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1.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 434, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781522

RESUMO

The majority of children undergoing Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT) require conditioning therapy to make space and prevent rejection of the donor stem cells. The exception is certain children with Severe Combined immune deficiency, who have limited or no ability to reject the donor graft. Transplant conditioning is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from both direct toxic effects of chemotherapy as well as opportunistic infections associated with profound immunosuppression. The ultimate goal of transplant practice is to achieve sufficient engraftment of donor cells to correct the underlying disease with minimal short- and long-term toxicity to the recipient. Traditional combinations, such as busulfan and cyclophosphamide, achieve a high rate of full donor engraftment, but are associated with significant acute transplant-related-mortality and late effects such as infertility. Less "intensive" approaches, such as combinations of treosulfan or melphalan with fludarabine, are less toxic, but may be associated with rejection or low level chimerism requiring the need for re-transplantation. The major benefit of these novel approaches, however, which we hope will be realized in the decades to come, may be the preservation of fertility. Future approaches look to replace chemotherapy with non-toxic antibody conditioning. The lessons learnt in refining conditioning for HSCT are likely to be equally applicable to gene therapy protocols for the same diseases.

2.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524

RESUMO

Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n = 87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year posttransplant. PKs were described with a two-compartment model. During follow-up, 11 of 87 patients died and 12 of 87 patients had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) of 1,000 mg hour/L the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23-1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36-1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4,800 mg hour/L maximized the probability of success (> 20% engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80% and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in nonmalignant disease.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566733

RESUMO

Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) contribute to the morbidity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and strategies to prevent and treat VRIs are warranted. We monitored VRIs before and after transplant in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and assessed the impact on clinical outcome. Between 2007 and 2017, 585 children underwent 620 allogeneic HSCT procedures. Out of 75 patients with a positive NPA screen (12%), transplant was delayed in 25 cases (33%), while 53 children started conditioning with a VRI. Patients undergoing HSCT with a positive NPA screen had a significantly lower overall survival (54% vs. 79%) and increased TRM (26% vs. 7%) compared to patients with a negative NPA. Patients with a positive NPA who delayed transplant and cleared the virus before conditioning had improved overall survival (90%) and lower TRM (5%). Pre-HSCT positive NPA was the only significant risk factor for progression to a lower respiratory tract infection and was a major risk factor for TRM. Transplant delay, whenever feasible, in case of a positive NPA screen for VRIs can positively impact on survival of children undergoing HSCT.

4.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1408-1414, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477906

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 demonstrate unparalleled responses in relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)1-5, but toxicity, including cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity, limits broader application. Moreover, 40-60% of patients relapse owing to poor CAR T cell persistence or emergence of CD19- clones. Some factors, including the choice of single-chain spacer6 and extracellular7 and costimulatory domains8, have a profound effect on CAR T cell function and persistence. However, little is known about the impact of CAR binding affinity. There is evidence of a ceiling above which increased immunoreceptor affinity may adversely affect T cell responses9-11. We generated a novel CD19 CAR (CAT) with a lower affinity than FMC63, the high-affinity binder used in many clinical studies1-4. CAT CAR T cells showed increased proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro and had enhanced proliferative and in vivo antitumor activity compared with FMC63 CAR T cells. In a clinical study (CARPALL, NCT02443831 ), 12/14 patients with relapsed/refractory pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with CAT CAR T cells achieved molecular remission. Persistence was demonstrated in 11 of 14 patients at last follow-up, with enhanced CAR T cell expansion compared with published data. Toxicity was low, with no severe CRS. One-year overall and event-free survival were 63% and 46%, respectively.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos CD19/genética , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
5.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410846

RESUMO

The first umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation was performed 30 years ago. UCB transplantation (UCBT) is now widely used in children with malignant and non-malignant disorders who lack a matched family donor. UCBT affords a lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease compared to alternative stem cell sources, but also presents a slower immune recovery and a high risk of infections if serotherapy is not omitted or targeted within the conditioning regimen. The selection of UCB units with high cell content and good human leucocyte antigen match is essential to improve the outcome. Techniques, such as double UCBT, ex vivo stem cell expansion and intra-bone injection of UCB, have improved cord blood engraftment, but clinical benefit remains to be demonstrated. Cell therapies derived from UCB are under evaluation as potential novel strategies to reduce relapse and viral infections following transplantation. In recent years, improvements within haploidentical transplantation have reduced the overall use of UCBT as an alternative stem cell source; however, each may have its relative merits and disadvantages and tailored use of these alternative stem cell sources may be the optimal approach.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1570, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333680

