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1.
Health Serv Res ; 52(6): 2061-2078, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patient navigators (PNs) may represent a cost-effective strategy to improve transitional care and reduce hospital readmissions. We evaluated the impact of a PN intervention on health system costs in the 180 days after discharge for high-risk patients in a safety-net system. DATA SOURCE/SETTING: Primary and secondary data from an academic safety-net health system. STUDY DESIGN: We compared per-patient utilization and costs, overall and by age, for high-risk, medical service patients randomized to the PN intervention relative to usual care between October 2011 and April 2013. Intervention patients received hospital visits and telephone outreach from PNs for 30 days after every qualifying discharge. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We used administrative and electronic encounter data, and a survey of nurses; costs were imputed from the Medicare fee schedule. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total costs per patient over the 180 days postindex discharge for those aged ≥60 years were significantly lower for PN patients compared to controls ($5,676 vs. $7,640, p = .03); differences for patients aged <60 ($9,942 vs. $9,046, p = .58) or for the entire cohort ($7,092 vs. $7,953, p = .27) were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patient navigator interventions may be useful strategies for specific groups of patients in safety-net systems to improve transitional care while containing costs.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Navegação de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Satisfação do Paciente , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/organização & administração , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184591, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In October 2013, Tanzania adopted Option B+ under which HIV-positive pregnant women are initiated on antiretroviral therapy in reproductive and child health clinics at diagnosis. Studies have shown that adherence and retention to antiretroviral treatment can be problematic. METHODS: We implemented a group randomized controlled trial in 24 reproductive and child health clinics in eight districts in Mbeya region. The trial tested the impact of implementing paper-based appointment tracking and community outreach systems on the rate of missed appointments and number of days covered by dispensed antiretroviral medications among women previously established on antiretroviral therapy. We used interrupted time series analysis to assess study outcomes. Clinic staff and patients in intervention clinics were aware of the intervention because of change in clinic procedures; data collectors knew the study group assignment. RESULTS: Three months pre-intervention, we identified 1924 and 1226 patients established on antiretroviral therapy for six months or more in intervention and control clinics, respectively, of whom 83.4% and 86.9% had one or more post-intervention visits. The unadjusted rate of missed visits declined from 36.5% to 34.4% in intervention clinics and increased from 38.9% to 45.5% in control clinics following the intervention. Interrupted time series analyses demonstrated a net decrease of 13.7% (95% CI [-15.4,-12.1]) for missed visits at six months post-intervention. Similar differential changes were observed for visits missed by 3, 7, 15, or 60 days. CONCLUSION: Appointment-tracking and community outreach significantly improved appointment-keeping for women on antiretroviral therapy. The facility staff controlled their workload better, identified missing patients rapidly, and worked with existing community organizations. There is now enough evidence to scale up this approach to all antiretroviral therapy and Option B+ reproductive and child health clinics in Tanzania as well as to evaluate the intervention in medical clinics that treat other chronic health conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry for International Development Impact Evaluations ID-55310280d8757.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Agendamento de Consultas , Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Cooperação do Paciente , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adulto , Humanos , Tanzânia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 32(9): 981-989, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With emerging global payment structures, medical systems need to understand longer-term impacts of care transition strategies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a care transition program using patient navigators (PNs) on health service utilization among high-risk safety-net patients over a 180-day period. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial conducted October 2011 through April 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Patients admitted to the general medicine service with ≥1 readmission risk factor: (1) age ≥ 60; (2) in-network inpatient admission within prior 6 months; (3) index length of stay ≥ 3 days; or (4) admission diagnosis of heart failure or (5) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The analytic sample included 739 intervention patients, 1182 controls. INTERVENTIONS: Through hospital visits and 30 days of post-discharge telephone outreach, PNs provided coaching and assistance with medications, appointments, transportation, communication with primary care, and self-care. MAIN MEASURES: Primary outcomes: (1) hospital-based utilization, a composite of ED visits and hospital admissions; (2) hospital admissions; (3) ED visits; and (4) outpatient visits. We evaluated outcomes following an index discharge, stratified by patient age (≥ 60 and < 60 years), using a 180-day time frame divided into six 30-day periods. KEY RESULTS: The PN program produced starkly different outcomes by patient age. Among older PN patients, hospital-based utilization was consistently lower than controls, producing an 18.7% cumulative decrease at 180 days (p = 0.038); outpatient visits increased in the critical first 30-day period (p = 0.006). Among younger PN patients, hospital-based utilization was 31.7% (p = 0.038) higher at 180 days, largely reflecting sharply higher utilization in the initial 30 days (p = 0.002), with non-significant changes thereafter; outpatient visits experienced no significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: A PN program serving high-risk safety-net patients differentially impacted patients based on age, and among younger patients, outcomes varied over time. Our findings highlight the importance for future research to evaluate care transition programs among different subpopulations and over longer time periods.