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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 199, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early inhibition of entry and replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a very promising therapeutic approach. Polyclonal neutralizing antibodies offers many advantages such as providing immediate immunity, consequently blunting an early pro-inflammatory pathogenic endogenous antibody response and lack of drug-drug interactions. By providing immediate immunity and inhibiting entry into cells, neutralizing antibody treatment is of interest for patient with COVID-19-induced moderate pneumonia. Convalescent plasma to treat infected patients is therefore a relevant therapeutic option currently under assessment (CORIMUNO-PLASM NCT04324047). However, the difficulties of collecting plasma on the long term are not adapted to a broad use across all populations. New polyclonal humanized anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies (XAV-19) developed by Xenothera and administered intravenous. XAV-19 is a heterologous swine glyco-humanized polyclonal antibody (GH-pAb) raised against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, blocking infection of ACE-2-positive human cells with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been performed in preclinical models including primates. A first human study with another fully representative GH-pAb from Xenothera is ongoing in recipients of a kidney graft. These studies indicated that 5 consecutive administrations of GH-pAbs can be safely performed in humans. The objectives of this 2-step phase 2 randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study are to define the safety and the optimal XAV-19 dose to administrate to patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced moderate pneumonia, and to assess the clinical benefits of a selected dose of XAV-19 in this population. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the clinical benefits of XAV-19 when administered to patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced moderate pneumonia. As a prerequisite, a first step of the study will define the safety and the dose of XAV-19 to be used. Such treatment might become a new therapeutic option to provide an effective treatment for COVID-19 patients (possibly in combination with anti-viral and immunotherapies). Further studies could later evaluate such passive immunotherapy as a potential post-exposure prophylaxis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04453384 , registered on 1 July 2020, and EUDRACT 2020-002574-27, registered 6 June 2020.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Oxigenoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Adv Nurs ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is common in trauma patients. It contributes to increasing mortality rate. Hypothermia is multifactorial, favoured by exposure to cold, severity of the patient's state and interventions such as infusion of fluids at room temperature. AIM: To demonstrate that specific management of hypothermia (or of the risk of hypothermia) increases the number of trauma patients arriving at the hospital with a temperature >35°C. DESIGN: This is a prospective, multicentre, open-label, pragmatic, cluster randomized clinical trial of an expected 1,200 trauma patients included by 12 out-of-hospital mobile intensive care units (MICU). Trauma patients are included in a prehospital setting if they present at least one of the following criteria known to be associated with an increased incidence of hypothermia: ambient temperature <18°C, Glasgow coma scale <15, systolic arterial blood pressure <100 mm Hg or body temperature <35°C. Patients are randomized, by cluster, to receive a conventional management or 'interventional' nursing management associating: continuous epitympanic temperature monitoring, early installation in the heated ambulance (temperature target >30°C controlled by infrared thermometer), protection by a survival blanket, and use of heated solutes (temperature objective >35°C controlled by infrared thermometer). The primary end point is the prevalence of hypothermia on arrival at the hospital. The hypothesis tested is a reduction from 20% to 13% in the prevalence of hypothermia. Secondary end points are to evaluate the interaction between the effectiveness of the measures taken and: (1) the severity of the patients assessed by the Revised Trauma Score; (2) the meteorological conditions when they are managed; (3) the time of care; and (4) therapeutic interventions. DISCUSSION: This trial will assess the effectiveness of an invasive, out-of-hospital, temperature management on the onset of hypothermia in moderate to severe trauma patients. IMPACT: Specific management of hypothermia is expected to decrease hypothermia in trauma patients.