RESUMO

Background: This retrospective study assessed the use and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs), reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry. Methods: Between 1997 and 2014, 128 patients received allogeneic HSCT for various hematological (n = 49) and non-hematological (n = 79) refractory ADs. The median age was 12.7 years (0.2-62.2). Donors were syngeneic for seven, matched related for 46, unrelated for 51, haploidentical for 15, and cord blood for nine patients. Results: The incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) was 20.8% at 100 days. Cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 27.8% at 5-years. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 12.7% at 100-days. Overall survival (OS) and Progression-Free Survival (PFS) were 70.2 and 59.4% at 5-years, respectively. By multivariate analysis, age <18 years, males, and more recent year of transplant were found to be significantly associated with improved PFS. Reduced conditioning intensity was associated with a lower NRM. On a subgroup of 64 patients with detailed information a complete clinical response was obtained in 67% of patients at 1-year. Conclusions: This large EBMT survey suggests the potential of allogeneic HSCT to induce long-term disease control in a large proportion of refractory ADs, with acceptable toxicities and NRM, especially in younger patients.

7.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(7): 735-751, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070946

RESUMO

Introduction: Adequate immune reconstitution post-HSCT is crucial for the success of transplantation, and can be affected by both patient- and transplant-related factors. Areas covered: A systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and abstracts of international congresses is performed to investigate immune recovery posttransplant. In this review, we discuss the pattern of immune recovery in the post-transplant period focusing on the impact of stem cell source (bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cells, and cord blood) on immune recovery and HSCT outcome. We examine the impact of serotherapy on immune reconstitution and the need to tailor dosing of serotherapy agents when using different stem cell sources. We discuss new techniques being used particularly with cord blood and haploidentical grafts to improve immune recovery in each scenario. Expert opinion: Cord blood T cells provide a unique CD4+ biased immune reconstitution. Initial studies using targeted serotherapy with cord grafts showed improved immune recovery with limited alloreactivity. Two competing haploidentical approaches have developed in recent years including TCRαß/CD19 depleted grafts and post-cyclophosphamide haplo-HSCT. Both approaches have comparable survival rates with limited alloreactivity. However, delayed immune reconstitution is still an ongoing problem and could be improved by modified donor lymphocyte infusions from the same haploidentical donor.

8.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 58(12): 1609-1620, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alemtuzumab (Campath®) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure following pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The main toxicity includes delayed immune reconstitution, subsequent viral reactivations, and leukemia relapse. Exposure to alemtuzumab is highly variable upon empirical milligram/kilogram dosing. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for alemtuzumab was developed based on a total of 1146 concentration samples from 206 patients, aged 0.2-19 years, receiving a cumulative intravenous dose of 0.2-1.5 mg/kg, and treated between 2003 and 2015 in two centers. RESULTS: Alemtuzumab PK were best described using a two-compartment model with a parallel saturable and linear elimination pathway. The linear clearance pathway, central volume of distribution, and intercompartmental distribution increased with body weight. Blood lymphocyte counts, a potential substrate for alemtuzumab, did not impact clearance. CONCLUSION: The current practice with uniform milligram/kilogram doses leads to highly variable exposures in children due to the non-linear relationship between body weight and alemtuzumab PK. This model may be used for individualized dosing of alemtuzumab.