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Navegação de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0164332, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People in many low-income countries access medicines from retail drug shops. In Tanzania, a public-private partnership launched in 2003 used an accreditation approach to improve access to quality medicines and pharmaceutical services in underserved areas. The government scaled up the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program nationally, with over 9,000 shops now accredited. This study assessed the relationships between community members and their sources of health care and medicines, particularly antimicrobials, with a specific focus on the role ADDOs play in the health care system. METHODS: Using mixed methods, we collected data in four regions. We surveyed 1,185 households and audited 96 ADDOs and 84 public/nongovernmental health facilities using a list of 17 tracer drugs. To determine practices in health facilities, we interviewed 1,365 exiting patients. To assess dispensing practices, mystery shoppers visited 306 ADDOs presenting one of three scenarios (102 each) about a child's respiratory symptoms. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of 614 household members with a recent acute illness, 73% sought outside care-30% at a public facility and 31% at an ADDO. However, people bought medicines more often at ADDOs no matter who recommended the treatment; of the 581 medicines that people had received, 49% came from an ADDO. Although health facilities and ADDOs had similar availability of antimicrobials, ADDOs had more pediatric formulations available (p<0.001). The common perception was that drugs from ADDOs are more expensive, but the difference in the median cost to treat pneumonia was relatively minimal (US$0.26 in a public facility and US$0.30 in an ADDO). Over 20% of households said they had someone with a chronic condition, with 93% taking medication, but ADDOs are allowed to sell very few chronic care-related medicines. ADDO dispensers are trained to refer complicated cases to a health facility, and notably, 99% of mystery shoppers presenting a pneumonia scenario received an antimicrobial (54%), a referral (90%), or both (45%), which are recommended practices for managing pediatric pneumonia. However, one-third of the dispensers needlessly sold antibiotics for cold symptoms, and 85% sold an antibiotic on request. In addition, the pneumonia scenario elicited more advice on handling the illness than the cold symptoms scenario (61% vs. 15%; p<0.0001), but overall, only 44% of the dispensers asked any of the shoppers about danger signs potentially associated with pneumonia in a child. CONCLUSION: ADDOs are the principal source of medicines in Tanzania and an important part of a multi-faceted health care system. Poor prescribing in health facilities, poor dispensing at ADDOs, and inappropriate patient demand continue to contribute to inappropriate medicines use. Therefore, while accreditation has attempted to address the quality of pharmaceutical services in private sector drug outlets, efforts to improve access to and use of medicines in Tanzania need to target ADDOs, public/nongovernmental health facilities, and the public to be effective.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sem Prescrição/economia , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Características da Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência Médica , Setor Privado , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Tanzânia
5.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 9: 18, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its inception, the Uganda National Drug Authority (NDA) has regularly inspected private sector pharmacies to monitor adherence to Good Pharmacy Practices (GPP). This study reports findings from the first public facility inspections following an intervention (SPARS: Supervision, Performance Assessment, and Recognition Strategy) to build GPP and medicines management capacity in the public sector. METHODS: The study includes 455 public facilities: 417 facilities were inspected after at least four SPARS visits by trained managerial district staff (SPARS group), 38 before any exposure to SPARS. NDA inspectors measured 10 critical, 20 major, and 37 minor GPP indicators in every facility and only accredited facilities that passed all 10 critical and failed no more than 7 major indicators. Lack of compliance for a given indicator was defined as less than 75 % facilities passing that indicator. We assessed factors associated with certification using logistic regression analysis and compared number of failed indicators between the SPARS and comparative groups using two sample t-tests with equal or unequal variance. RESULTS: 57.4 % of inspected facilities obtained GPP certification: 57.1 % in the SPARS and 60.5 % in the comparative group (Adj. OR = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.45-1.85, p = 0.802). Overall, facilities failed an average of 10 indicators. SPARS facilities performed better than comparative facilities (9 (SD 6.1) vs. 13 (SD 7.7) failed indicators respectively; p = 0.017), and SPARS supported facilities scored better on indicators covered by SPARS. For all indicators but one minor, performance in the SPARS group was equal to or significantly better than in unsupervised facilities. Within the SPARS (intervention) group, certified facilities had < 75 % compliance on 7 indicators (all minor), and uncertified facilities on 19 (4 critical, 2 major, and 13 minor) indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Half of the Ugandan population obtains medicines from the public sector. Yet, we found only 3/5 of inspected public health facilities meet GPP standards. SPARS facilities tended to perform better than unsupervised facilities, substantiating the value of supporting supervision interventions in GPP areas that need strengthening. None compliant indicators can be improved through practices and behavioral changes; some require infrastructure investments. We conclude that regular NDA inspections of public sector pharmacies in conjunction with interventions to improve GPP adherence can revolutionize patient care in Uganda.

