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1.
Appl Opt ; 43(20): 4055-69, 2004 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15285097

RESUMO

A hand-held radiometer, called SIMBAD, has been designed and built specifically for evaluating satellite-derived ocean color. It provides information on the basic ocean-color variables, namely aerosol optical thickness and marine reflectance, in five spectral bands centered at 443, 490, 560, 670, and 870 nm. Aerosol optical thickness is obtained by viewing the Sun disk and measuring the direct atmospheric transmittance. Marine reflectance is obtained by viewing the ocean surface and measuring the upwelling radiance through a vertical polarizer in a geometry that minimizes glitter and reflected sky radiation, i.e., at 45 degrees from nadir (near the Brewster angle) and at 135 degrees in azimuth from the Sun's principal plane. Relative inaccuracy on marine reflectance, established theoretically, is approximately 6% at 443 and 490 nm, 8% at 560 nm, and 23% at 670 nm for case 1 waters containing 0.1 mg m(-3) of chlorophyll a. Measurements by SIMBAD and other instruments during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment, the Aerosols-99 Experiment, and the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations cruises agree within uncertainties. The radiometer is compact, light, and easy to operate at sea. The measurement protocol is simple, allowing en route measurements from ships of opportunity (research vessels and merchant ships) traveling the world's oceans.

2.
Appl Opt ; 41(36): 7540-9, 2002 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12510917

RESUMO

The physical properties of stratospheric aerosols can be retrieved from optical measurements involving extinction, radiance, polarization, and counting. We present here the results of measurements from the balloonborne instruments AMON, SALOMON, and RADIBAL, and from the French Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique and the University of Wyoming balloonborne particle counters. A cross comparison of the measurements was made for observations of background aerosols conducted during the polar winters of February 1997 and January-February 2000 for various altitudes from 13 to 19 km. On the one band, the effective radius and the total amount of background aerosols derived from the various sets of data are similar and are in agreement with pre-Pinatubo values. On the other hand, strong discrepancies occur in the shapes of the bimodal size distributions obtained from analysis of the raw measurement of the various instruments. It seems then that the log-normal assumption cannot fully reproduce the size distribution of background aerosols. The effect ofthe presence of particular aerosols on the measurements is discussed, and a new strategy for observations is proposed.

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