9.
Blood Adv ; 3(7): 1118-1128, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952678

RESUMO

When hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is necessary for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains debate about the best stem cell source. Post-HSCT relapse is a common cause of mortality, and complications such as chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) are debilitating and life-threatening. To compare post-HSCT outcomes of different donor sources, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive transplants performed in several international centers from 2005 to 2015. A total of 317 patients were studied: 19% matched sibling donor (MSD), 23% matched unrelated donor (MUD), 39% umbilical cord blood (UCB), and 19% double UCB (dUCB) recipients. The median age at transplant was 10 years (range, 0.42-21 years), and median follow-up was 4.74 years (range, 4.02-5.39 years). Comparisons were made while controlling for patient, transplant, and disease characteristics. There were no differences in relapse, leukemia-free survival, or nonrelapse mortality. dUCB recipients had inferior survival compared with matched sibling recipients, but all other comparisons showed similar overall survival. Despite the majority of UCB transplants being HLA mismatched, the rates of cGVHD were low, especially compared with the well-matched MUD recipients (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.67; P = .02). The composite measure of cGVHD and leukemia-free survival (cGVHD-LFS), which represents both the quality of life and risk for mortality, was significantly better in the UCB compared with the MUD recipients (HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1; P = .03). In summary, the use of UCB is an excellent donor choice for pediatric patients with AML when a matched sibling cannot be identified.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(12): 5693-5698, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819890

RESUMO

Recent sequencing efforts have led to estimates of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome-wide intrahost diversity that rival those of persistent RNA viruses [Renzette N, Bhattacharjee B, Jensen JD, Gibson L, Kowalik TF (2011) PLoS Pathog 7:e1001344]. Here, we deep sequence HCMV genomes recovered from single and longitudinally collected blood samples from immunocompromised children to show that the observations of high within-host HCMV nucleotide diversity are explained by the frequent occurrence of mixed infections caused by genetically distant strains. To confirm this finding, we reconstructed within-host viral haplotypes from short-read sequence data. We verify that within-host HCMV nucleotide diversity in unmixed infections is no greater than that of other DNA viruses analyzed by the same sequencing and bioinformatic methods and considerably less than that of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses. By resolving individual viral haplotypes within patients, we reconstruct the timing, likely origins, and natural history of superinfecting strains. We uncover evidence for within-host recombination between genetically distinct HCMV strains, observing the loss of the parental virus containing the nonrecombinant fragment. The data suggest selection for strains containing the recombinant fragment, generating testable hypotheses about HCMV evolution and pathogenesis. These results highlight that high HCMV diversity present in some samples is caused by coinfection with multiple distinct strains and provide reassurance that within the host diversity for single-strain HCMV infections is no greater than for other herpesviruses.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Superinfecção/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genoma Viral , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
11.
J Pediatr ; 209: 97-106.e2, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on sclerosing cholangitis, in pediatric patients with different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). STUDY DESIGN: From databases in 2 tertiary centers for immunodeficiencies and liver disease, we have identified children with PIDs and sclerosing cholangitis, who have paired clinical, radiologic, and histologic information before and after HSCT and studied their clinical progress and outcome. RESULTS: Seven of 13 children (53.8%) died at a median interval of 4 months (range, 3 months-5 years) after HSCT. However, 6 surviving children (46.2%) with different PIDs and less severe cholangiopathies showed an improvement in markers of liver injury within months of successful unrelated reduced intensity conditioning HSCT. The repeated native liver biopsy, performed in 4 patients at a median of 96 (range, 4-144) months post-HSCT, showed a considerable improvement. Biochemical markers of liver function in the survivors completely normalized after a median of 13 months (range, 2-48). All patients continue to have a mildly dilated extrahepatic biliary system on ultrasonography with no intrahepatic ductal changes on magnetic resonance cholangiography after a follow-up of median 18 years (range, 2-20). CONCLUSIONS: Effective HSCT has the potential to improve biochemical and histologic features of cholangiopathy in children with PIDs, presumably by clearance of chronic infection following establishment of immune competence. However, careful patient selection is critical as advanced liver injury is often associated with serious complications and mortality.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts. RESULTS: The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.

