophylactic use. Prophylaxis for medical diseases was the indication in 73.4% of cases (2495 of 3400), whereas 26.6% of prescriptions were for surgical diseases (905 of 3400). In approximately half the cases (48.7% [1656 of 3400]), a combination of 2 or more antimicrobials was prescribed. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSAs), which included tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, and sulfonamides/trimethoprim, was high (51.8% [1761 of 3400]). Broad-spectrum antibiotic use for medical prophylaxis was more common in Asia (risk ratio [RR], 1.322; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.202-1.653) and more restricted in Australia (RR, 0.619; 95% CI, 0.521-0.736). Prescription of BSA for surgical prophylaxis also varied according to United Nations region. Finally, a high percentage of surgical patients (79.7% [721 of 905]) received their prophylaxis for longer than 1 day. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of hospitalized children received prophylactic BSAs. This represents a clear target for quality improvement. Collectively speaking, it is critical to reduce total prophylactic prescribing, BSA use, and prolonged prescription.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/classificação , Anti-Infecciosos/normas , Antibioticoprofilaxia/normas , Criança Hospitalizada , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 849, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess antimicrobial prescribing in a Northern Ireland hospital (Antrim Area Hospital (AAH)) and compare them with those of a hospital in Jordan (Specialty Hospital). METHODS: Using the Global-PPS approach, the present study surveyed patients admitted to the hospital in 2015, the prescribed antibiotics, and a set of quality control indicators related to antibiotics. RESULTS: Ultimately, 444 and 112 inpatients in the AAH and the Specialty Hospital, respectively, were surveyed. For the medical group, 165 inpatients were prescribed 239 antibiotics in the AAH, while 44 patients in the Specialty Hospital were prescribed 65 antibiotics. In relation to the surgical group, 34 inpatients treated for infection were prescribed 66 antibiotics in the AAH, while 41 patients in the Specialty Hospital treated for infection were prescribed 56 antibiotics. For the medical patients, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in the AAH were a combination of penicillins (18.8%) and penicillins with extended spectrum (18.8%). For the surgical patients, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in the AAH were imidazole derivatives (24.2%). For the medical and surgical patients in the Specialty Hospital, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins (26.2 and 37.5%, respectively). In medical patients, compliance to guidelines was 92.2% in the Specialty Hospital compared to 72.0% in the AAH (p < 0.001). In surgical patients, compliance to guidelines was 92.7% in the Specialty Hospital compared to 81.8% in the AAH (p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlighted differences in the utilisation of antimicrobials between two hospitals in two distinct regions and benchmarked antibiotic prescriptions across two hospitals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Jordânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199878, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assessment of regional pediatric last-resort antibiotic utilization patterns is hampered by potential confounding from population differences. We developed a risk-adjustment model from readily available, internationally used survey data and a simple patient classification to aid such comparisons. DESIGN: We investigated the association between pediatric conserve antibiotic (pCA) exposure and patient / treatment characteristics derived from global point prevalence surveys of antibiotic prescribing, and developed a risk-adjustment model using multivariable logistic regression. The performance of a simple patient classification of groups with different expected pCA exposure levels was compared to the risk model. SETTING: 226 centers in 41 countries across 5 continents. PARTICIPANTS: Neonatal and pediatric inpatient antibiotic prescriptions for sepsis/bloodstream infection for 1281 patients. RESULTS: Overall pCA exposure was high (35%), strongly associated with each variable (patient age, ward, underlying disease, community acquisition or nosocomial infection and empiric or targeted treatment), and all were included in the final risk-adjustment model. The model demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistic = 0.83) and calibration (p = 0.38). The simple classification model demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration to the risk model. The crude regional pCA exposure rates ranged from 10.3% (Africa) to 67.4% (Latin America). Risk adjustment substantially reduced the regional variation, the adjusted rates ranging from 17.1% (Africa) to 42.8% (Latin America). CONCLUSIONS: Greater comparability of pCA exposure rates can be achieved by using a few easily collected variables to produce risk-adjusted rates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Saúde Global , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_6): vi40-vi49, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878218