3.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1257-1266, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dipeptidyl-peptidase inhibitors might be useful in type 2 diabetes prevention. ACCES (ACute and Chronic Effects of Saxagliptin) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, controlled phase 2, pilot study aiming to examine in obese patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) the acute effects and the effects after 12 weeks of treatment by saxagliptin on glucose levels at fasting and postprandially after a standard breakfast, and on glucose tolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 24 obese patients with IGT. Patients were randomized to receive saxagliptin 5 mg or placebo in the morning. The treatment was taken on Visit 1 before breakfast, then continued for 12 weeks. Biochemical measurements were performed before, one, two and three hours after a standard breakfast including 75 g of carbohydrates, during Visit 1 and Visit 2 (12 weeks). Glucose variability (GV) was evaluated at Visit 1 from 24-h continuous glucose monitoring including the breakfast. A second OGTT was performed at Visit 3 (3-5 days after Visit 2). Compared with placebo-treated patients, saxagliptin-treated patients had lower 1 h and 2 h post-meal plasma glucose levels at Visit 1 and similar changes at Visit 2 (p < 0.01 to p < 0.004), with lower GV indexes after breakfast at Visit 1. At Visit 3, all patients but one in saxagliptin group and only 4 patients in placebo group turned to normal glucose tolerance. Lower glucose response to breakfast at Visit 1 was predictive of recovery of glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION: Saxagliptin has metabolically beneficial effects in glucose-intolerant obese patients by significantly lowering postprandial blood glucose levels. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01521312: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01521312.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/complicações , Período Pós-Prandial , Adamantano/efeitos adversos , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dipeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
JAMA ; 325(6): 552-560, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560322

RESUMO

Importance: The optimal transfusion strategy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and anemia is unclear. Objective: To determine whether a restrictive transfusion strategy would be clinically noninferior to a liberal strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, noninferiority, randomized trial conducted in 35 hospitals in France and Spain including 668 patients with myocardial infarction and hemoglobin level between 7 and 10 g/dL. Enrollment could be considered at any time during the index admission for myocardial infarction. The first participant was enrolled in March 2016 and the last was enrolled in September 2019. The final 30-day follow-up was accrued in November 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a restrictive (transfusion triggered by hemoglobin ≤8; n = 342) or a liberal (transfusion triggered by hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL; n = 324) transfusion strategy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary clinical outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; composite of all-cause death, stroke, recurrent myocardial infarction, or emergency revascularization prompted by ischemia) at 30 days. Noninferiority required that the upper bound of the 1-sided 97.5% CI for the relative risk of the primary outcome be less than 1.25. The secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Results: Among 668 patients who were randomized, 666 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 77 [69-84] years; 281 [42.2%] women) completed the 30-day follow-up, including 342 in the restrictive transfusion group (122 [35.7%] received transfusion; 342 total units of packed red blood cells transfused) and 324 in the liberal transfusion group (323 [99.7%] received transfusion; 758 total units transfused). At 30 days, MACE occurred in 36 patients (11.0% [95% CI, 7.5%-14.6%]) in the restrictive group and in 45 patients (14.0% [95% CI, 10.0%-17.9%]) in the liberal group (difference, -3.0% [95% CI, -8.4% to 2.4%]). The relative risk of the primary outcome was 0.79 (1-sided 97.5% CI, 0.00-1.19), meeting the prespecified noninferiority criterion. In the restrictive vs liberal group, all-cause death occurred in 5.6% vs 7.7% of patients, recurrent myocardial infarction occurred in 2.1% vs 3.1%, emergency revascularization prompted by ischemia occurred in 1.5% vs 1.9%, and nonfatal ischemic stroke occurred in 0.6% of patients in both groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute myocardial infarction and anemia, a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy resulted in a noninferior rate of MACE after 30 days. However, the CI included what may be a clinically important harm. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02648113.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações
5.
Colorectal Dis ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624371

RESUMO

AIM: Postoperative morbidity is high in patients operated on for Crohn's disease (CD) complicated by malnutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative enteral nutritional support (PENS) on postoperative outcome in patients with CD complicated by malnutrition included in a prospective nationwide cohort. METHOD: Malnutrition was defined as body mass index <18 kg/m2 and/or albuminaemia <30 g/L and/or weight loss >10%. Failure of PENS was defined as the requirement for additional preoperative parenteral nutrition to PENS. Univariate analysis of the risk factors for PENS failure was performed. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare the outcomes between 'upfront surgery' and 'PENS' groups. The primary endpoint was the rate of intra-abdominal septic morbidity and/or temporary defunctioning stoma. RESULTS: Among 592 patients included, 149 were selected. In the intention-to-treat population including 20 (13.4%) patients with PENS failure after PSM, 78 'upfront surgery' and 71 'PENS'-matched patients were compared, with no significant difference in the primary endpoint. Perforating CD and preoperative intra-abdominal fistula were associated with PENS failure [37.5 vs 16.1% (P = 0.047) and 41.2% vs 16.2% (P = 0.020), respectively]. After exclusion of these 20 patients, PSM was used to compare 45 'upfront surgery' and 51 'PENS'-matched patients, with a significantly decreased rate of intra-abdominal septic complications and/or temporary defunctioning stoma in the PENS group (19.6 vs 42.2%, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Preoperative enteral nutritional support is associated with a trend but no conclusive evidence of a reduction in intra-abdominal septic complications and/or requirement for defunctioning stoma. Patients with perforating CD complicated with malnutrition are at risk of PENS failure.