14.
Cells ; 8(1)2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646564

RESUMO

Adverse outcomes following virus-associated disease in patients receiving allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have encouraged strategies to control viral reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. However, despite timely treatment with antiviral medication, some viral infections remain refractory to treatment, which hampers outcomes after HSCT, and are responsible for a high proportion of transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived lymphocytes aims to improve cellular immunity and to prevent or treat viral diseases after HSCT. Early reports described the feasibility of transferring nonspecific lymphocytes from donors, which led to the development of cell therapy approaches based on virus-specific T cells, allowing a targeted treatment of infections, while limiting adverse events such as graft versus host disease (GvHD). Both expansion and direct selection techniques have yielded comparable results in terms of efficacy (around 70⁻80%), but efficacy is difficult to predict for individual cases. Generating bespoke products for each donor⁻recipient pair can be expensive, and there remains the major obstacle of generating products from seronegative or poorly responsive donors. More recent studies have focused on the feasibility of collecting and infusing partially matched third-party virus-specific T cells, reporting response rates of 60⁻70%. Future development of this approach will involve the broadening of applicability to multiple viruses, the optimization and cost-control of manufacturing, larger multicentred efficacy trials, and finally the creation of cell banks that can provide prompt access to virus-specific cellular product. The aim of this review is to summarise present knowledge on adoptive T cell manufacturing, efficacy and potential future developments.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos T/transplante , Viroses/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Doação Dirigida de Tecido , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Viroses/etiologia
15.
Br J Haematol ; 184(3): 397-404, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460979

RESUMO

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option for Familial Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). Most studies report outcomes after bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. We analysed the outcomes of 118 children with FHLH undergoing single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation performed from 1996 to 2014. Myeloablative conditioning regimen was given to 90% of the patients, and was mostly busulfan-based (n = 81, 76%), including anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab (n = 102, 86%). The cumulative incidence of Day 60 neutrophil engraftment was 85%; and that of non-relapse mortality and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was 21% and 33% at 100 days, respectively. The 6-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 17% and the 6-year probability of overall survival was 55%. In multivariate analysis, children receiving a graft with a total nucleated cell dose greater than 9·9 × 107 /kg had a better overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 0·49, 95% CI: 0·27-0·88, P = 0·02). Degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching was associated with improved disease-free survival (5/6 vs. 6/6 HR: 2·11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·01-4·4, P = 0·05 and ≤4/6 vs. 6/6, HR: 2·82, CI: 1·27-6·23, P = 0·01). Umbilical cord blood transplantation with a high cell dose and good HLA match is a suitable alternative option to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with FHLH who lack a HLA-matched donor.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doadores não Relacionados , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2547, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455696

RESUMO

Spectratyping assays are well recognized as the clinical gold standard for assessing the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. These assays use length distributions of the hyper variable complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) to characterize a patient's T cell immune reconstitution post-transplant. However, whilst useful, TCR spectratyping is notably limited by its resolution, with the technique unable to provide data on the individual clonotypes present in a sample. High-resolution clonotype data are necessary to provide quantitative clinical TCR assessments and to better understand clonotype dynamics during clinically relevant events such as viral infections or GvHD. In this study we developed and applied a CDR3 Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methodology to assess the TCR repertoire in cord blood transplant (CBT) recipients. Using this, we obtained comprehensive TCR data from 16 CBT patients and 5 control cord samples at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). These were analyzed to provide a quantitative measurement of the TCR repertoire and its constituents in patients post-CBT. We were able to both recreate and quantify inferences typically drawn from spectratyping data. Additionally, we demonstrate that an NGS approach to TCR assessment can provide novel insights into the recovery of the immune system in these patients. We show that NGS can be used to accurately quantify TCR repertoire diversity and to provide valuable inference on clonotypes detected in a sample. We serially assessed the progress of T cell immune reconstitution demonstrating that there is dramatic variation in TCR diversity immediately following transplantation and that the dynamics of T cell immune reconstitution is perturbed by the presence of GvHD. These findings provide a proof of concept for the adoption of NGS TCR sequencing in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
17.
Blood ; 132(19): 2088-2096, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104219

