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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 138, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance (Global-PPS) provides a methodology to support hospitals worldwide in collecting antimicrobial use data. We aim to evaluate the impact of the Global-PPS on local antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes and assess health care professionals' educational needs and barriers for implementing AMS. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was disseminated within the Global-PPS network. The target audience consisted of hospital healthcare workers, involved in local surveillance of antimicrobial consumption and resistance. This included contacts from hospitals that already participated in the Global-PPS or were planning to do so. The survey contained 24 questions that addressed the hospital's AMS activities, experiences conducting the PPS, as well as the learning needs and barriers for implementing AMS. RESULTS: A total of 248 hospitals from 74 countries participated in the survey, of which 192 had already conducted the PPS at least once. The survey response rate was estimated at 25%. In 96.9% of these 192 hospitals, Global-PPS participation had led to the identification of problems related to antimicrobial prescribing. In 69.3% at least one of the hospital's AMS components was initiated as a result of Global-PPS findings. The level of AMS implementation varied across regions. Up to 43.1% of all hospitals had a formal antimicrobial stewardship strategy, ranging from 10.8% in Africa to 60.9% in Northern America. Learning needs of hospitals in high-income countries and in low-and middle-income countries were largely similar and included general topics (e.g. 'optimising antibiotic treatment'), but also PPS-related topics (e.g. 'translating PPS results into meaningful interventions'). The main barriers to implementing AMS programmes were a lack of time (52.7%), knowledge on good prescribing practices (42.0%), and dedicated funding (39.9%). Hospitals in LMIC more often reported unavailability of prescribing guidelines, insufficient laboratory capacity and suboptimal use of the available laboratory services. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed substantial variation in the level of AMS implementation across regions, the Global-PPS has been very useful in informing stewardship activities in many participating hospitals. More is still to be gained in guiding hospitals to integrate the PPS throughout AMS activities, building on existing structures and processes.

