Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 10 de 10
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at neuropsychological risk for cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, few prospective, multi-site studies have evaluated neuropsychological outcomes longitudinally among perinatally infected African children who received early antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: We enrolled 611 children aged 5 to 11 years at 6 sites (South Africa [3], Zimbabwe, Malawi, Uganda). Of these, there were 246 children living with HIV (HIV+) who were initiated on ART before 3 years of age in a prior clinical trial comparing nevirapine to lopinavir/ritonavir (International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Trials [IMPAACT] P1060); 183 age-matched, exposed but uninfected (HEU) children; and 182 unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children. They were compared across 3 assessment time points (Weeks 0, 48, and 96) on cognitive ability (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition [KABC-II]), attention/impulsivity (Tests of Variables of Attention [TOVA]), motor proficiency (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test, second edition [BOT-2]), and on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The cohorts were compared using linear mixed models, adjusting for site, child's age and sex, and selected personal/family control variables. RESULTS: The HIV+ cohort performed significantly worse than the HEU and HUU cohorts for all KABC-II, TOVA, and BOT-2 performance outcomes across all 3 time points (P values < .001). The HUU and HEU cohorts were comparable. For the KABC-II planning/reasoning subtests, the HIV+ children showed less improvement over time than the HUU and HEU groups. The groups did not differ significantly on the BRIEF. CONCLUSIONS: Despite initiation of ART in early childhood and good viral suppression at the time of enrollment, the HIV+ group had poorer neuropsychological performance over time, with the gap progressively worsening in planning/reasoning. This can be debilitating for self-management in adolescence.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01494038.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462095

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms among HIV-positive (HIV+) women may negatively impact their health and possibly that of their young children through risk of compromised caregiving. We evaluated how depression symptoms in predominantly (97%) female caregivers relate to neurodevelopmental outcomes in their HIV affected children. Data come from the IMPAACT P1104s Study, an observational cohort across six sites in four countries: Zimbabwe, South Africa, Uganda and Malawi. Participants (n = 611) were 5-11-year-old children with HIV (HIV), HIV exposed uninfected (HEU), or HIV unexposed uninfected (HUU). Primary caregivers were assessed for depression with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) and children with Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Function (BRIEF) parent-report, Kauffman Assessment Battery for Children II (KABC), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Ed. (BOT-2), Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey, Child Disability and Development scales (MICS-4). Caregivers with higher depression scores (>1.75 mean HSCL score) reported more executive function problems in their children, regardless of HIV status. All executive function scores were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with depressive symptomatology at baseline and across time. Caregiver depressive symptomatology was not associated with other assessed neurocognitive outcomes. These results highlight the potential impact of caregiver depression on child behavioral outcomes.

4.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(2): 130-137, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282303

RESUMO

The incidence of HIV infection is increasing among adolescents in Zimbabwe. This rise in incidence is partly due to risky sexual behaviours yet there are no published research studies on sexual behaviours of HIV-positive adolescents in Zimbabwe. Hence, this study, which examined the sexual behaviours of HIV-positive adolescents. This study utilised a cross-sectional design with a conveniently selected sample of 341 HIV-positive adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The study revealed that approximately 37 (11%) of the adolescents had engaged in sexual intercourse, and approximately 14 (60%) of these did not use condoms. Approximately 11 (30%) of the sexually active adolescents had multiple sexual partners, and only 9 (24.3%) of them had disclosed their HIV serostatus to their partners before sexual intercourse. A bivariate analysis revealed factors that were associated with being sexually activity. Examples of these include age (OR = 1.56, p < 0.001) and being treated by a psychiatrist (OR = 47.9, p < 0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out, revealing factors that were independently associated with being sexually active. Examples of these include age (AOR = 1.91, p < 0.01) and exposure to erotic television programmes (AOR = 3.9, p < 0.04). The results of the study indicate that the sexual risk behaviours of HIV-positive adolescents contributes to the increase in incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe. The development and rolling out of a health education programme will help health care workers to address this concern.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
5.
Child Neuropsychol ; 25(4): 466-481, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105934

RESUMO

Compromised neurodevelopment (ND) among infants and children is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Standardized testing of ND is frequently prohibitive in these contexts, as tests require skilled staff for their application. In this paper, we present a quality assurance (QA) model (QualiND) for standardized ND testing, discussing findings and implications from our experience applying the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II). The QualiND model was implemented within IMPAACT P1104s study, a multisite, prospective study including 615 children affected by HIV. From 2014 to 2016, the QualiND managed 18 testers across 6 sites located in 4 African countries applying the KABC-II in 9 local languages. The QualiND is a multilevel, video-assisted iterative model incorporating remote evaluation, feedback, and supervision roles. Using an ad hoc rubric, videos of test application were evaluated by experienced staff in a centralized QA center. At each study site, testers and supervisors reviewed feedback from videos received via email from the QA center and devised an action plan to address testing errors and deficiencies. There were few instances of invalid tests and few barriers to test completion. Over 97% of KABC-II tests across sites were considered to be valid by the QA center. Overall, the QualiND model was a useful platform for remote supervision to nonspecialist and minimally trained research staff. The QualiND model may be useful to researchers and organizations involved in measuring early child development using standardized tests in low and middle-income countries.