RESUMO

Objectives: Quality indicators (QIs) assessing the appropriateness of antibiotic use are essential to identify targets for improvement and guide antibiotic stewardship interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a set of QIs for the outpatient setting from a global perspective. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed by searching MEDLINE and relevant web sites in order to retrieve a list of QIs. These indicators were extracted from published trials, guidelines, literature reviews or consensus procedures. This evidence-based set of QIs was evaluated by a multidisciplinary, international group of stakeholders using a RAND-modified Delphi procedure, using two online questionnaires and a face-to-face meeting between them. Stakeholders appraised the QIs' relevance using a nine-point Likert scale. This work is part of the DRIVE-AB project. Results: The systematic literature review identified 43 unique QIs, from 54 studies and seven web sites. Twenty-five stakeholders from 14 countries participated in the consensus procedure. Ultimately, 32 QIs were retained, with a high level of agreement. The set of QIs included structure, process and outcome indicators, targeting both high- and middle- to low-income settings. Most indicators focused on general practice, addressing the common indications for antibiotic use in the community (particularly urinary and respiratory tract infections), and the organization of healthcare facilities. Twelve indicators specifically addressed outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT). Conclusions: We identified a set of 32 outpatient QIs to measure the appropriateness of antibiotic use. These QIs can be used to identify targets for improvement and to evaluate the effects of antibiotic stewardship interventions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Saúde Pública/métodos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Consenso , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_6): vi17-vi29, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878219

RESUMO

Objectives: Variation in antibiotic use may reflect inappropriate use. We aimed to systematically describe the variation in measures for antibiotic use among settings or providers. This study was conducted as part of the innovative medicines initiative (IMI)-funded international project DRIVE-AB. Methods: We searched for studies published in MEDLINE from January 2004 to January 2015 reporting variation in measures for systemic antibiotic use (e.g. DDDs) in inpatient and outpatient settings. The ratio between a study's reported maximum and minimum values of a given measure [maximum:minimum ratio (MMR)] was calculated as a measure of variation. Similar measures were grouped into categories and when possible the overall median ratio and IQR were calculated. Results: One hundred and forty-three studies were included, of which 85 (59.4%) were conducted in Europe and 12 (8.4%) in low- to middle-income countries. Most studies described the variation in the quantity of antibiotic use in the inpatient setting (81/143, 56.6%), especially among hospitals (41/81, 50.6%). The most frequent measure was DDDs with different denominators, reported in 23/81 (28.4%) inpatient studies and in 28/62 (45.2%) outpatient studies. For this measure, we found a median MMR of 3.7 (IQR 2.6-5.0) in 4 studies reporting antibiotic use in ICUs in DDDs/1000 patient-days and a median MMR of 2.3 (IQR 1.5-3.2) in 18 studies reporting outpatient antibiotic use in DDDs/1000 inhabitant-days. Substantial variation was also identified in other measures. Conclusions: Our review confirms the large variation in antibiotic use even across similar settings and providers. Data from low- and middle-income countries are under-represented. Further studies should try to better elucidate reasons for the observed variation to facilitate interventions that reduce unwarranted practice variation. In addition, the heterogeneity of reported measures clearly shows that there is need for standardization.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_6): vi59-vi66, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878220

RESUMO

Background: The international Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) project DRIVE-AB (Driving Reinvestment in Research and Development and Responsible Antibiotic Use) aims to develop a global definition of 'responsible' antibiotic use. Objectives: To identify consensually validated quantity metrics for antibiotic use in the outpatient setting. Methods: First, outpatient quantity metrics (OQMs) were identified by a systematic search of literature and web sites published until 12 December 2014. Identified OQMs were evaluated by a multidisciplinary, international stakeholder panel using a RAND-modified Delphi procedure. Two online questionnaires and a face-to-face meeting between them were conducted to assess OQM relevance for measuring the quantity of antibiotic use on a nine-point Likert scale, to add comments or to propose new metrics. Results: A total of 597 articles were screened, 177 studies met criteria for full-text screening and 138 were finally included. Twenty different OQMs were identified and appraised by 23 stakeholders. During the first survey, 14 OQMs were excluded and 6 qualified for discussion. During the face-to-face meeting, 10 stakeholders retained five OQMs and suggestions were made considering context and combination of metrics. The final set of metrics included defined daily doses, treatments/courses and prescriptions per defined population, treatments/courses and prescriptions per defined number of physician contacts and seasonal variation of total antibiotic use. Conclusions: A small set of consensually validated metrics to assess the quantity of antibiotic use in the outpatient setting was obtained, enabling (inter)national comparisons. The OQMs will help build a global conceptual framework for responsible antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Consenso , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Técnica Delfos , Determinação de Ponto Final , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_6): vi30-vi39, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878221