2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii2-ii6, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article introduces a series of articles on antibiotic consumption in the community between 1997 and 2017, which provide an update of previous articles covering the periods 1997-2003 and 1997-2009. METHODS: In this article, differences in participating countries, the ATC/DDD classification system, and data collection, validation and analysis between the current and previous series are described. RESULTS: In the previous series, 33 European countries provided valid data for further analysis, while the current series focused on 30 countries belonging to the EU or the European Economic Area (EEA). For both series, data were collected in accordance with the WHO ATC classification system. While the previous series reported data in accordance with the ATC/DDD index 2011, the current series employed the ATC/DDD index 2019. Both series focused on consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) and collected data expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. When studying consumption expressed in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day, countries reporting total care data, i.e. community and hospital sector combined, were included in the previous series but excluded in the current series. While the previous series used non-linear mixed models to evaluate time trends in antibiotic consumption, the current series allowed for inclusion of change-points with a data-driven location. In addition, both series assessed the composition and quality of antibiotic consumption in the EU/EEA. CONCLUSIONS: The updated analyses of two decades of ESAC-Net data provide the most comprehensive and detailed description of antibiotic consumption in the community in Europe.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coleta de Dados , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii37-ii44, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on quinolone consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of main subgroups of quinolones. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of quinolones, i.e. ATC group J01M, in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Quinolone consumption was analysed by subgroups based on pharmacokinetic profile, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, quinolone consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 8.2 between countries with the highest (Bulgaria) and the lowest (Norway) consumption. The second-generation quinolones accounted for >50% of quinolone consumption in most countries. Quinolone consumption significantly increased up to 2001, and did not change significantly afterwards. Seasonal variation increased significantly over time. Proportional consumption of third-generation quinolones significantly increased over time relative to that of second-generation quinolones, while proportional consumption of both third- and second-generation quinolones significantly increased relative to that of first-generation quinolones. Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin represented >40% of quinolone consumption in the community in southern EU/EEA countries. CONCLUSIONS: Quinolone consumption in the community is no longer increasing in the EU/EEA, but its seasonal variation continues to increase significantly as is the proportion of quinolones to treat respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii30-ii36, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on the consumption of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS) in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in composition of the main subgroups of MLS. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of MLS, i.e. ATC group J01F, in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of MLS was analysed and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes, using a classification based on mean plasma elimination half-life for macrolides. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of MLS in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 13 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (Sweden) consumption. Consumption of MLS did not change significantly up to 2003, after which it significantly increased up to 2007. No significant change was observed after 2007. Consumption of MLS showed high seasonal variation. The proportional consumption of long-acting macrolides significantly increased over time compared with that of intermediate-acting macrolides, and proportional consumption of the latter increased compared with that of short-acting macrolides. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of MLS did not change significantly over time during 2007-2017, while the proportional consumption of long-acting macrolides increased. Seasonal variation remained high, which suggests that MLS are still prescribed inappropriately in many countries.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos , Estreptograminas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Lincosamidas
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii7-ii13, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on antibiotic consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/EEA countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main antibiotic groups. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of antibiotics, i.e. antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01), in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Antibiotic consumption was analysed based on ATC-3 groups, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, antibiotic consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor 3.6 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. Antibiotic consumption in the EU/EEA did not change significantly over time. Antibiotic consumption showed a significant seasonal variation, which decreased over time. The number of DDD per package significantly increased over time. The proportional consumption of sulphonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) relative to other groups significantly decreased over time, while the proportional consumption of other antibacterials (J01X) relative to other groups significantly increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, antibiotic consumption in the community in the EU/EEA did not change during 1997-2017, while seasonal variation consistently decreased over time. The number of DDD per package increased during 1997-2017.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Trimetoprima
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii79-ii85, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This tutorial describes and illustrates statistical methods to detect time trends possibly including abrupt changes (referred to as change-points) in the consumption of antibiotics in the community. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01) in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology and expressed in DDD (ATC/DDD index 2019) per 1000 inhabitants per day. Trends over time and presence of common change-points were studied through a set of non-linear mixed models. RESULTS: After a thorough description of the set of models used to assess the time trend and presence of common change-points herein, the methodology was applied to the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) in 25 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. The best fit was obtained for a model including two change-points: one in the first quarter of 2004 and one in the last quarter of 2008. CONCLUSIONS: Allowing for the inclusion of common change-points improved model fit. Individual countries investigating changes in their antibiotic consumption pattern can use this tutorial to analyse their country data.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii60-ii67, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The quality of antibiotic consumption in the community can be assessed using 12 drug-specific quality indicators (DSQIs) developed by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. We compared quality in 2009 and 2017 in the EU/European Economic Area (EEA) and evaluated the impact of using different DDD values (ATC/DDD indices 2011 and 2019) for the 2009 quality assessment using these DSQIs and a joint scientific opinion (JSO) indicator. METHODS: We calculated the 12 DSQIs and the JSO indicator for 2017 and for 2009 for EU/EEA countries able to deliver values. For each of the indicators we grouped the 2017 and 2009 indicator values into four quartiles. To evaluate changes in quality between 2009 and 2017, we used the quartile distribution of the 2009 indicator values in 30 EU/EEA countries as benchmarks. In addition, we compared the quality assessment for 2009 using the ATC/DDD indices 2011 and 2019. RESULTS: In 2017, a difference in the quality of antibiotic consumption in the community between northern and southern EU/EEA countries remained, but also several eastern EU/EEA countries shifted towards lower quality. Quality of antibiotic consumption decreased between 2009 and 2017 in particular indicator values for penicillin, quinolone, relative ß-lactam and broad- versus narrow-spectrum antibiotic consumption, and seasonal variation. Using different ATC/DDD indices did not substantially change countries' ranking based on their DSQI values. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of antibiotic consumption in the community as measured by the DSQIs further decreased between 2009 and 2017, especially in Southern and Eastern European countries. A continuous effort to improve antibiotic consumption is essential to reduce antibiotic consumption in general and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in particular.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Penicilinas
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii14-ii21, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on consumption of penicillins in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main subgroups of penicillins. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of penicillins, i.e. ß-lactam antibacterials, penicillins (ATC group J01C), in the community aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of penicillins was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroups, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of penicillins in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 4.9 between countries with the highest (Spain) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. An increase in consumption of penicillins, which was not statistically significant, was observed between 1997 and 2003 and up to 2010. A decrease, which was not statistically significant, was observed from 2010 onwards. Proportional consumption of combinations of penicillins, including ß-lactamase inhibitors (J01CR) increased during 1997-2017, which coincided with a decrease in the proportional consumption of extended-spectrum penicillins (J01CA) and narrow-spectrum penicillins (J01CE). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation in the patterns of consumption of penicillins was observed between EU/EEA countries. The consumption of penicillins in the EU/EEA community did not change significantly over time, while the proportional consumption of combinations of penicillins increased.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Penicilinas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii22-ii29, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on cephalosporin consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/EEA countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main subgroups of cephalosporins. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of cephalosporins (i.e. first-, second-, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins; ATC subgroups J01DB, J01DC, J01DD and J01DE, respectively) in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Cephalosporin consumption was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroup, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, cephalosporin consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 285 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. Cephalosporin consumption did not change significantly between the first quarter of 1997 and the last quarter of 2017. Seasonal variation decreased significantly over time. Proportional consumption of second- and third-generation cephalosporins significantly increased over time compared with that of first-generation cephalosporins, and proportional consumption of fourth-generation cephalosporins significantly decreased compared with that of second- and third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation between countries in the composition of cephalosporin consumption and trends over time, a significant shift towards consumption of more broad-spectrum cephalosporins in the community was observed across the EU/EEA during 1997-2017.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Cefalosporinas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii68-ii78, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Surveillance of antibiotic consumption in the community is of utmost importance to inform and evaluate control strategies. Data on two decades of antibiotic consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. This article reviews temporal trends and the presence of abrupt changes in subgroups of relevance in antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on yearly antibiotic consumption in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC classification and expressed in DDD (ATC/DDD index 2019) per 1000 inhabitants per day. We applied a range of non-linear mixed models to assess the presence of changes in the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01) and eight antibiotic subgroups. RESULTS: For the majority of the studied groups, a country-specific change-point model provided the best fit. Depending on the antibiotic group/subgroup and on the country, change-points were spread out between 2000 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the heterogeneity in antibiotic consumption in the community across EU/EEA countries, a country-specific change-point model provided the better fit. Given the limitations of this model, our recommendation for the included countries is to carefully interpret the country-specific results presented in this article and to use the tutorial included in this series to conduct their own change-point analysis when evaluating the impact of changes in regulations, public awareness campaigns, and other national interventions to improve antibiotic consumption in the community.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii45-ii59, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of main subgroups of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim and other antibacterials. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of tetracyclines (ATC group J01A), sulphonamides and trimethoprim (ATC group J01E), and other antibacterials (ATC group J01X) in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroups and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied considerably between countries. Between 1997 and 2017, consumption of tetracyclines did not change significantly, while its seasonal variation significantly decreased over time. Consumption of sulphonamides and trimethoprim significantly decreased until 2006, and its seasonal variation significantly decreased over time. The consumption of other antibacterials showed no significant change over time or in seasonal variation. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption and composition of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials showed wide variations between EU/EEA countries and over time. This represents an opportunity to further reduce consumption of these groups in some countries and improve the quality of their prescription.