6.
J Pediatr Infect Dis ; 13(3): 185-201, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100780

RESUMO

Introduction: Western-constructed neuropsychological tests have been used in low and middle income countries to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS and other chronic illnesses. We explore using such instruments cross-culturally in a sub-Saharan Africa setting. Methods: IMPAACT P1104S was a two-year observational study carried out at six clinical sites (South Africa- 3 sites, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe) to assess and compare neuropsychological outcomes in three cohorts of children 5-11 years of age: HIV-infected (HIV), HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed and uninfected (HU). Descriptive statistics compared socio-demographic characteristics among children at sites. Instruments included the KABC-II cognitive ability, TOVA attention/impulsivity, BOT-2 motor proficiency tests, and BRIEF executive function problems. Test characteristics were assessed using intraclass and Spearman non-parametric correlations, linear regression and principal factor analyses. Results: Of the 611 participants, 50% were male and mean age ranged from 6.6 to 8 years. In Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe, substantial proportions of families lived in rural settings in contrast to the South African sites. Intraclass correlation coefficients between weeks 0 and 48 were highest for the KABC scores, ranging between 0.42 to 0.71.Correlations among similar test domains were low to moderate but significant, with positive correlation between KABC Sequential and TOVA scores and negative correlation between BRIEF and KABC scores. TOVA response time scores correlated negatively with the BOT-2 Total points score. Strong and significant associations between individual measures of growth, disability and development with all test scores were observed. Performance-based measures were markedly lower for HIV compared to HEU and HU participants, even after controlling for age, sex and site. Factor analyses confirmed the underlying theoretical structure of the KABC scaled item scores. Conclusion: The KABC, TOVA, BRIEF and BOT-2 were valid and reliable tools for assessing the neuropsychological impact of HIV in four sub-Saharan African countries.