6.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(2): 143-150, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and is an independent predictor of mortality. The optimal transfusion strategy in these patients is unclear. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that a "restrictive" transfusion strategy (triggered by hemoglobin ≤8 g/dL) is clinically noninferior to a "liberal" transfusion strategy (triggered by hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL), but is less costly. METHODS: REALITY is an international, randomized, multicenter, open-label trial comparing a restrictive vs a liberal transfusion strategy in patients with AMI and anemia. The primary outcome is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at 30 days, using the primary composite clinical outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; comprising all-cause death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction, or emergency revascularization prompted by ischemia) as the effectiveness criterion. Secondary outcomes include the ICER at 1 year, and MACE (and its components) at 30 days and at 1 year. RESULTS: The trial aimed to enroll 630 patients. Based on estimated event rates of 11% in the restrictive group and 15% in the liberal group, this number will provide 80% power to demonstrate clinical noninferiority of the restrictive group, with a noninferiority margin corresponding to a relative risk equal to 1.25. The sample size will also provide 80% power to show the cost-effectiveness of the restrictive strategy at a threshold of €50 000 per quality-adjusted life year. CONCLUSIONS: REALITY will provide important guidance on the management of patients with AMI and anemia.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(2): 144-155, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In hemodynamically stable patients, complete revascularization (CR) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a better prognosis in chronic and acute coronary syndromes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the extent, severity, and prognostic value of remaining coronary stenoses following PCI, by using the residual SYNTAX score (rSS), in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) related to myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: The CULPRIT-SHOCK (Culprit Lesion Only Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] Versus Multivessel PCI in Cardiogenic Shock) trial compared a multivessel PCI (MV-PCI) strategy with a culprit lesion-only PCI (CLO-PCI) strategy in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who presented with MI-related CS. The rSS was assessed by a central core laboratory. The study group was divided in 4 subgroups according to tertiles of rSS of the participants, thereby isolating patients with an rSS of 0 (CR). The predictive value of rSS for the 30-day primary endpoint (mortality or severe renal failure) and for 30-day and 1-year mortality was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 587 patients with an rSS available, the median rSS was 9.0 (interquartile range: 3.0 to 17.0); 102 (17.4%), 100 (17.0%), 196 (33.4%), and 189 (32.2%) patients had rSS = 0, 0 < rSS ≤5, 5 < rSS ≤14, and rSS >14, respectively. CR was achieved in 75 (25.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.3% to 30.5%) and 27 (9.3%; 95% CI: 6.2% to 13.3%) of patients treated using the MV-PCI and CLO-PCI strategies, respectively. After multiple adjustments, rSS was independently associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio per 10 units: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.01) and 1-year mortality (adjusted odds ratio per 10 units: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with multivessel disease and MI-related CS, CR is achieved only in one-fourth of the patients treated using an MV-PCI strategy. and the residual SYNTAX score is independently associated with early and late mortality.

8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108640, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359083

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate proposals considering HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurement as a substitute for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP) during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Of the 7,334 women who underwent the OGTT between 22 and 30 weeks gestation, 966 had HIP (WHO diagnostic criteria, reference standard). The 467 women who had an available HbA1c were used for analysis. French-speaking Society of Diabetes (SFD) proposal to diagnose HIP during COVID-19 pandemic was retrospectively applied: HbA1c ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol) and/or FPG level ≥5.1 mmol/l. SFD proposal sensitivity for HIP diagnosis and the occurrence of HIP-related events (preeclampsia, large for gestational age infant, shoulder dystocia or neonatal hypoglycaemia) in women with false negative (FN) and true positive (TP) HIP-diagnoses were evaluated. RESULTS: The sensitivity was 57% [95% confidence interval 52-62]. FN women had globally lower plasma glucose levels during OGTT, lower HbA1c and body mass index than those TP. The percentage of HIP-related events was similar in FN (who were cared) and TP cases, respectively 19.5 and 16.9% (p = 0.48). We observed similar results when women at high risk for HIP only were considered. CONCLUSION: The SFD proposal has a poor sensitivity to detect HIP. Furthermore, it fails to have any advantages in predicting adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for patients with severe coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) and hyper-inflammation remains debated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study was designed to evaluate whether a therapeutic algorithm using steroids with or without interleukin-1 antagonist (anakinra) could prevent death/invasive ventilation. Patients with a ≥5-day evolution since symptoms onset, with hyper-inflammation (CRP≥50mg/L), requiring 3-5 L/min oxygen, received methylprednisolone alone. Patients needing ≥6 L/min received methylprednisolone + subcutaneous anakinra daily either frontline or in case clinical deterioration upon corticosteroids alone. Death rate and death or intensive care unit (ICU) invasive ventilation rate at Day 15, with Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% CIs, were determined according to logistic regression and propensity scores. A Bayesian analysis estimated the treatment effects. RESULTS: Of 108 consecutive patients, 70 patients received glucocorticoids alone. The control group comprised 63 patients receiving standard of care. In the corticosteroid±stanakinra group (n = 108), death rate was 20.4%, versus 30.2% in the controls, indicating a 30% relative decrease in death risk and a number of 10 patients to treat to avoid a death (p = 0.15). Using propensity scores a per-protocol analysis showed an OR for COVID-19-related death of 0.9 (95%CI [0.80-1.01], p = 0.067). On Bayesian analysis, the posterior probability of any mortality benefit with corticosteroids+/-anakinra was 87.5%, with a 7.8% probability of treatment-related harm. Pre-existing diabetes exacerbation occurred in 29 of 108 patients (26.9%). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 non-ICU inpatients at the cytokine release phase, corticosteroids with or without anakinra were associated with a 30% decrease of death risk on Day 15.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , /patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Chest ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of ECG presentations of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in cardiogenic shock is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: In myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, is there a difference in the outcomes and effect of revascularization strategies between non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTE-MI) and left bundle branch block (LBBB-MI) versus STEMI? METHODS: Cardiogenic shock patients from the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial presenting with NSTE-MI or LBBB-MI were compared with STE-MI patients for 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality. The interaction between ECG presentation and the effect of revascularization strategies on outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 665 cardiogenic shock patients analyzed, 55.9% presented with STE-MI, 29.3% with NSTE-MI and 14.7% with LBBB-MI. Patients differed in age (68.0 years in STE-MI, 71.0 years in NSTE-MI and 73.5 years in LBBB-MI, p=0.015), cardiovascular risk factors and angiographic severity. There was no difference in the 30-day risk of death between NSTE-MI and STE-MI (48.7 % vs. 43.0%, aOR 1.05, 95%CI, 0.66 - 1.67, p=0.85), nor between LBBB-MI and STE-MI (59.2% vs. 43.0%, aOR 1.31, 95%CI 0.73 - 2.34, p=0.36). While the univariate risk of 1-year death was higher in NSTE-MI and LBBB-MI patients compared with STE-MI, ECG presentation was not an independent risk factor of mortality after adjustment (NSTE-MI vs. STE-MI : 56.4 % vs 46.8 % aOR 1.21, 95%CI 0.76 - 1.92, p=0.42 ; LBBB-MI vs. STEMI : 69.4% vs. 46.8% : aOR : 1.59, 95%CI 0.89 - 2.84, p=0.12) . ECG presentation did not modify the effect of the revascularization strategy on 30-day and 1-year mortality (p interaction =0.91 and 0.97). INTERPRETATION: In patients with cardiogenic shock, NSTE-MI and LBBB-MI presentations reflect higher risk profiles than STE-MI but are not independent risk factors of mortality. ECG presentations did not modify the treatment effect, supporting culprit-lesion-only PCI as the preferred strategy across the AMI spectrum.

