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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 27-72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646506

RESUMO

Ca2+, Na+ and K+- permeable ion channels as well as GPCRs linked to Ca2+ release are important drug targets. Accordingly, high-throughput fluorescence plate reader assays have contributed substantially to drug discovery efforts and pharmacological characterization of these receptors and ion channels. This chapter describes some of the basic properties of the fluorescent dyes facilitating these assay approaches as well as general methods for establishment and optimisation of fluorescence assays for ion channels and Gq-coupled GPCRs.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Canais Iônicos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G , Animais , Bioensaio/tendências , Descoberta de Drogas , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/análise , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/análise
2.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 46(12): 1201-1215, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429474

RESUMO

In patients with breast cancer, metastases of cancer cells to the axial skeleton may cause excruciating pain, particularly in the advanced stages. The current drug treatments available to alleviate this debilitating pain condition often lack efficacy and/or produce undesirable side effects. Preclinical animal models of cancer-induced bone pain are key to studying the mechanisms that cause this pain and for the success of drug discovery programs. In a previous study conducted in our laboratory, we validated and characterised the rat model of Walker 256 cell-induced bone pain, which displayed several key resemblances to the human pain condition. However, gene level changes that occur in the pathophysiology of cancer-induced bone pain in this preclinical model are unknown. Hence, in this study, we performed the transcriptomic characterisation of the Walker 256 cell line cultured in vitro to predict the molecular genetic profile of this cell line. We also performed transcriptomic characterisation of the Walker 256 cell-induced bone pain model in rats using the lumbar spinal cord and lumbar dorsal root ganglia tissues. Here we show that the Walker 256 cell line resembles the basal-B molecular subtype of human breast cancer cell lines. We also identify several genes that may underpin the progression of pain hypersensitivities in this condition, however, this needs further confirmatory studies. These transcriptomic insights have the potential to direct future studies aimed at identifying various mechanisms underpinning pain hypersensitivities in this model that may also assist in discovery of novel pain therapeutics for breast cancer-induced bone pain.

3.
Pain ; 160(8): 1766-1780, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335646

RESUMO

Pain is the leading cause of disability in the developed world but remains a poorly treated condition. Specifically, postsurgical pain continues to be a frequent and undermanaged condition. Here, we investigate the analgesic potential of pharmacological NaV1.7 inhibition in a mouse model of acute postsurgical pain, based on incision of the plantar skin and underlying muscle of the hind paw. We demonstrate that local and systemic treatment with the selective NaV1.7 inhibitor µ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a is effectively antiallodynic in this model and completely reverses mechanical hypersensitivity in the absence of motor adverse effects. In addition, the selective NaV1.7 inhibitors ProTx-II and PF-04856264 as well as the clinical candidate CNV1014802 also reduced mechanical allodynia. Interestingly, co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone completely reversed analgesic effects of Pn3a, indicating an involvement of endogenous opioids in the analgesic activity of Pn3a. In addition, we found superadditive antinociceptive effects of subtherapeutic Pn3a doses not only with the opioid oxycodone but also with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Transcriptomic analysis of gene expression changes in dorsal root ganglia of mice after surgery did not reveal any changes in mRNA expression of endogenous opioids or opioid receptors; however, several genes involved in pain, including Runx1 (Runt related transcription factor 1), Cacna1a (CaV2.1), and Cacna1b (CaV2.2), were downregulated. In summary, these findings suggest that pain after surgery can be successfully treated with NaV1.7 inhibitors alone or in combination with baclofen or opioids, which may present a novel and safe treatment strategy for this frequent and poorly managed condition.

4.
J Pain ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260808

RESUMO

Vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin are commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many tumors. However, a main side effect is chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which may lead to changes in chemotherapeutic treatment. Although symptoms associated with CIPN are recapitulated by mouse models, there is limited knowledge of how these drugs affect the expression of genes in sensory neurons. The present study carried out a transcriptomic analysis of dorsal root ganglia following vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin treatment with a view to gain insight into the comparative pathophysiological mechanisms of CIPN. RNA-Seq revealed 368, 295, and 256 differential expressed genes induced by treatment with vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin, respectively, and only 5 shared genes were dysregulated in all 3 groups. Cell type enrichment analysis and gene set enrichment analysis showed predominant effects on genes associated with the immune system after treatment with vincristine, while oxaliplatin treatment affected mainly neuronal genes. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in a mixed gene expression signature. PERSPECTIVE: These results provide insight into the recruitment of immune responses to dorsal root ganglia and indicate enhanced neuroinflammatory processes following administration of vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin. These gene expression signatures may provide insight into novel drug targets for treatment of CIPN.