7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 77(4): 383-392, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No randomized trial has directly compared the efficacy of prolonged infant antiretroviral prophylaxis versus maternal antiretroviral therapy (mART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission throughout the breastfeeding period. SETTING: Fourteen sites in Sub-Saharan Africa and India. METHODS: A randomized, open-label strategy trial was conducted in HIV-1-infected women with CD4 counts ≥350 cells/mm (or ≥country-specific ART threshold if higher) and their breastfeeding HIV-1-uninfected newborns. Randomization at 6-14 days postpartum was to mART or infant nevirapine (iNVP) prophylaxis continued until 18 months after delivery or breastfeeding cessation, infant HIV-1 infection, or toxicity, whichever occurred first. The primary efficacy outcome was confirmed infant HIV-1 infection. Efficacy analyses included all randomized mother-infant pairs except those with infant HIV-1 infection at entry. RESULTS: Between June 2011 and October 2014, 2431 mother-infant pairs were enrolled; 97% of women were World Health Organization Clinical Stage I, median screening CD4 count 686 cells/mm. Median infant gestational age/birth weight was 39 weeks/2.9 kilograms. Seven of 1219 (0.57%) and 7 of 1211 (0.58%) analyzed infants in the mART and iNVP arms, respectively, were HIV-infected (hazard ratio 1.0, 96% repeated confidence interval 0.3-3.1); infant HIV-free survival was high (97.1%, mART and 97.7%, iNVP, at 24 months). There were no significant differences between arms in median time to breastfeeding cessation (16 months) or incidence of severe, life-threatening, or fatal adverse events for mothers or infants (14 and 42 per 100 person-years, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Both mART and iNVP prophylaxis strategies were safe and associated with very low breastfeeding HIV-1 transmission and high infant HIV-1-free survival at 24 months.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período Pós-Parto , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 32(8): 856-62, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23407100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is common in HIV-infected children in Africa, including after start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are limited data on causative pathogens and their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in this population. METHODS: We analyzed data on blood cultures taken from HIV-infected children developing acute febrile illness after enrollment to the Antiretroviral Research for Watoto (ARROW) clinical trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Patterns of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined and bacteremia rates calculated over time from ART initiation. RESULTS: A total of 848 blood cultures were obtained from 461 children, of which 123 (14.5%) from 105 children (median age 3.5 years, 51% girls) were culture positive, including 75 (8.8%) with clearly pathogenic organisms. The event rates for positive cultures with clearly pathogenic organisms after 0-1, 2-3, 4-11 and ≥12 months on ART were 13.3, 11.4, 2.1 and 0.3 per 1000 person-months of follow-up, respectively. The pathogens isolated (n; %) were Streptococcus pneumoniae (36; 28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (11; 8.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6; 4.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6; 4.7%), Salmonella spp (6; 4.7%), Escherichia coli (5; 3.9%), Haemophilus influenzae (1; 0.8%) and fungal spp (4; 3.1%). Other bacteria of doubtful pathogenicity (n = 52; 42%) were also isolated. Most isolates tested were highly (80-100%) susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin; very few (~5%) were susceptible to cotrimoxazole; S. pneumoniae had high susceptibility to amoxicillin/ampicillin (80%). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of proven bacteremia were >20-fold higher immediately after starting ART compared with 12 months later in African HIV-infected children. S. pneumoniae was most commonly isolated, suggesting need for pneumococcal vaccination and effective prophylactic antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Uganda , Zimbábue
9.
BMC Med Ethics ; 13: 17, 2012 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22818109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials involving children previously considered unethical are now considered essential because of the inherent physiological differences between children and adults. An integral part of research ethics is the informed consent, which for children is obtained by proxy from a consenting parent or guardian. The informed consent process is governed by international ethical codes that are interpreted in accordance with local laws and procedures raising the importance of contextualizing their implementation. FINDINGS: In Zimbabwe the parental informed consent document for children participating in clinical research is modeled after Western laws of ethics and requires that the parent or legally authorized representative provide consent on behalf of a minor. This article highlights the experiences and lessons learnt by Zimbabwean researchers in obtaining informed consent from guardians of orphaned children participating in a collaborative HIV clinical trial involving the Medical Research Council, United Kingdom and four centers, three of which are in Uganda. Researchers were faced with a situation where caregivers of orphaned children were not permitted to provide informed consent for trial participation. The situation contrasted with general clinical practice where consent for procedures on orphans is obtained from their caregivers who are not legal guardians. CONCLUSION: The challenges faced in obtaining informed consent for orphans in this clinical trial underscores the need for the Zimbabwe ethics committee to develop an ethical and legal framework for pediatric research that is based on international guidelines while taking into account the cultural context. The Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe has since started the process that is expected to involve critical stakeholders namely the community including children, ethicists, the legal fraternity and researchers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Crianças Órfãs , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tutores Legais , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/ética , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Uganda , Zimbábue
10.
PLoS One ; 7(5): e36186, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22567139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provision of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected children is complicated using syrup formulations, which are costlier than tablets, harder to transport and store and difficult for health-workers to prescribe and caregivers to administer. Dispersible/crushable tablets may be more appropriate. We studied the acceptability of syrups and scored tablets among young children who used both in the AntiRetroviral Research fOr Watoto (ARROW) trial. METHODS: ARROW is an ongoing randomized trial of paediatric ART monitoring and treatment strategies in 1206 children in Uganda and Zimbabwe. 405 children initially received syrups of combination ART including Nevirapine, Zidovudine, Abacavir and Lamivudine before changing, when reaching the 12-<15 kg weightband, to scored adult-dose tablets prescribed according to WHO weightband tables. Caregiver expectations and experiences were collected in questionnaires at their last visit on syrups and after 8 and 24 weeks on tablets. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by caregivers of 267 children (median age 2.9 years (IQR 2.5, 3.4)). At last visit on syrups, 79% caregivers reported problems with syrups, mostly related to number, weight, transportation and conspicuousness of bottles. Difficulties taking tablets were expected by 127(48%) caregivers; however, after 8 and 24 weeks, only 26% and 18% reported their children had problems with tablets and no problems were reported with transportation/conspicuousness. Taste, swallowing or vomiting were reported as problems 'sometimes/often' for 14%, 9%, 22% children on syrups and 16%, 9%, 8% on tablets. At last visit on syrups, 74% caregivers expected to prefer tablets but only 27% thought their child would. After 8/24 weeks, 94%/97% caregivers preferred tablets and 57%/59% reported their child did. CONCLUSIONS: Most children at about 3 years can take tablets; caregivers and children themselves generally prefer tablets to liquid formulations of HIV medications above this age. Preferences of caregivers and children should be considered when designing and licensing paediatric drug formulations.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , África , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA