Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 311
Filtrar
1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106445, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614441

RESUMO

Dalbavancin is increasingly used for the treatment of staphylococcal osteoarticular infections. Some population pharmacokinetic studies suggest that a two 1500 mg dosing regimen one-week apart could ensure effective treatment for several weeks. Here we want to provide clinicians with a proof-of-concept of the potential role that therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may have in giving a real-time feedback of the estimated duration of optimal treatment of staphylococcal osteoarticular infections with dalbavancin in each single patient.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591738

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health problem threatening to reverse the progress made against infectious diseases. The rapid increase of AMR exposes Italian hospitals at increased risk of untreatable infections. Vaccinations can potentially limit AMR by reducing the number of infected cases in need of antibiotics. We conducted a survey among Italian vaccine experts to record their opinion regarding the role of vaccinations against antibiotic resistance (ABR). Among 80 invited experts, 51 answered all questions. Most respondents were experts in hygiene and preventive medicine (56.9%) and aged >50 years (72.6%). ABR was a priority concern in the daily professional activity of 82.4% of respondents. Overall, 47.1% of respondents believed that all vaccinations included in the vaccination calendar played a role against ABR: 92.2% for pertussis vaccination followed by 88.2%, 74.5%, and 70.6% for meningococcus, measles, and varicella vaccinations, respectively. Almost all respondents agreed that the role of vaccinations against ABR should be clearly expressed in the national vaccination guidelines (96.1%) and Scientific Societies should take an explicit position on the issue (92.2%). These results show that Italian experts have recognized the vaccinations' potential role in limiting ABR and guidelines from the appropriate scientific and governmental authorities are needed.

4.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-22, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prompt implementation of appropriate targeted antibiotic therapy representsa valuable approach in improving clinical and ecological outcome in critically septic patients. Thismultidisciplinary opinion article aims to develop evidence-based algorithms for targeted antibiotictherapy of infection-related ventilator associated complications (IVACs) caused by Enterobacterales,which are among the most common pathogens associated with these conditions. AREAS COVERED: A multidisciplinary team of four experts had several rounds of assessment for developingalgorithms devoted to targeted antimicrobial therapy of IVACs caused by Enterobacterales.A literature search was performed on PubMed-MEDLINE (until March 2021) to provide evidence forsupporting therapeutic choices. Quality and strength of evidence was established according toa hierarchical scale of the study design. Six different algorithms with associated recommendations concerning therapeutic choice and dosing optimization were suggested according to the susceptibilitypattern of Enterobacterales: multi-susceptible, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing,AmpC beta-lactamase-producing, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing, OXA-48-producing, and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacterales. EXPERT OPINION: The implementation of algorithms focused on prompt revision of antibiotic regimensguided by results of conventional and rapid diagnostic methodologies, appropriate place in therapy ofnovel beta-lactams, implementation of strategies for sparing the broadest-spectrum antibiotics, and PK/PD optimization of antibiotic dosing regimens is strongly suggested.

6.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3349-3378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376971

RESUMO

Dalbavancin is a novel, long-acting lipoglycopeptide characterized by a long elimination half-life coupled with excellent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positives. Although it is currently approved only for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, an ever-growing amount of evidence supports the efficacy of dalbavancin as a long-term therapy in osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, endocarditis, and bloodstream infections. This article provides a critical reappraisal of real-world use of dalbavancin for off-label indications. A search strategy using specific keywords (dalbavancin, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, long-term suppressive therapy, bloodstream infection, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile) until April 2021 was performed on the PubMed-MEDLINE database. As for other novel antibiotics, a conundrum between approved indications and potential innovative therapeutic uses has emerged for dalbavancin as well. The promising efficacy in challenging scenarios (i.e., osteomyelitis, endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections), coupled with the unique pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, makes dalbavancin a valuable alternative to daily in-hospital intravenous or outpatient antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of long-term Gram-positive infections. This makes dalbavancin valuable in the current COVID-19 scenario, in which hospitalization and territorial medicine empowerment are unavoidable.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Off-Label , Participação do Paciente , Teicoplanina/análogos & derivados , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Teicoplanina/efeitos adversos , Teicoplanina/farmacocinética , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 806, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of non-fermentative gram-negative bloodstream infection (NFGN-BSI) offers numerous challenges. In this study the aim is to analyse a large cohort of patients with NFGN-BSI recruited in the northern Italy to describe epidemiology, etiological and susceptibility pattern, therapeutic management and outcome. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalised at three large teaching hospitals in northern Italy in a fourth year period. RESULTS: 355 BSI episodes were analyzed, due to P. aeruginosa (72.7%), A. baumannii (16.6%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (10.7%). Overall, 21.4% of isolates were defined as DTR, highest rate among A. baumannii (64.4%). All-cause 30-day mortality rate was 17.5%. Rates of XDR or DTR A. baumannii isolation were significantly higher in non-surviving patients. Independent risk factors for 30-day mortality were: age (HR 1.03, 95%CI 1.00-1.04, p = 0.003), septic shock (HR 2.84, 95%CI 1.67-4.82, p < 0.001) and BSI due to Acinetobacter baumannii (HR 2.23, 95%CI 1.27-3.94, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of DTR was high in the NFGN BSI cohort analyzied, mainly among Acinetobacter baumannii episodes (64.4%). Acinetobacter baumannii is showed to be an independent predictor of mortality. These evidences marked the urgent need of new therapeutic options against this pathogen. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 79/2017/O/OssN. Approved: March14th, 2017.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteriemia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Mycoses ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although echinocandins are recommended as first-line prophylaxis for high-risk orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients, occurrence of breakthrough-invasive fungal infections (IFIs) remains a serious concern. We aim to assess the risk of breakthrough IFIs among OLT recipients exposed to prophylaxis with echinocandins compared to other antifungals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two authors independently searched PubMed-MEDLINE, Embase, study registries and reference lists from inception to March 2021, to retrieve randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of echinocandins vs other antifungals for prophylaxis in OLT recipients. Data were independently extracted from two authors, and the quality of included studies was independently assessed according to ROB 2.0 tool for RCTs and ROBINS-I tool for observational studies. The primary outcome was occurrence of breakthrough IFI at the end of prophylaxis (EOP). RESULTS: 698 articles were screened, and ten studies (3 RCTs and 7 observational) were included. No difference between echinocandins and other antifungals in terms of breakthrough IFIs at the EOP emerged both from RCTs (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% CI 0.24-2.99) and observational studies (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.28-7.40). No difference emerged also for secondary outcomes. In the subgroup comparison between echinocandins and polyenes, a trend for higher risk of breakthrough IFI at the EOP (OR 4.82, 95% CI 0.97-24.03) was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Echinocandins do not seem to be associated with increased risk of breakthrough IFIs in OLT recipients. However, the large diversity in the comparator group hinders a definitive interpretation. Further studies exploring the relationship between echinocandin use and breakthrough IFIs according to specific comparators are warranted.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 670424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268136

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2-associated COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the global healthcare system. Although the best-known symptoms are dry cough and pneumonia, viral RNA has been detected in the stool and about half of COVID-19 patients exhibit gastrointestinal upset. In this scenario, special attention is being paid to the possible role of the gut microbiota (GM). Fecal samples from 69 COVID-19 patients from three different hospitals of Bologna (Italy) were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing. The GM profile was compared with the publicly available one of healthy age- and gender-matched Italians, as well as with that of other critically ill non-COVID-19 patients. The GM of COVID-19 patients appeared severely dysbiotic, with reduced diversity, loss of health-associated microorganisms and enrichment of potential pathogens, particularly Enterococcus. This genus was far overrepresented in patients developing bloodstream infections (BSI) and admitted to the intensive care unit, while almost absent in other critically ill non-COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, the percentage of patients with BSI due to Enterococcus spp. was significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the previous 3 years. Monitoring the GM of critically ill COVID-19 patients could help clinical management, by predicting the onset of medical complications such as difficult-to-treat secondary infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

11.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1223-1229, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports have described the COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) as being a further contributing factor to mortality. Based on a recent consensus statement supported by international medical mycology societies, it has been proposed to define CAPA as possible, probable, or proven on the basis of sample validity and thus diagnostic certainty. Considering current challenges associated with proven diagnoses, there is pressing need to study the epidemiology of proven CAPA. METHODS: We report the incidence of histologically diagnosed CAPA in a series of 45 consecutive COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed autopsies, performed at Padova University Hospital during the first and second wave of the pandemic. Clinical data, laboratory data and radiological features were also collected for each case. RESULTS: Proven CAPA was detected in 9 (20%) cases, mainly in the second wave of the pandemic (7/17 vs. 2/28 of the first wave). The population of CAPA patients consisted of seven males and two females, with a median age of 74 years. Seven patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients had at least two comorbidities, and concomitant lung diseases were detected in three cases. CONCLUSION: We found a high frequency of proven CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19 thus confirming at least in part the alarming epidemiological data of this important complication recently reported as probable CAPA.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspergillus , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/mortalidade , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/microbiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
AIDS ; 35(12): 1967-1972, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a major issue in coinfected HIV/HCV patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the rate of HCC occurrence after a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment and to evaluate the factors associated with the risk of HCC in this population. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective multicenter observational study including cirrhotic HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with DAAs, between October 2014 and January 2017. METHODS: We collected demographics characteristics, data regarding HIV and HCV infections and treatment with DAAs. We investigated the rate and the time of occurrence of HCC. Statistical analysis explored the factors associated to development of liver cancer. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 55 months, 24 out of 232 patients developed HCC, after a median of 22.5 months from starting DAAs. Factors associated with HCC were a higher Child--Pugh Turcotte (CPT) score (P = 0.002), HCV genotype 3 (P = 0.04), previous HCC (P < 0.001) and CD4+ cell count nadir greater than 350 cells/µl (P = 0.001), whereas antiretroviral therapy (ART) was associated to a lower rate of cancer (P = 0.02). At multivariable analysis CPT score and a history of HCC remained independently associated with HCC after DAAs (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively), and ART administration maintained its protective role (P = 0.047), regardless of HIV RNA at baseline. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the importance of a long-lasting follow-up for HCC after HCV eradication, mostly in those patients with advanced cirrhosis and history of HCC. Furthermore, our data showed a potential role of ART itself (and not of undetectable HIV RNA) in reducing the risk for HCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resposta Viral Sustentada
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10103, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980943

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection may predispose to secondary bacterial infection which is associated with poor clinical outcome especially among critically ill patients. We aimed to characterize the lower respiratory tract bacterial microbiome of COVID-19 critically ill patients in comparison to COVID-19-negative patients. We performed a 16S rRNA profiling on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples collected between April and May 2020 from 24 COVID-19 critically ill subjects and 24 patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Lung microbiome of critically ill patients with COVID-19 was characterized by a different bacterial diversity (PERMANOVA on weighted and unweighted UniFrac Pr(> F) = 0.001) compared to COVID-19-negative patients with pneumonia. Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Clostridium hiranonis, Acinetobacter schindleri, Sphingobacterium spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, characterized lung microbiome of COVID-19 critically ill patients (LDA score > 2), while COVID-19-negative patients showed a higher abundance of lung commensal bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Veillonella dispar, Granulicatella spp., Porphyromonas spp., and Streptococcus spp.). The incidence rate (IR) of infections during COVID-19 pandemic showed a significant increase of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) infection. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibiotic pressure may predispose critically ill patients to bacterial superinfection due to opportunistic multidrug resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estado Terminal , Disbiose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
14.
Chest ; 160(2): 454-465, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few small studies have described hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) occurring in patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: What characteristics in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are associated with HAIs and how are HAIs associated with outcomes in these patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data including adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to eight Italian hub hospitals from February 20, 2020, through May 20, 2020. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate Weibull regression models were used to assess incidence, microbial cause, resistance patterns, risk factors (ie, demographics, comorbidities, exposure to medication), and impact on outcomes (ie, ICU discharge, length of ICU and hospital stays, and duration of mechanical ventilation) of microbiologically confirmed HAIs. RESULTS: Of the 774 included patients, 359 patients (46%) demonstrated 759 HAIs (44.7 infections/1,000 ICU patient-days; 35% multidrug-resistant [MDR] bacteria). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; n = 389 [50%]), bloodstream infections (BSIs; n = 183 [34%]), and catheter-related BSIs (n = 74 [10%]) were the most frequent HAIs, with 26.0 (95% CI, 23.6-28.8) VAPs per 1,000 intubation-days, 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.5) BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days, and 4.7 (95% CI, 3.8-5.9) catheter-related BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days. Gram-negative bacteria (especially Enterobacterales) and Staphylococcus aureus caused 64% and 28% of cases of VAP, respectively. Variables independently associated with infection were age, positive end expiratory pressure, and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics at admission. Two hundred thirty-four patients (30%) died in the ICU (15.3 deaths/1,000 ICU patient-days). Patients with HAIs complicated by septic shock showed an almost doubled mortality rate (52% vs 29%), whereas noncomplicated infections did not affect mortality. HAIs prolonged mechanical ventilation (median, 24 days [interquartile range (IQR), 14-39 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 5-13 days]; P < .001), ICU stay (24 days [IQR, 16-41 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 6-14 days]; P = .003), and hospital stay (42 days [IQR, 25-59 days] vs 23 days [IQR, 13-34 days]; P < .001). INTERPRETATION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk for HAIs, especially VAPs and BSIs resulting from MDR organisms. HAIs prolong mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, and HAIs complicated by septic shock almost double mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04388670; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of colonization and infection with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) in the ICUs of our city hospitals before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, before-and-after, cross-sectional study to compare the rates of colonization and infection with CPE and/or CR-Ab in 2 study periods, period 1 (January-April 2019) and period 2 (January-April 2020). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of weekly colonization and infection rates for each period were compared for the 2 study periods using Poisson regression. Weekly trends in the incidence of colonization or infection for each study period were summarized using local weighted (Loess) regression. RESULTS: We detected no significant change in either IRR and weekly trend in CPE colonization and infection during the 2 study periods. A shift from KPC to other CPE mechanisms (OXA-48 and VIM) was observed during period 2. Compared to period 1, during period 2 the IRR of colonization and infection with CR-Ab increased 7.5- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Genome sequencing showed that all CR-Ab strains belonged to the CC92/IC2 clonal lineage. Clinical strains clustered closely into a single monophyletic group in 1 of the 3 centers, whereas they segregated in 2 different clusters in the other 2 centers, which strongly indicates horizontal transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the need to conduct infection control activities targeted against the spread of antimicrobial resistance between and within hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, and if necessary, remodulating them according to the new organizational structures imposed by the pandemic.

16.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited and wide-ranging data are available on the recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) incidence rate. METHODS: We performed a cohort study with the aim to assess the incidence of and risk factors for rCDI. Adult patients with a first CDI, hospitalized in 15 Italian hospitals, were prospectively included and followed-up for 30 d after the end of antimicrobial treatment for their first CDI. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors associated with 30-day onset rCDI. RESULTS: Three hundred nine patients with a first CDI were included in the study; 32% of the CDI episodes (99/309) were severe/complicated; complete follow-up was available for 288 patients (19 died during the first CDI episode, and 2 were lost during follow-up). At the end of the study, the crude all-cause mortality rate was 10.7% (33 deaths/309 patients). Two hundred seventy-one patients completed the follow-up; rCDI occurred in 21% of patients (56/271) with an incidence rate of 72/10,000 patient-days. Logistic regression analysis identified exposure to cephalosporin as an independent risk factor associated with rCDI (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.7, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the relevance of rCDI in terms of morbidity and mortality and provides a reliable estimation of its incidence.