5.
J Physiol ; 597(14): 3751-3768, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087362

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for peripheral sensory neuron transduction and have been implicated in a number of painful and painless disorders. The ß-scorpion toxin, Cn2, is selective for NaV 1.6 in dorsal root ganglion neurons. NaV 1.6 plays an essential role in peripheral sensory neurons, specifically at the distal terminals of mechanosensing fibres innervating the skin and colon. NaV 1.6 activation also leads to enhanced response to mechanical stimulus in vivo. This works highlights the use of toxins in elucidating pain pathways moreover the importance of non-peripherally restricted NaV isoforms in pain generation. ABSTRACT: Peripheral sensory neurons express multiple voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV ) critical for the initiation and propagation of action potentials and transmission of sensory input. Three pore-forming sodium channel isoforms are primarily expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS): NaV 1.7, NaV 1.8 and NaV 1.9. These sodium channels have been implicated in painful and painless channelopathies and there has been intense interest in them as potential therapeutic targets in human pain. Emerging evidence suggests NaV 1.6 channels are an important isoform in pain sensing. This study aimed to assess, using pharmacological approaches, the function of NaV 1.6 channels in peripheral sensory neurons. The potent and NaV 1.6 selective ß-scorpion toxin Cn2 was used to assess the effect of NaV 1.6 channel activation in the PNS. The multidisciplinary approach included Ca2+ imaging, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, skin-nerve and gut-nerve preparations and in vivo behavioural assessment of pain. Cn2 facilitates NaV 1.6 early channel opening, and increased persistent and resurgent currents in large-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. This promotes enhanced excitatory drive and tonic action potential firing in these neurons. In addition, NaV 1.6 channel activation in the skin and gut leads to increased response to mechanical stimuli. Finally, intra-plantar injection of Cn2 causes mechanical but not thermal allodynia. This study confirms selectivity of Cn2 on NaV 1.6 channels in sensory neurons. Activation of NaV 1.6 channels, in terminals of the skin and viscera, leads to profound changes in neuronal responses to mechanical stimuli. In conclusion, sensory neurons expressing NaV 1.6 are important for the transduction of mechanical information in sensory afferents innervating the skin and viscera.

6.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 164: 342-348, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028742

RESUMO

Conorfamides are a poorly studied family of cone snail venom peptides with broad biological activities, including inhibition of glutamate receptors, acid-sensing ion channels, and voltage-gated potassium channels. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacological activity of two novel linear conorfamides (conorfamide_As1a and conorfamide_As2a) and their non-amidated counterparts (conopeptide_As1b and conopeptide_As2b) that were isolated from the venom of the Mexican cone snail Conus austini. Although As1a, As2a, As1b and As2b were identified by activity-guided fractionation using a high-throughput fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay assessing α7 nAChR activity, sequence determination revealed activity associated with four linear peptides of the conorfamide rather than the anticipated α-conotoxin family. Pharmacological testing revealed that the amidated peptide variants altered desensitization of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a and 3, and the native lysine to arginine mutation differentiating As1a and As1b from As2a and As2b introduced ASIC1a peak current potentiation. Surprisingly, these conorfamides also inhibited α7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at nanomolar concentrations. This is the first report of conorfamides with dual activity, with the nAChR activity being the most potent molecular target of any conorfamide discovered to date.

7.
Pain ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908355

RESUMO

Pain is the leading cause of disability in the developed world but remains a poorly treated condition. Specifically, post-surgical pain continues to be a frequent and undermanaged condition. Here, we investigate the analgesic potential of pharmacological NaV1.7 inhibition in a mouse model of acute post-surgical pain, based on incision of the plantar skin and underlying muscle of the hind paw. We demonstrate that local and systemic treatment with the selective NaV1.7 inhibitor µ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a is effectively anti-allodynic in this model and completely reverses mechanical hypersensitivity in the absence of motor adverse effects. In addition, the selective NaV1.7 inhibitors ProTx-II and PF-04856264 as well as the clinical candidate CNV1014802 also reduced mechanical allodynia. Interestingly, co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone completely reversed analgesic effects of Pn3a, indicating an involvement of endogenous opioids in the analgesic activity of Pn3a. Additionally, we found super-additive antinociceptive effects of sub-therapeutic Pn3a doses not only with the opioid oxycodone but also with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Transcriptomic analysis of gene expression changes in dorsal root ganglia of mice post-surgery did not reveal any changes in mRNA expression of endogenous opioids or opioid receptors, however several genes involved in pain, including Runx1 (Runt related transcription factor 1), Cacna1a (CaV2.1) and Cacna1b (CaV2.2) were downregulated. In summary, these findings suggest that pain after surgery can be successfully treated with NaV1.7 inhibitors alone or in combination with baclofen or opioids, which may present a novel and safe treatment strategy for this frequent and poorly managed condition.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213751, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856233