6.
Int J Equity Health ; 14: 115, 2015 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26521237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to medicines is one of the major challenges in health policy. The high out-of-pocket expenditures on medicines in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region represents important barrier to affordable access to care for NCDs. This paper aim to identify key barriers in access to medicines for household members with a diagnosed chronic condition in three Central America countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from three household surveys using a common methodology. We examined associated factors to: (1) seeking care for chronic illness from a trained clinician in the formal health system, and (2) obtaining all medicines sought for the chronic conditions reported. RESULTS: A chronic condition was reported in 29.8 % (827) of 2761 households - 47.0, 30.7 and 11.8 % in Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala, respectively. The three main chronic conditions reported were hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Seeking care in the formal health system ranged from 73.4 % in Nicaragua to 83.1 % in Honduras, while full access to medicines varied from 71.6 % in Guatemala to 88.0 % in Honduras. The main associated factors of seeking care in the formal health system were geographic location, household head gender, Spanish literacy, patient age, perceived health status, perceived quality of public sector care, household economic level, and having health insurance. Seeking care in the formal health system was the main bivariate associated factor of obtaining full access to medicines (OR: 4.3 95 % CI 2.6 - 7.0). The odds of full access to medicines were significantly higher when the household head was older than 65 years, medicines were obtained for free, households had higher socioeconomic status, and health care was sought in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The nature of the health system plays an important role in access to medicines. Access is better when public facilities are available and function effectively, or when private sector care is affordable. Thus, understanding how people seek care in a given setting and strengthening key health system components will be important strategies to improve access to medicines, especially for populations at high risk of poor access.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/economia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People in low-income countries purchase a high proportion of antimicrobials from retail drug shops, both with and without a prescription. Tanzania's accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program includes dispenser training, enforcement of standards, and the legal right to sell selected antimicrobials. We assessed the role of ADDOs in facilitating access to antimicrobials. METHODS: We purposively chose four regions, randomly selected three districts and five wards per district. Study methods included interviews at 1200 households regarding care-seeking for acute illness and knowledge about antimicrobials; mystery shoppers visiting 306 ADDOs posing as a caregiver of a child with 1) pneumonia, 2) mild acute respiratory infection (ARI), or 3) a runny nose and request for co-trimoxazole; and audits of antimicrobial availability and prices at 84 public health facilities (PHFs) and 96 ADDOs. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty seven (76 %) members from 367 (77 %) households had recently sought care outside the home for acute illness; 128 had purchased antimicrobials, of which 61 % had been recommended by a doctor or nurse and 32 % by an ADDO dispenser. Only 29 % obtained the antimicrobial at a PHF, whereas, 48 % purchased them at an ADDO. Most thought that ADDOs are convenient place for care, usually have needed medicines, and have high quality services and products, contrasting with 66 % who reported dissatisfaction with PHF waiting times and 56 % with medicine availability. One-third (34 %) of mystery shoppers presenting the mild ARI scenario were inappropriately sold an antimicrobial and 85 % were sold one on request; encouragingly, 99 % presenting a case of pneumonia received either an antimicrobial, referral to a trained provider, or request to bring the child for examination. Overall, 63 and 60 % of the 15 tracer antimicrobials were in stock in ADDOs and PHFs, respectively; ADDOs had significantly more antimicrobial formulations for children available (83 vs. 51 %). Of 369 records of antimicrobial sales in 47 ADDOs, 63 % were dispensed on prescription. CONCLUSION: ADDOs have increased access to antimicrobials in Tanzania. Community members see them as integral to the health system. Antimicrobials are overused due to poor ADDO dispensing, poor PHF prescribing, and inappropriate public demand. Multi-pronged interventions are needed to address all determinants.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26199723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanzania introduced the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program more than a decade ago. Previous evaluations have generally shown that ADDOs meet defined standards of practice better than non-accredited outlets. However, ADDOs still face challenges with overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARI) and simple diarrhea, which contributes to the emergence of drug resistance. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of ADDO owners and dispensers toward antibiotic dispensing and to learn how accreditation has influenced their dispensing behavior. METHODS: The study used a qualitative approach. We conducted in-depth interviews with ADDO owners and dispensers in Ruvuma and Tanga regions where the government implemented the ADDO program under centralized and decentralized approaches, respectively; a secondary aim was to compare differences between the two regions. RESULTS: Findings indicate that the ADDO program has brought about positive changes in knowledge of dispensing practices. Respondents were able to correctly explain treatment guidelines for ARI and diarrhea. Almost all dispensers and owners indicated that unnecessary use of antibiotics contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Despite this knowledge, translating it to appropriate dispensing practice is still low. Dispensers' behavior is driven by customer demand, habit ("mazoea"), following inappropriate health facility prescriptions, and the need to make a profit. Although the majority of dispensers reported that they had intervened in situations where customers asked for antibiotics unnecessarily, they tended to give in to clients' requests. Small variations were noted between the two study regions; for example, some dispensers in Ruvuma reported sending clients with incorrect prescriptions back to the health facility, a practice that may reflect regional differences in ADDO implementation and in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training. Dispensers in rural settings reported more challenges in managing ARI and diarrhea than their urban counterparts did. CONCLUSION: To reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, integrated interventions must include communities, health facilities, and ADDOs. Periodic refresher training with an emphasis on communication skills is crucial in helping dispensers deal with customers who demand antibiotics. Responsible authorities should ensure that ADDOs always have the necessary tools and resources available.

9.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 8(1): 1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the determinants of compliance with national policies recommending Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the community. METHODS: We used data from Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda national household surveys that were conducted with a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to measure access to and use of medicines. We analyzed all episodes of acute fever reported in the five surveys. We used logistic regression models accounting for the clustered design of the surveys to identify determinants of seeking care in public healthcare facilities, of being treated with antimalarials, and of receiving ACT. RESULTS: Overall, 92% of individuals with a febrile episode sought care outside the home, 96% received medicines, 67% were treated with antimalarials, and 16% received ACT. The choice of provider was influenced by perceptions about medicines availability and affordability. In addition, seeking care in a public healthcare facility was the single most important predictor of treatment with ACT [odds ratio (OR): 4.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.98-7.22, P < 0.001]. Children under 5 years old were more likely than adults to be treated with antimalarials [OR: 1.28, CI: 0.91-1.79, not significant (NS)] but less likely to receive ACT (OR: 0.80, CI: 0.57-1.13, NS). CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the high prevalence of presumptive antimalarial treatment for acute fever, especially in public healthcare facilities where poor people seek care. They show that perceptions about access to medicines shape behaviors by directing patients and caregivers to sources of care where they believe medicines are accessible. The success of national policies recommending ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria depends not only on restricting ACT to confirmed malaria cases, but also on ensuring that ACT is available and affordable for those who need it.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 30(7): 907-15, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions to reduce hospital readmissions may not generalize to resource-constrained safety-net hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To determine if an intervention by patient navigators (PNs), hospital-based Community Health Workers, reduces readmissions among high risk, low socioeconomic status patients. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: General medicine inpatients having at least one of the following readmission risk factors: (1) age ≥60 years, (2) any in-network inpatient admission within the past 6 months, (3) length of stay ≥3 days, (4) admission diagnosis of heart failure, or (5) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The analytic sample included 585 intervention patients and 925 controls. INTERVENTIONS: PNs provided coaching and assistance in navigating the transition from hospital to home through hospital visits and weekly telephone outreach, supporting patients for 30 days post-discharge with discharge preparation, medication management, scheduling of follow-up appointments, communication with primary care, and symptom management. MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was in-network 30-day hospital readmissions. Secondary outcomes included rates of outpatient follow-up. We evaluated outcomes for the entire cohort and stratified by patient age >60 years (425 intervention/584 controls) and ≤60 years (160 intervention/341 controls). KEY RESULTS: Overall, 30-day readmission rates did not differ between intervention and control patients. However, the two age groups demonstrated marked differences. Intervention patients >60 years showed a statistically significant adjusted absolute 4.1% decrease [95% CI: -8.0%, -0.2%] in readmission with an increase in 30-day outpatient follow-up. Intervention patients ≤60 years showed a statistically significant adjusted absolute 11.8% increase [95% CI: 4.4%, 19.0%] in readmission with no change in 30-day outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A patient navigator intervention among high risk, safety-net patients decreased readmission among older patients while increasing readmissions among younger patients. Care transition strategies should be evaluated among diverse populations, and younger high risk patients may require novel strategies.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Classe Social
11.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 35(1): 5-13, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24621245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of global progress in treating acute paediatric infections is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess progress over two decades in prescribing for childhood infections and interventions to improve treatment by reviewing empirical evidence in developing and transitional countries. METHODS: Data were systematically extracted on the use of medicines for diarrhoea, respiratory infections and malaria from published and unpublished studies (1990-2009) in children under 5 years of age. Medians of each indicator were calculated across studies by study year, geographic region, sector, country income level and prescriber type. To estimate intervention effects from studies meeting methodologically accepted design criteria [randomised controlled trials (RCTs), pre-post with control, and time series studies], the medians of the median effect sizes (median MES) were calculated across outcome measures. RESULTS: Data were extracted from 344 studies conducted in 78 countries with 394 distinct study groups in public (64%), private (22%) and other facilities to estimate trends over time. Of 226 intervention studies, only the 44 (19%) with an adequate study design were used to estimate intervention effects. Over time, use of anti-diarrhoeals for acute diarrhoea decreased significantly (P<0.01). However, treatment of malaria and acute respiratory infection remained largely sub-optimal. Multi-component interventions resulted in larger improvements than single-component ones. The median MES indicated a 28% improvement with community case-management, an 18% improvement with provider education combined with consumer education, but only 9% improvement with provider education alone. CONCLUSIONS: While diarrhoea treatment has improved over the last 20 years, treatment of other childhood illnesses remains sub-optimal. Multi-component interventions demonstrated some success in improving management of acute childhood illness.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Uso de Medicamentos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
12.
Health Policy Plan ; 30(8): 1044-52, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25255920

RESUMO

The 2011 United Nations (UN) General Assembly Political Declaration on Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) brought NCDs to the global health agenda. Essential medicines are central to treating chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Our study aimed to quantify access to essential medicines for people with chronic conditions in five low- and middle-income countries and to evaluate how household socioeconomic status and perceptions about medicines availability and affordability influence access. We analysed data for 1867 individuals with chronic diseases from national surveys (Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines and Uganda) conducted in 2007-10 using a standard World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to measure medicines access and use. We defined individuals as having access to medicines if they reported regularly taking medicine for a diagnosed chronic disease and data collectors found a medicine indicated for that disease in their homes. We used logistic regression models accounting for the clustered survey design to investigate determinants of keeping medicines at home and predictors of access to medicines for chronic diseases. Less than half of individuals previously diagnosed with a chronic disease had access to medicines for their condition in every country, from 16% in Uganda to 49% in Jordan. Other than reporting a chronic disease, higher household socioeconomic level was the most significant predictor of having any medicines available at home. The likelihood of having access to medicines for chronic diseases was higher for those with medicines insurance coverage [highest adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.12 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.38, 7.07)] and lower for those with past history of borrowing money to pay for medicines [lowest adjusted OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.92)]. Our study documents poor access to essential medicines for chronic conditions in five resource-constrained settings. It highlights the importance of financial risk protection and consumer education about generic medicines in global efforts towards improving treatment of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Gana , Humanos , Jordânia , Quênia , Filipinas , Uganda