Assuntos
Tetraciclinas , Trimetoprima , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico
12.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 157-165, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Optimising antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals through antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is essential in addressing the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a hospital-wide programme, delivered by a multidisciplinary AMS team, on antimicrobial prescribing outcomes. METHODS: The AMS programme consisted of a combination of persuasive, restrictive, and structural components and was implemented in two phases. We used data from the Global-PPS, collected every six months between September 2017 and December 2019, to measure the antimicrobial use prevalence and monitor selected antibiotic prescribing quality indicators. RESULTS: A significantly increasing trend (P < 0.001) was observed for the indicators related to documentation of prescribing, that is the reason for treatment and stop or review date. We observed a significantly decreasing trend (P < 0.001) in the number of prescriptions for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) prescribed for more than 24 h; however, sample sizes for surgical patients were small. For these three indicators, a sudden and pronounced improvement was seen after the second set of interventions, which consisted of (i) an antibiotic documentation policy, (ii) a 24-h automatic stop order for SAP, and (iii) dissemination of new SAP guidelines. A significantly decreasing trend was also observed for hospital-wide antimicrobial use prevalence (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programme positively influenced antibiotic prescribing practices. Further research should address long-term trends in antibiotic prescribing to establish whether these coordinated activities have led to a sustained behaviour change among prescribers, thereby also evaluating clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates.

13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(6): 1614-1624, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The WHO Access, Watch and Reserve (AWaRe) classification has been developed to support countries and hospitals in promoting rational use of antibiotics while improving access to these essential medicines. We aimed to describe patterns of worldwide antibiotic use according to the AWaRe classification in the adult inpatient population. METHODS: The Global Point Prevalence Survey on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance (Global-PPS) collects hospital antibiotic use data using a standardized PPS methodology. Global-PPS 2015, 2017 and 2018 data, collected by 664 hospitals in 69 countries, were categorized into AWaRe groups to calculate proportional AWaRe use, Access-to-Watch ratios and the most common indications for treatment with selected Watch antibiotics. Only prescriptions for systemic antibiotics on adult inpatient wards were analysed. RESULTS: Regional Access use ranged from 28.4% in West and Central Asia to 57.7% in Oceania, whereas Watch use was lowest in Oceania (41.3%) and highest in West and Central Asia (66.1%). Reserve use ranged from 0.03% in sub-Saharan Africa to 4.7% in Latin America. There were large differences in AWaRe prescribing at country level. Watch antibiotics were prescribed for a range of very different indications worldwide, both for therapeutic and prophylactic use. CONCLUSIONS: We observed considerable variations in AWaRe prescribing and high use of Watch antibiotics, particularly in lower- and upper-middle-income countries, followed by high-income countries. The WHO AWaRe classification has an instrumental role to play in local and national stewardship activities to assess prescribing patterns and to inform and evaluate stewardship activities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Hospitais , Humanos , Prevalência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933115

RESUMO

Background: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) provides a standardised method to conduct surveillance of antimicrobial prescribing and resistance at hospital level. The aim of the present study was to assess antimicrobial consumption and resistance in a Jordan teaching hospital as part of the Global-PPS network. Methods: Detailed antimicrobial prescription data were collected according to the Global Point Prevalence Survey protocol. The internet-based survey included all inpatients present at 8:00 am on a specific day in June-July 2018. Resistance data were based on microbiological results available on the day of the PPS. Results: Data were collected for 380 patients admitted to adult wards, 72 admitted children, and 36 admitted neonates. The overall prevalence of antimicrobial use in adult, paediatric, and neonatal wards was 45.3%, 30.6%, and 22.2% respectively. Overall, 36 patients (7.4%) were treated for at least one healthcare-associated infection (HAI). The most frequent reason for antimicrobial treatment was pneumonia. Cephalosporins and carbapenems were most frequent prescribed among adult (50.6%) and paediatric/neonatal wards (39.6%). Overall resistance rates among patients treated for a community or healthcare-associated infection was high (26.0%). Analysis of antibiotic quality indicators by activity revealed good adherence to treatment guidelines but poor documentation of the reason for prescription and a stop/review date in the notes. Conclusion: The present study has established baseline data in a teaching hospital regarding the quantity and quality of prescribed antibiotics in the hospital. The study should encourage the establishment of tailor-made antimicrobial stewardship interventions and support educational programs to enhance appropriate antibiotic prescribing.

15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(11): 1032-1034, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773667

RESUMO

Intravenous colistin (polymyxin E) has renewed interest as a last-line treatment against antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, despite limited literature on pediatric prescribing practices. Point-prevalence surveys were used to obtain intravenous colistin prescribing data from 78 children and neonates, showing high variability, and 60.3% received doses below the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency recommendations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722484

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the key issues limiting the successful treatment of infectious diseases and associated with adverse medical, social and economic consequences on a global scale. The present study aims to evaluate antimicrobials prescribing patterns and assess progress in quality indicators in Russian multidisciplinary hospitals using three repetitive point prevalence studies (PPSs) over 4 years (Global-PPS 2015, 2017 and 2018). Out of 13,595 patients from 21 hospitals surveyed over the three time points, 3542 (26.14%) received antimicrobials, predominantly third-generation cephalosporins (44.7% in 2015, 34.1% in 2017 and 41.8% in 2018). Compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines was 74.8%, 66.8% and 74.3%, respectively. Indication for treatment was recorded in 72.6%, 84.1% and 82.6%, while stop/review date was documented only in 40.5%, 46.5% and 61.1% of cases. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis exceeded 1 day in 92%, 84% and 81% of cases. Targeted therapy rate at all time points did not exceed 15.1%, treatment based on the biomarkers rate-19.9%. For the part of PPS-2017 and 2018 analyzed in dynamics, no prominent trends were noted. The results of the project provide the basis for the development of appropriate antimicrobial stewardship programs tailored according to local practices for each hospital in the project.