RESUMO

Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are key therapeutic targets for pain, epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmias. Here we describe the development of a no-wash fluorescent sodium influx assay suitable for high-throughput screening and characterization of novel drug leads. Addition of red-violet food dyes (peak absorbance range 495-575 nm) to assays in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hNaV1.1-1.8 effectively quenched background fluorescence of the sodium indicator dye Asante NaTRIUM Green-2 (ANG-2; peak emission 540 nm), negating the need for a wash step. Ponceau 4R (1 mM) was identified as a suitable quencher, which had no direct effect on NaV channels as assessed by patch-clamp experiments, and did not alter the pharmacology of the NaV1.1-1.7 activator veratridine (EC50 10-29 µM) or the NaV1.1-1.8 inhibitor tetracaine (IC50's 6-66 µM). In addition, we also identified that the food dyes Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Black BN, Allura Red and Amaranth are effective at quenching the background fluorescence of the calcium indicator dyes fluo-4, fura-2 and fura-5F, identifying them as potential inexpensive alternatives to no-wash calcium ion indicator kits. In summary, we have developed a no-wash fluorescent sodium influx assay suitable for high-throughput screening based on the sodium indicator dye ANG-2 and the quencher Ponceau 4R.

9.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2466-2484, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714733

RESUMO

Inhibitors that target the glycine transporter 2, GlyT2, show promise as analgesics, but may be limited by their toxicity through complete or irreversible binding. Acyl-glycine inhibitors, however, are selective for GlyT2 and have been shown to provide analgesia in animal models of pain with minimal side effects, but are comparatively weak GlyT2 inhibitors. Here, we modify the simple acyl-glycine by synthesizing lipid analogues with a range of amino acid head groups in both l- and d-configurations, to produce nanomolar affinity, selective GlyT2 inhibitors. The potent inhibitor oleoyl-d-lysine (33) is also resistant to degradation in both human and rat plasma and liver microsomes, and is rapidly absorbed following an intraperitoneal injection to rats and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. We demonstrate that 33 provides greater analgesia at lower doses, and does not possess the severe side effects of the very slowly reversible GlyT2 inhibitor, ORG25543 (2).

10.
Structure ; 27(2): 315-326.e7, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554841

RESUMO

Disulfide-rich peptides (DRPs) play diverse physiological roles and have emerged as attractive sources of pharmacological tools and drug leads. Here we describe the 3D structure of a centipede venom peptide, U-SLPTX15-Sm2a, whose family defines a unique class of one of the most widespread DRP folds known, the cystine-stabilized α/ß fold (CSαß). This class, which we have named the two-disulfide CSαß fold (2ds-CSαß), contains only two internal disulfide bonds as opposed to at least three in all other confirmed CSαß peptides, and constitutes one of the major neurotoxic peptide families in centipede venoms. We show the 2ds-CSαß is widely distributed outside centipedes and is likely an ancient fold predating the split between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our results provide insights into the ancient evolutionary history of a widespread DRP fold and highlight the usefulness of 3D structures as evolutionary tools.

11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(11)2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400621

RESUMO

Assassin flies (Diptera: Asilidae) inject paralysing venom into insect prey during hunting, but their venoms are poorly characterised in comparison to those produced by spiders, scorpions, or hymenopteran insects. Here we investigated the composition of the venom of the giant Australian assassin fly Dolopus genitalis using a combination of insect microinjection assays, calcium imaging assays of mammalian sensory neurons, proteomics and transcriptomics. Injection of venom into blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) produced rapid contractile paralysis (PD50 at 1 min = 3.1 µg per fly) followed by death, and also caused immediate activation of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons (at 50 ng/µL). These results are consistent with venom use for both prey capture and predator deterrence. Paragon searches of tandem mass spectra of venom against a translated thoracic gland RNA-Seq database identified 122 polypeptides present in the venom, including six linear and 21 disulfide-rich peptides. Some of these disulfide-rich peptides display sequence homology to peptide families independently recruited into other animal venoms, including inhibitor cystine knots, cystine-stabilised α/ß defensins, Kazal peptides, and von Willebrand factors. Numerous enzymes are present in the venom, including 35 proteases of the S1 family, proteases of the S10, C1A, M12A, M14, and M17 families, and phosphatase, amylase, hydrolase, nuclease, and dehydrogenase-like proteins. These results highlight convergent molecular evolution between the assassin flies and other venomous animals, as well as the unique and rich molecular composition of assassin fly venom.

12.
Sci Adv ; 4(9): eaau4640, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214940

RESUMO

Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are diverse and ubiquitous, and their ability to sting is familiar to many of us. However, their venoms remain largely unstudied. We provide the first comprehensive characterization of a polypeptidic ant venom, that of the giant red bull ant, Myrmecia gulosa. We reveal a suite of novel peptides with a range of posttranslational modifications, including disulfide bond formation, dimerization, and glycosylation. One venom peptide has sequence features consistent with an epidermal growth factor fold, while the remaining peptides have features suggestive of a capacity to form amphipathic helices. We show that these peptides are derived from what appears to be a single, pharmacologically diverse, gene superfamily (aculeatoxins) that includes most venom peptides previously reported from the aculeate Hymenoptera. Two aculeatoxins purified from the venom were found to be capable of activating mammalian sensory neurons, consistent with the capacity to produce pain but via distinct mechanisms of action. Further investigation of the major venom peptide MIITX1-Mg1a revealed that it can also incapacitate arthropods, indicative of dual utility in both defense and predation. MIITX1-Mg1a accomplishes these functions by generating a leak in membrane ion conductance, which alters membrane potential and triggers neuronal depolarization. Our results provide the first insights into the evolution of the major toxin gene superfamily of the aculeate Hymenoptera and provide a new paradigm in the functional evolution of toxins from animal venoms.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13397, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194442

RESUMO

Cone snails are a diverse group of predatory marine invertebrates that deploy remarkably complex venoms to rapidly paralyse worm, mollusc or fish prey. ω-Conotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from cone snail venoms that inhibit Cav2.2 voltage-gated calcium channel, demonstrating potential for pain management via intrathecal (IT) administration. Here, we isolated and characterized two novel ω-conotoxins, MoVIA and MoVIB from Conus moncuri, the first to be identified in vermivorous (worm-hunting) cone snails. MoVIA and MoVIB potently inhibited human Cav2.2 in fluorimetric assays and rat Cav2.2 in patch clamp studies, and both potently displaced radiolabeled ω-conotoxin GVIA (125I-GVIA) from human SH-SY5Y cells and fish brain membranes (IC50 2-9 pM). Intriguingly, an arginine at position 13 in MoVIA and MoVIB replaced the functionally critical tyrosine found in piscivorous ω-conotoxins. To investigate its role, we synthesized MoVIB-[R13Y] and MVIIA-[Y13R]. Interestingly, MVIIA-[Y13R] completely lost Cav2.2 activity and MoVIB-[R13Y] had reduced activity, indicating that Arg at position 13 was preferred in these vermivorous ω-conotoxins whereas tyrosine 13 is preferred in piscivorous ω-conotoxins. MoVIB reversed pain behavior in a rat neuropathic pain model, confirming that vermivorous cone snails are a new source of analgesic ω-conotoxins. Given vermivorous cone snails are ancestral to piscivorous species, our findings support the repurposing of defensive venom peptides in the evolution of piscivorous Conidae.

14.
Sci Data ; 5: 180183, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179228

RESUMO

Chemotaxis plays a key role in many biological systems. In particular in the context of the developing nervous system, growing neurites can respond in vitro to shallow gradients of chemotropic molecules such as nerve growth factor (NGF). However, in such studies the gradient parameters are often not well controlled. Here we present a dataset of ~3500 images of early postnatal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants growing in 40 different precisely controlled combinations of absolute concentration and gradient steepness of NGF. Each image has been segmented into neurite and explant-body regions. We provide computer code for exploration and quantification of the data, including a Fourier analysis of the outer contour of neurite growth, which allows quantities such as outgrowth and guidance as a function of concentration and gradient steepness to be easily extracted. This is the most comprehensive quantitative dataset of chemotactic responses yet available for any biological system, which we hope will be useful for exploring the biological mechanisms governing chemotaxis.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 495, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867498

RESUMO

In the majority of patients with breast cancer in the advanced stages, skeletal metastases are common, which may cause excruciating pain. Currently available drug treatments for relief of breast cancer-induced bone pain (BCIBP) include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and strong opioid analgesics along with inhibitors of osteoclast activity such as bisphosphonates and monoclonal antibodies such as denosumab. However, these medications often lack efficacy and/or they may produce serious dose-limiting side effects. In the present study, we show that J-2156, a somatostatin receptor type 4 (SST4 receptor) selective agonist, reverses pain-like behaviors in a rat model of BCIBP induced by unilateral intra-tibial injection of Walker 256 breast cancer cells. Following intraperitoneal administration, the ED50 of J-2156 for the relief of mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hindpaws was 3.7 and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. Importantly, the vast majority of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia including small diameter C-fibers and medium-large diameter fibers, that play a crucial role in cancer pain hypersensitivities, expressed the SST4 receptor. J-2156 mediated pain relief in BCIBP-rats was confirmed by observations of a reduction in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), a protein essential for central sensitization and persistent pain, in the spinal dorsal horn. Our results demonstrate the potential of the SST4 receptor as a pharmacological target for relief of BCIBP and we anticipate the present work to be a starting point for further mechanism-based studies.