17.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13608, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of and the risk factors for breakthrough-IFI (b-IFI) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) according to the new definition proposed by Mycoses-Study-Group-Education-and-Research-Consortium (MSG-ERC) and the European-Confederation-of-Medical-Mycology (ECMM). METHODS: Multicenter prospective study of adult patients who underwent OLT at three Italian hospitals, from January 2015 to December 2018. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis (TAP) protocol was developed and shared among participating centers. Follow-up was 1-year after OLT. B-IFI was defined as infection occurring during exposure to antifungal prophylaxis. Risk factors for b-IFI were analyzed among patients exposed to prophylaxis by univariable analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 485 OLT patients. Overall compliance to TAP protocol was 64.3%, 220 patients received antifungal prophylaxis, 172 according to TAP protocol. Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed of IFI within 1 year after OLT. Of them, 11 presented with b-IFI within 17 (IQR 11-33) and 16 (IQR 4-30) days from OLT and from antifungal onset, respectively. Then out of 11 patients with b-IFI were classified as having high risk of IFI and were receiving anti-mould prophylaxis, nine with echinocandins and one with polyenes. Comparison of patients with and without b-IFI showed significant differences for prior Candida colonization, need of renal replacement therapy after OLT, re-operation, and CMV infection (whole blood CMV-DNA >100 000 copies/mL). Although non-significant, a higher rate of b-IFI in patients on echinocandins was observed (8.2% vs 1.8%, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We observed 5% of b-IFI among OLT patients exposed to antifungal prophylaxis. The impact of echinocandins on b-IFI risk in this setting should be further explored.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Transplante de Fígado , Micoses , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(4): 106320, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The impact on outcome of five interventions was reviewed in order to investigate the state of the art for management of Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infection (E-BSI). METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies published from January 2008 to March 2019 in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Populations consisted of patients with E-BSI. Interventions were as follows: (i) performance of imaging to assess BSI source and/or complications; (ii) follow-up blood cultures (FU-BCs); (iii) use of loading dose followed by extended/continuous infusion (E/CI) of ß-lactams; (iv) duration of treatment (short- versus long-term); and (v) infectious diseases (ID) consultation. Patients without intervention were considered as controls. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. RoB 2.0 and ROBINS-I tools were used for bias assessment. RESULTS: No study was eligible for interventions i, iii and v. For FU-BCs, one observational study including 901 patients with E-BSI was considered. Intervention consisted of repeating BCs within 2-7 days after index BCs. All-cause 30-day mortality was 14.2% (35/247) in the intervention group versus 14.7% (96/654) in the control group. For short treatment duration, two RCTs and six observational studies were included comprising 4473 patients with E-BSI. All-cause mortality was similar in the short and long treatment groups (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.83-1.44). CONCLUSION: Of the assessed interventions, only short treatment duration in non-immunocompromised patients with E-BSI is supported by current data. Studies investigating the use of systematic imaging, FU-BCs, E/CI ß-lactams and ID consultation in patients with E-BSI are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Hemocultura , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
19.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 15, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761972

RESUMO

Procalcitonin (PCT) is widely considered as a highly sensitive biomarker of bacterial infection, offering general and emergency surgeons a key tool in the management of surgical infections. A multidisciplinary task force of experts met in Bologna, Italy, on April 4, 2019, to clarify the key issues in the use of PCT across the surgical pathway. The panelists presented the statements developed for each of the main questions regarding the use of PCT across the surgical pathway. An agreement on the statements was reached by the Delphi method, and this document reports the executive summary of the final recommendations approved by the expert panel.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Calcitonina/análise , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Técnica Delfos , Diverticulite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 2058-2073, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Circulating albumin in cirrhosis can be dysfunctional because of accumulating structural damages, leading to the concept of effective albumin concentration (eAlb), referring to the albumin portion presenting structural and functional integrity. We aimed to estimate eAlb in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and analyze its relationships with albumin function and clinical outcomes as compared to total albumin concentration (tAlb). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We evaluated 319 patients with cirrhosis hospitalized for acute decompensation (AD) with and without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and 18 age- and sex-comparable outpatients with compensated cirrhosis. tAlb was quantified by standard assay, whereas eAlb was estimated combining liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry and standard methods. Albumin binding and detoxification efficiency were evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Circulating albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis displayed multiple structural abnormalities, with reversible oxidation and glycation being the most frequent. As a result, eAlb progressively declined with the worsening of cirrhosis and was superior to tAlb in stratifying patients between compensated cirrhosis, AD, and ACLF, as well as patients with and without complications. Moreover, eAlb, but not tAlb, was closely associated with binding capacities in ACLF. Finally, eAlb at admission predicted the occurrence of ACLF within 30 days and mortality at 90 days better than tAlb. CONCLUSIONS: This large, observational study provides the evidence in patients with decompensated cirrhosis that eAlb can be quantified and differentiated from tAlb routinely measured in clinical practice. As compared to tAlb, eAlb is more closely associated with disease severity and albumin dysfunction and carries a greater prognostic power. These results prompt future research assessing eAlb as a biomarker for predicting prognosis and treatment response.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...