13.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 7(1): 13, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25379183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), the main primary healthcare provider for 4.9 million Palestinian refugees, spent USD18.3 million on essential medicines dispensed free-of-charge through clinics in five areas of operation ('fields'): Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank (2010). Faced with budget contraints and an increasing demand for medicines to treat chronic conditions, the objective of our study was to assess UNRWA's medicine procurement prices to see if savings could be possible. METHODS: In July 2011, data was collected from UNRWA headquarters in Jordan. Price analyses focused on the top 80 medicines by value, accounting for 93% of pharmaceutical expenditure from the General Fund, with comparisons to international, regional and national references. Prices were also compared for the few medicines procured both through UNRWA's central tender (centrally) and by the fields directly (locally). RESULTS: Central procurement prices did not differ markedly from reference prices: median ratios of UNRWA prices to Management Sciences for Health's International Drug Price Indicator Guide, Jordan's Joint Procurement Department, Gulf Cooperation Council, and IDA Foundation bulk packs were 0.99, 1.00, 0.98 and 1.12 respectively. Applying the lowest comparator price to five comparatively higher priced medicines would yield savings of USD1.4 million. Local procurements were generally less cost-effective than central tender procurement, with notable differences across fields and medicines. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, UNRWA's procurement prices were competitive despite the relatively small quantities procured. Regular monitoring of procurement prices and quantities is needed in order to make informed decisions. Our evaluation also underscores the heavy burden of antidiabetic medicines and antimicrobials on UNRWA procurement expenditure.

14.
Health Policy ; 100(2-3): 134-43, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21185616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health insurance systems have great potential to improve the cost-effective use of medicines by leveraging better provider prescribing, more cost-effective use by consumers, and lower prices from industry. Despite ample evidence from high-income countries, little is known about insurance system strategies targeting medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper provides a critical review of the literature on these strategies and their impacts in LMIC. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published peer-reviewed and grey literature and organized the insurance system strategies into four categories: medicines selection, purchasing, contracting and utilization management. RESULTS: In n=63 reviewed publications we found reasonable evidence supporting the use of insurance as an overall strategy to improve access to pharmaceuticals and outcomes in LMIC. Beyond this, most of the literature focused on provider contracting strategies to influence prescribing. There was very little evidence on medicines selection, purchasing, or utilization management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of published evidence on the impact of insurance system strategies on improving the use of medicines in LMIC. The existing evidence is questionable since the majority of the published studies utilize weak study designs. This review highlights the need for well-designed studies to build an evidence base on the impact of medicines management strategies deployed by LMIC insurance programs.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/classificação
15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 6: 11, 2008 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18973675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2004 International Conference on Improving Use of Medicines recommended that emerging and expanding health insurances in low-income countries focus on improving access to and use of medicines. In recent years, Community-based Health Insurance (CHI) schemes have multiplied, with mounting evidence of their positive effects on financial protection and resource mobilization for healthcare in poor settings. Using literature review and qualitative interviews, this paper investigates whether and how CHI expands access to medicines in low-income countries. METHODS: We used three complementary data collection approaches: (1) analysis of WHO National Health Accounts (NHA) and available results from the World Health Survey (WHS); (2) review of peer-reviewed articles published since 2002 and documents posted online by national insurance programs and international organizations; (3) structured interviews of CHI managers about key issues related to medicines benefit packages in Lao PDR and Rwanda. RESULTS: In low-income countries, only two percent of WHS respondents with voluntary insurance belong to the lowest income quintile, suggesting very low CHI penetration among the poor. Yet according to the WHS, medicines are the largest reported component of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in these countries (median 41.7%) and this proportion is inversely associated with income quintile. Publications have mentioned over a thousand CHI schemes in 19 low-income countries, usually without in-depth description of the type, extent, or adequacy of medicines coverage. Evidence from the literature is scarce about how coverage affects medicines utilization or how schemes use cost-containment tools like co-payments and formularies. On the other hand, interviews found that medicines may represent up to 80% of CHI expenditures. CONCLUSION: This paper highlights the paucity of evidence about medicines coverage in CHI. Given the policy commitment to expand CHI in several countries (e.g. Rwanda, Lao PDR) and the potential of CHI to improve medicines access and use, systematic research is needed on medicine benefits and their performance, including the impacts of CHI on access to, affordability, and use of medicines at the household level.

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