16.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 26(12): 3406-3413, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776832

RESUMO

The proteins Orai1 and STIM1 control store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) into cells. SOCE is important for migration, invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and has been proposed as a target for cancer drug discovery. Two hit compounds from a medium throughput screen, displayed encouraging inhibition of SOCE in MDA-MB-231 cells, as measured by a Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR) Ca2+ assay. Following NMR spectroscopic analysis of these hits and reassignment of their structures as 5-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethylpyrazolines, a series of analogues was prepared via thermal condensation reactions between substituted acylhydrazones and trifluoromethyl 1,3-dicarbonyl arenes. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that small lipophilic substituents at the 2- and 3-positions of the RHS and 2-, 3- and 4-postions of the LHS terminal benzene rings improved activity, resulting in a novel class of potent and selective inhibitors of SOCE.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/química , Proteína ORAI1/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/química , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína ORAI1/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 679: 1-3, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738846
18.
Life Sci ; 198: 128-135, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496495

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess levels of the calcium permeable transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily melastatin, member 8 (TRPM8) in breast cancer molecular subtypes and to assess the consequences of TRPM8 pharmacological inhibition with AMTB (an inhibitor of TRPM8) on breast cancer cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability and migration of breast cancer cells was determined using MTS assays and wound healing assays, respectively. RNA-Seq analysis of breast tumours and qPCR in breast cancer cell lines were used to assess mRNA levels of ion channels. Membrane potential assays were employed to assess the effects of AMTB against specific voltage gated sodium channels (NaV). KEY FINDINGS: TRPM8 levels were significantly higher in breast cancers of the basal molecular subtype. AMTB decreased viable cell number in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines (30 and 100 µM), and also reduced the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells (30 µM). However, these effects were independent of TRPM8, as no TRPM8 mRNA was detected in MDA-MB-231 cells. AMTB was identified as an inhibitor of NaV isoforms. NaV1.1-1.9 were expressed in a number of breast cancer cell lines, with NaV1.5 mRNA highest in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to the other breast cancer cell lines assessed. SIGNIFICANCE: TRPM8 levels may be elevated in basal breast cancers, however, TRPM8 expression appears to be lost in many breast cancer cell lines. Some of the effects of AMTB attributed to TRPM8 may be due to effects on NaV channels.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/farmacologia , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Potenciais da Membrana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
J Med Chem ; 61(4): 1730-1736, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378414

RESUMO

We report the chemical synthesis of scorpion toxin Cn2, a potent and highly selective activator of the human voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.6. In an attempt to decouple channel activation from channel binding, we also synthesized the first analogue of this toxin, Cn2[E15R]. This mutation caused uncoupling of the toxin's excitatory and depressant activities, effectively resulting in a NaV1.6 inhibitor. In agreement with the in vitro observations, Cn2[E15R] is antinociceptive in mouse models of NaV1.6-mediated pain.

20.
Mol Immunol ; 94: 68-74, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274925

RESUMO

The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune response. The anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a are key drivers of the complement system, acting through the receptors C3aR, C5aR1 and C5aR2 to regulate inflammation. While a role for C5a activation of C5aR1 in inflammatory and neuropathic pain has been established, the role of the complement system in burn-induced pain has not been investigated. To address this gap, we assessed the role of complement receptors C3aR, C5aR1 and C5aR2 in a mouse model of acute burn-induced pain. Superficial burn injury was induced in C57BL/6 mice by firm application of left hind paw plantar surface to a hot plate set at 52.5 °C for 25 s. Development of burn-induced mechanical allodynia, thermal allodynia, weight bearing changes and edema was assessed in C3aR-/-, C5aR1-/- and C5aR2-/- mice and compared to their wild type controls over three days. Burn-induced mechanical allodynia, thermal allodynia and weight bearing changes developed normally C3aR-/-, C5aR1-/- and C5aR2-/- mice. However, burn-induced edema was significantly reduced in C5aR2-/- male mice, but not C5aR2-/- female mice. These results suggest that the complement system has a limited role in the development of acute burn-induced pain.

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