RESUMO

Background: This study was conducted as part of the Driving Reinvestment in Research and Development and Responsible Antibiotic Use (DRIVE-AB) project and aimed to develop generic quality indicators (QIs) for responsible antibiotic use in the inpatient setting. Methods: A RAND-modified Delphi method was applied. First, QIs were identified by a systematic review. A complementary search was performed on web sites of relevant organizations. Duplicates were removed and disease and patient-specific QIs were combined into generic indicators. The relevance of these QIs was appraised by a multidisciplinary international stakeholder panel through two questionnaires and an in-between consensus meeting. Results: The systematic review retrieved 70 potential generic QIs. The QIs were appraised by 25 international stakeholders with diverse backgrounds (medical community, public health, patients, antibiotic research and development, regulators, governments). Ultimately, 51 QIs were selected in consensus. QIs with the highest relevance score included: (i) an antibiotic plan should be documented in the medical record at the start of the antibiotic treatment; (ii) the results of bacteriological susceptibility testing should be documented in the medical record; (iii) the local guidelines should correspond to the national guidelines but should be adapted based on local resistance patterns; (iv) an antibiotic stewardship programme should be in place at the healthcare facility; and (v) allergy status should be taken into account when antibiotics are prescribed. Conclusions: This systematic and stepwise method combining evidence from literature and stakeholder opinion led to multidisciplinary international consensus on generic inpatient QIs that can be used globally to assess the quality of antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Internacionalidade , Registros Médicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_6): vi50-vi58, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878222

RESUMO

Background: Quantifying antibiotic use is an essential element of antibiotic stewardship since it allows comparison between different settings and time windows, and measurement of the impact of interventions. However, quantity metrics (QMs) and methods have not been standardized. Objectives: To propose a set of QMs for antibiotic use in inpatients (IQMs) that are accepted globally by professionals in a range of disciplines. The study was conducted within the Driving Reinvestment in Research and Development and Responsible Antibiotic Use (DRIVE-AB) project. Methods: A systematic literature review using MEDLINE identified articles on measuring inpatient antibiotic use, published up to 29 January 2015. A consensually selected list of national and international web sites was screened for additional IQMs. IQMs were classified according to the type of numerator used and presented to a multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders. A RAND-modified Delphi consensus procedure, which consisted of two online questionnaires and a face-to-face meeting, was performed. Results: The systematic literature review and web site search identified 168 eligible articles from which an initial list of 20 IQMs, composed of 20 different numerators and associated denominators was developed. The consensus procedure resulted in a final set of 12 IQMs. Among this final set, DDDs per 100(0) patient-days and days of therapy per patient-days were most frequently found in the review. The panel recommended that antibiotic use should be expressed in at least two metrics simultaneously. Conclusions: Our consensus procedure identified a set of IQMs that we propose as an evidence-based global standard.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Consenso , Saúde Global , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(6): e619-e629, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. METHODS: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates) receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015. Hospitals were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary (including infectious diseases hospitals), and paediatric hospitals. Five main ward types were defined: medical wards, surgical wards, intensive-care units, haematology oncology wards, and medical transplantation (bone marrow or solid transplants) wards. Data recorded included patient characteristics, antimicrobials received, diagnosis, therapeutic indication according to predefined lists, and markers of prescribing quality (eg, whether a stop or review date were recorded, and whether local prescribing guidelines existed and were adhered to). We report findings for adult inpatients. FINDINGS: The Global-PPS for 2015 included adult data from 303 hospitals in 53 countries, including eight lower-middle-income and 17 upper-middle-income countries. 86 776 inpatients were admitted to 3315 adult wards, of whom 29 891 (34·4%) received at least one antimicrobial. 41 213 antimicrobial prescriptions were issued, of which 36 792 (89·3%) were antibacterial agents for systemic use. The top three antibiotics prescribed worldwide were penicillins with ß-lactamase inhibitors, third-generation cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Carbapenems were most frequently prescribed in Latin America and west and central Asia. Of patients who received at least one antimicrobial, 5926 (19·8%) received a targeted antibacterial treatment for systemic use, and 1769 (5·9%) received a treatment targeting at least one multidrug-resistant organism. The frequency of health-care-associated infections was highest in Latin America (1518 [11·9%]) and east and south Asia (5363 [10·1%]). Overall, the reason for treatment was recorded in 31 694 (76·9%) of antimicrobial prescriptions, and a stop or review date in 15 778 (38·3%). Local antibiotic guidelines were missing for 7050 (19·2%) of the 36 792 antibiotic prescriptions, and guideline compliance was 77·4%. INTERPRETATION: The Global-PPS showed that worldwide surveillance can be accomplished with voluntary participation. It provided quantifiable measures to assess and compare the quantity and quality of antibiotic prescribing and resistance in hospital patients worldwide. These data will help to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing through education and practice changes, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries that have no tools to monitor antibiotic prescribing in hospitals. FUNDING: bioMérieux.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Prevalência
16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(10): 2906-2909, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091210

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the quality of antibacterial with antifungal prescribing in the world. Methods: Data from the global point prevalence study (Global PPS) were used. The Global PPS took place on any one day between February and June 2015 in 335 participating hospitals from 53 countries. It collected demographic data on patients treated with antimicrobials and data on prescription characteristics of the antimicrobials. For the present study, the quality of antibiotic prescription was compared with antifungal prescription using logistic regression analysis. The following indicators were compared: the presence of the reason for prescription and stop/review date in notes, and compliance with a local guideline. Results: There were 48565 antimicrobial prescriptions for 34731 patients [median age 63 years (range 0-106); 52.6% male] in the Global PPS. Among these antimicrobials, 43513 (89.6%) were antibacterials and 2062 were antifungals for systematic use, and these data were used in this study. Reasons for prescriptions [77.7% versus 71.8%, OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.5)] and stop/review dates [38.3% versus 31.9%, OR 1.3 (1.2-1.5)] were found more often in notes for antibacterials than for antifungals. Antibacterials were prescribed less often according to local guidelines than antifungals [57.0% versus 71.0%, OR 0.6 (0.5-0.6)]. Conclusions: There are differences in the quality of antibacterial and antifungal prescribing and we identified opportunities that can be used to improve the quality of antimicrobial prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Uso de Medicamentos , Saúde Global , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMJ Open ; 6(11): e012675, 2016 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service England, Commissioning for Quality and Innovation for Antimicrobial Resistance (CQUIN AMR) aims to reduce the total antibiotic consumption and the use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics in secondary care. However, robust baseline antibiotic use data are lacking for hospitalised children. In this study, we aim to describe, compare and explain the prescription patterns of antibiotics within and between paediatric units in the UK and to provide a baseline for antibiotic prescribing for future improvement using CQUIN AMR guidance. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a point prevalence survey (PPS) in 61 paediatric units across the UK. The standardised study protocol from the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) project was used. All inpatients under 18 years of age present in the participating hospital on the day of the study were included except neonates. RESULTS: A total of 1247 (40.9%) of 3047 children hospitalised on the day of the PPS were on antibiotics. The proportion of children receiving antibiotics showed a wide variation between both district general and tertiary hospitals, with 36.4% ( 95% CI 33.4% to 39.4%) and 43.0% (95% CI 40.9% to 45.1%) of children prescribed antibiotics, respectively. About a quarter of children on antibiotic therapy received either a medical or surgical prophylaxis with parenteral administration being the main prescribed route for antibiotics (>60% of the prescriptions for both types of hospitals). General paediatrics units were surprisingly high prescribers of critical broad-spectrum antibiotics, that is, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a robust baseline for antibiotic prescribing in hospitalised children in relation to current national stewardship efforts in the UK. Repeated PPS with further linkage to resistance data needs to be part of the antibiotic stewardship strategy to tackle the issue of suboptimal antibiotic use in hospitalised children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Pediatria , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Masculino , Ácido Penicilânico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Penicilânico/uso terapêutico , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
18.
Arch Public Health ; 74: 42, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous study revealed an environmental contamination by heavy metals in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal plants in Ath, Belgium. The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to estimate exposure of the population to heavy metals in the vicinity of the plants, in comparison with population living further away. METHODS: We did a random sampling in the general population of Ath in two areas: a central area, including the plants, and a peripheral area, presumably less exposed. We quantified cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and cobalt in blood and/or urine of children and adults in three age groups: (i) children aged 2.5 to 6 years (n = 98), (ii) children aged 7 to 11 years (n = 74), and (iii) adults aged 40 to 60 years (n = 106). We also studied subclinical health effects by quantifying retinol-binding protein and microalbuminuria, and by means of a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: We obtained a participation rate of 24 %. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in young children living in the central area (18.2 µg/l ; 95 % CI: 15.9-20.9) compared to the peripheral area (14.8 µg/l ; 95 % CI: 12.6-17.4). We observed no other significant mean difference in metal concentrations between the two areas. In the whole population, blood lead levels were higher in men (31.7 µg/l ; 95 % CI: 27.9-36.1) than in women (21.4 µg/l ; 95 % CI: 18.1-25.3). Urine cadmium levels were 0.06 µg/g creatinine (95 % CI: 0.05-0.07), 0.21 µg/g creatinine (95 % CI: 0.17-0.27), and 0.25 µg/g creatinine (95 % CI: 0.20-0.30) for children, men, and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher blood lead levels in young children living close to the plants, observed metal concentrations remain in the range found in other similar biomonitoring studies in the general population and are below the levels of concern for public health.