17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 104, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-level surveillance (indication, appropriate choice, dosing, route, duration) of antimicrobial use in Canadian hospitals is needed to reduce antimicrobial overuse and misuse. Patient-level surveillance has not been performed on a national level in Canada. The Global Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance (Global-PPS) is an international collaborative to monitor antimicrobial use and resistance in hospitals worldwide. Global-PPS locally documents on a single day patient-level antimicrobial prescribing practices. This article presents the results of the 2017 Global-PPS in Canadian hospitals with established antimicrobial stewardship programs. METHODS: Hospitals part of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program were invited to participate. Surveys could be performed any time in the 2017 calendar year. All in-patient wards in each hospital were surveyed by a physician, pharmacist or nurse with infectious disease training. RESULTS: Fourteen Canadian hospitals participated in the survey. Of 4118 patients, 1400 patients (34.0%) received a total of 2041 antimicrobials. Overall, 73.1% (n = 1493) of antimicrobials were for therapeutic use, 14.2% (n = 288) were for medical prophylaxis, 8.3% (n = 170) were for surgical prophylaxis, 1.8% (n = 37) were for other reasons, and 0.2% (n = 3) were used as prokinetic agents. Only 2.5% (n = 50) were for unknown reasons. For antimicrobials for therapeutic use, 29.9% of patients were treated for lower respiratory tract (343/1147), 10.5% for intra-abdominal (120/1147), 9.3% for skin and soft tissue (107/1147) and 7.5% for gastro-intestinal (86/1147) infections. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized methodology amongst Global-PPSs allows the comparison of our results to the 2015 Global-PPS. The prevalence of antimicrobial use on medical, surgical, and intensive care wards are similar to those previously observed in North America. Indication of antimicrobials has not been previously reported on such a large scale in Canadian hospitals. This report serves as a comparison for further point prevalence surveys that are currently underway. It will be used for identifying opportunities and benchmarking in antibiotic stewardship.

18.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 18(9): 897-910, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394754

RESUMO

Introduction: In view of increasing concerns with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the World Health Organization (WHO) instituted a Global Action Plan (GAP) to address this. Area covered: One of the strategies to achieve the goals of GAP is to conduct regular surveillance of antimicrobial use through point prevalence surveys (PPS). In this review, PubMed, EBSCO, Proquest, Cinahl, and Scopus were searched for PPS of antimicrobial use published in English between January 2000 and December 2019. After systematic database screening of 2,893 articles, 60 PPS met the inclusion criteria and consequently were incorporated in this systematic review. Expert opinion: This review highlighted that most of the PPS were conducted in upper-middle and high-income countries. Prevalence of antimicrobial use was significantly higher in non-European hospitals compared with European hospitals. The domination of third-generation cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones use across all the regions suggests substantial use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials across countries. Among all identified regions around the world, India was the region where the highest use of antimicrobials was observed. Although PPS is a useful tool to assess the pattern of antimicrobial use and provides a robust baseline; however, a standardized surveillance method is needed. In order to optimize antimicrobial use, more efforts are required to improve antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Europa (Continente) , Hospitais , Humanos , Prevalência
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956402

RESUMO

Background: The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Methods: Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Results: Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported indications were pneumonia (23.2%), urinary tract infections (15.2%) and skin and soft tissue infections (11.9%). The reason for antimicrobial use was recorded for 81.9% of the prescriptions, a stop/review date for 40.8% and compliance with local antibiotic guidelines for 76.6%. In the ECDC-PPS, the crude prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 7.3% (95%CI 6.8-7.7%). Most frequently reported HAIs were pneumonia (21.6%) and urinary tract infections (21.3%). Conclusions: HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence remained stable in comparison with the previous PPS (7.1% and 27.4% in 2011 and 2015, respectively). Belgian hospitals should be further stimulated to set local targets to improve antibiotic prescribing and reduce HAI.

20.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 26(3): 146-151, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428322

RESUMO

Objectives: There are no reliable data on antibiotic use in Kosovo hospitals. The aim of this survey was to monitor volumes and patterns of antibiotic use in hospitalised patients in order to identify targets for quality improvement. Methods: Data on antimicrobial use were collected from seven hospitals in Kosovo during 2013 using the standardised point prevalence survey (PPS) methodology as developed by the ESAC (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption) and ARPEC (Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children). The survey included all inpatients receiving an antimicrobial agent on the day of the PPS. Results: Overall, 1667 patients were included in the study: adults 1345 (81%) and children 322 (19%). Of the hospital inpatients, 579/1345 (43%) adults and 188/322 (58%) children received at least one antibiotic during a hospital stay. The top three antibacterial subgroups (ATC level 3) were ß-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. In all hospital centres, the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone (39% for adult and 36% for children). Antibiotics were administered mainly parenterally in 74% of adults and 94% of children. Empirical prescribing was higher in adults 498/579 (86%) and children 181/188 (96%), compared with targeted treatment based on susceptibility testing-81 (14%) and 8 (4%), respectively. Conclusions: Antibiotic use in Kosovo's hospitals is very high. Gathered data will be an important tool to identify targets for quality improvement and will support preparation of guidelines and protocols for the prudent use of antibiotics.

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