RESUMO

Asymptomatic carriers (ACs) of pathogenic biallelic mutations in causative genes for primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are at high risk of developing life-threatening HLH, which requires allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to be cured. There are no guidelines on the management of these asymptomatic patients. We analyzed the outcomes of pairs of index cases (ICs) and subsequently diagnosed asymptomatic family members carrying the same genetic defect. We collected data from 22 HSCT centers worldwide. Sixty-four children were evaluable. ICs presented with HLH at a median age of 16 months. Seven of 32 ICs died during first-line therapy, and 2 are alive after chemotherapy only. In all, 23/32 underwent HSCT, and 16 of them are alive. At a median follow-up of 36 months from diagnosis, 18/32 ICs are alive. Median age of ACs at diagnosis was 5 months. Ten of 32 ACs activated HLH while being observed, and all underwent HSCT: 6/10 are alive and in complete remission (CR). 22/32 ACs remained asymptomatic, and 6/22 have received no treatment and are in CR at a median follow-up of 39 months. Sixteen of 22 underwent preemptive HSCT: 15/16 are alive and in CR. Eight-year probability of overall survival (pOS) in ACs who did not have activated HLH was significantly higher than that in ICs (95% vs 45%; P = .02), and pOS in ACs receiving HSCT before disease activation was significantly higher than in ACs receiving HSCT after HLH activation (93% vs 64%; P = .03). Preemptive HSCT in ACs proved to be safe and should be considered.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(10): 939-948, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous trials in adults with impaired immunity and respiratory failure suggest that early noninvasive ventilation avoids endotracheal intubation and improves survival. No randomized clinical trials have addressed this question in children. DESIGN: We undertook an open, parallel-group randomized trial in three pediatric hospitals. SUBJECTS: Children with impaired immunity and acute respiratory failure defined as tachypnoea (> 90th centile); a new requirement for supplemental oxygen; and new chest radiograph infiltrates. INTERVENTIONS: Children were randomly assigned to early PICU admission for continuous positive airways pressure (early continuous positive airways pressure) or to standard care. The primary outcome was endotracheal intubation by 30 days. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One-hundred fourteen children met inclusion criteria of whom 42 were randomized between January 2013 and January 2016. There was no significant difference in endotracheal intubation by 30 days with early continuous positive airways pressure (10/21; 48%) compared with standard care (5/21; 24%), odds ratio 2.9 (0.8-10.9), p value equals to 0.11. However, 30-day mortality was significantly higher with early continuous positive airways pressure (7/21; 33%) compared with standard care (1/21; 5%), odds ratio 10.0 (1.1-90.6), p value equals to 0.041. Mortality at 90 days was early continuous positive airways pressure (11/21; 52%) versus standard care (4/21; 19%), odds ratio 4.7 (1.2-18.6), p value equals to 0.029, whereas mortality at 1 year was similar early continuous positive airways pressure (13/21; 61.9%) versus standard care (9/21; 42.7%), odds ratio 2.2 (0.6-7.4), p value equals to 0.22. There were two serious adverse events: early continuous positive airways pressure (pneumothorax) and standard care (hemothorax). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided no evidence to support early PICU admission for continuous positive airways pressure in children with acute respiratory failure and impaired immunity. There was a trend toward increased endotracheal intubation and a higher early mortality in the early continuous positive airways pressure group.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade
19.
Br J Haematol ; 183(1): 110-118, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984823

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a genetic multisystem disorder with frequent involvement of the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only definitive cure to restore haematopoiesis, even though it cannot correct other organ dysfunctions. We collected data on the outcome of HSCT in the largest cohort of DC (n = 94) patients ever studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years after HSCT were 66% and 62%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed better outcomes in patients aged less than 20 years and in patients transplanted from a matched, rather than a mismatched, donor. OS and EFS curves tended to decline over time. Early lethal events were infections, whereas organ damage and secondary malignancies appeared afterwards, even a decade after HSCT. A non-myeloablative conditioning regimen appeared to be most advisable. Organ impairment present before HSCT seemed to favour the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease and T-B immune deficiency appeared to enhance pulmonary fibrosis. According to the present data, HSCT in DC is indicated in cases of progressive marrow failure, whereas in patients with pre-existing organ damage, this should be carefully evaluated. Further efforts to investigate treatment alternatives to HSCT should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Disceratose Congênita/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças da Medula Óssea/etiologia , Disceratose Congênita/complicações , Disceratose Congênita/mortalidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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