19.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154662, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27182926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children's hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. METHODS: A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. RESULTS: The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for prescribing antibiotic therapy in children was lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), followed by febrile neutropenia/fever in oncologic patients, while, in neonates, sepsis was the most common indication for treatment. Focusing on prescriptions for LRTI, 43.3% of patients were treated with 3rd generation cephalosporins, followed by macrolides (26.9%), quinolones (16.4%) and carbapenems (14.9%) and 50.1% of LRTI cases were receiving more than one antibiotic. For neutropenic fever/fever in oncologic patients, the preferred antibiotics were penicillins with inhibitors (47.8%), followed by carbapenems (34.8%), aminoglycosides (26.1%) and glycopeptides (26.1%). Overall, the 60.9% of patients were treated with a combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides insight on the Italian situation in terms of antibiotic prescriptions in hospitalized neonates and children. An over-use of third generation cephalosporins both for prophylaxis and treatment was the most worrisome finding. A misuse and abuse of carbapenems and quinolones was also noted. Antibiotic stewardship programs should immediately identify feasible targets to monitor and modify the prescription patterns in children's hospital, also considering the continuous and alarming emergence of MDR bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 71(4): 1106-17, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously, web-based tools for cross-sectional antimicrobial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) have been used in adults to develop indicators of quality improvement. We aimed to determine the feasibility of developing similar quality indicators of improved antimicrobial prescribing focusing specifically on hospitalized neonates and children worldwide. METHODS: A standardized antimicrobial PPS method was employed. Included were all inpatient children and neonates receiving an antimicrobial at 8:00 am on the day of the PPS. Denominators included the total number of inpatients. A web-based application was used for data entry, validation and reporting. We analysed 2012 data from 226 hospitals (H) in 41 countries (C) from Europe (174H; 24C), Africa (6H; 4C), Asia (25H; 8C), Australia (6H), Latin America (11H; 3C) and North America (4H). RESULTS: Of 17,693 admissions, 6499 (36.7%) inpatients received at least one antimicrobial, but this varied considerably between wards and regions. Potential indicators included very high broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing in children of mainly ceftriaxone (ranked first in Eastern Europe, 31.3%; Asia, 13.0%; Southern Europe, 9.8%), cefepime (ranked third in North America, 7.8%) and meropenem (ranked first in Latin America, 13.1%). The survey identified worryingly high use of critically important antibiotics for hospital-acquired infections in neonates (34.9%; range from 14.2% in Africa to 68.0% in Latin America) compared with children (28.3%; range from 14.5% in Africa to 48.9% in Latin America). Parenteral administration was very common among children in Asia (88%), Latin America (81%) and Europe (67%). Documentation of the reasons for antibiotic prescribing was lowest in Latin America (52%). Prolonged surgical prophylaxis rates ranged from 78% (Europe) to 84% (Latin America). CONCLUSIONS: Simple web-based PPS tools provide a feasible method to identify areas for improvement of antibiotic use, to set benchmarks and to monitor future interventions in hospitalized neonates and children. To our knowledge, this study has derived the first global quality indicators for antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Saúde Global , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
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