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1.
Front Oncol ; 11: 700853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552867

RESUMO

Women with pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have an increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. There is, however, a high interpersonal variability in the modality and timing of tumor onset in those subjects, thus suggesting a potential role of other individual's genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors in modulating the penetrance of BRCA mutations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that can modulate the expression of several genes involved in cancer initiation and progression. MiRNAs are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer and although they are accessible and evaluable, a standardized method for miRNA assessment is needed to ensure comparable data analysis and accuracy of results. The aim of this review was to highlight the role of miRNAs as potential biological markers for BRCA mutation carriers. In particular, biological and clinical implications of a link between lifestyle and nutritional modifiable factors, miRNA expression and germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are discussed with the knowledge of the best available scientific evidence.

2.
Metabolites ; 10(8)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781584

RESUMO

The detection of salivary molecules associated with pathological and physiological alterations has encouraged the search of novel and non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for oral health evaluation. While genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiles of human saliva have been reported, its metabolic composition is a topic of research: metabolites in submandibular/sublingual saliva have never been analyzed systematically. In this study, samples of whole, parotid, and submandibular/sublingual saliva from 20 healthy donors, without dental or periodontal diseases, were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. We identified metabolites which are differently distributed within the three saliva subtypes (54 in whole, 49 in parotid, and 36 in submandibular/sublingual saliva). Principal component analysis revealed a distinct cluster for whole saliva and a partial overlap for parotid and submandibular/sublingual metabolites. We found exclusive metabolites for each subtype: 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, 3-methyl-glutarate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, galactose, and isocaproate in whole saliva; caprylate and glycolate in submandibular/sublingual saliva; arginine in parotid saliva. Salivary metabolites were classified into standard and non-proteinogenic amino acids and amines; simple carbohydrates; organic acids; bacterial-derived metabolites. The identification of a salivary gland-specific metabolic composition in healthy people provides the basis to invigorate the search for salivary biomarkers associated with oral and systemic diseases.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823546

RESUMO

Oral granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively rare, benign lesion that can easily be misdiagnosed. Particularly, the presence of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia might, in some cases, lead to the hypothesis of squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Recurrence has been reported in up to 15% of cases treated with conventional surgery. Here, we reported a case of GCT of the tongue in a young female patient, which was successfully treated through 445 nm diode laser excision. Laser surgery might reduce bleeding and postoperative pain and may be associated with more rapid healing. Particularly, the vaporization effect on remnant tissues could eliminate GCT cells on the surgical bed, thus hypothetically leading to a lower rate of recurrence. In the present case, complete healing occurred in 1 week, and no recurrence was observed after 6 months. Laser surgery also allows the possibility to obtain second intention healing. Possible laser-induced histopathological artifacts should be carefully considered.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019170

RESUMO

: Background: The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune conditions. Interest in salivary miRNAs as non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of malignancies and systemic diseases is rapidly increasing. The present systematic review was developed for answering the question: "Are salivary microRNAs reliable biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and systemic diseases?" METHODS: The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria led to the selection of 11 papers. Critical appraisals and quality assessments of the selected studies were performed through the National Institute of Health "Study Quality Assessment Tool" and the classification of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. RESULTS: Seven studies reported statistically significant correlations between one or more salivary miRNAs and the investigated disease. The critical analysis allowed us to classify only two studies (18.2%) as having "good" quality, the rest being scored as "intermediate" (8; 73%) and "poor" (1; 9%). Evidence exists that salivary miR-940 and miR-3679-5p are reliable markers for pancreatic cancer and that miR140-5p and miR301a are promising molecules for the salivary diagnosis of gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies, possibly avoiding the risk of bias highlighted here, are necessary to consolidate these findings and to identify new reliable salivary biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Inflamação/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo
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