11.
Trials ; 21(1): 973, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The indication for antibiotic prophylaxis in burn patients remains highly controversial, with no consensus having been reached. The objective of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of postoperative local and systemic infections. Burn surgery is associated with a high incidence of bacteremia, postoperative infections, and sepsis. However, antibiotic prophylaxis exposes patients to the risk of selecting drug-resistant pathogens as well as to the adverse effects of antibiotics (i.e., Clostridium difficile colitis). The lack of data precludes any strong international recommendations regarding perioperative prophylaxis using systemic antibiotics in this setting. The goal of this project is therefore to determine whether perioperative systemic antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the incidence of postoperative infections in burn patients. METHODS: The A2B trial is a multicenter (10 centers), prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The trial will involve the recruitment of 506 adult burn patients with a total body surface area (TBSA) burn of between 5 and 40% and requiring at least one excision-graft surgery for deep burn injury. Participants will be randomized to receive antibiotic prophylaxis (antibiotic prophylaxis group) or a placebo (control group) 30 min before the incision of the first two surgeries. The primary outcome will be the occurrence of postoperative infections defined as postoperative sepsis and/or surgical site infection and/or graft lysis requiring a new graft within 7 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes will include mortality at day 90 postrandomization, skin graft lysis requiring a new graft procedure, postoperative bacteremia (within 48 h of surgery), postoperative sepsis, postoperative surgical site infection, number of hospitalizations until complete healing (> 95% TBSA), number of hospitalization days living without antibiotic therapy at day 28 and day 90, and multiresistant bacterial colonization or infection at day 28 and day 90. DISCUSSION: The trial aims to provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis for excision-graft surgery in burn patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04292054 . Registered on 2 March 2020.

12.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199208

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an international outbreak of respiratory illness described as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Small studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers may upregulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, affecting susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. This may be of great importance considering the large number of patients worldwide who are treated with RAS blockers, and the well-proven clinical benefit of these treatments in several cardiovascular conditions. In contrast, RAS blockers have also been associated with better outcomes in pneumonia models, and may be beneficial in COVID-19. This review sought to analyse the evidence regarding RAS blockers in the context of COVID-19 and to perform a pooled analysis of the published observational studies to guide clinical decision making. A total of 21 studies were included, comprising 11,539 patients, of whom 3417 (29.6%) were treated with RAS blockers. All-cause mortality occurred in 587/3417 (17.1%) patients with RAS blocker treatment and in 982/8122 (12.1%) patients without RAS blocker treatment (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.69-1.45; P=0.49; I2=84%). As several hypotheses can be drawn from experimental analysis, we also present the ongoing randomized studies assessing the efficacy and safety of RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19. In conclusion, according to the current data and the results of the pooled analysis, there is no evidence supporting any harmful effect of RAS blockers on the course of patients with COVID-19, and it seems reasonable to recommend their continuation.

13.
Lancet ; 396(10264): 1737-1744, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related myonecrosis is frequent and can affect the long-term prognosis of patients. To our knowledge, ticagrelor has not been evaluated in elective PCI and could reduce periprocedural ischaemic complications compared with clopidogrel, the currently recommended treatment. The aim of the ALPHEUS study was to examine if ticagrelor was superior to clopidogrel in reducing periprocedural myocardial necrosis in stable coronary patients undergoing high-risk elective PCI. METHODS: The ALPHEUS study, a phase 3b, randomised, open-label trial, was done at 49 hospitals in France and Czech Republic. Patients with stable coronary artery disease were eligible for the study if they had an indication for PCI and at least one high-risk characteristic. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter for 30 days) or clopidogrel (300-600 mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter for 30 days) by use of an interactive web response system, and stratified by centre. The primary outcome was a composite of PCI-related type 4 (a or b) myocardial infarction or major myocardial injury and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding, both of which were evaluated within 48 h of PCI (or at hospital discharge if earlier). The primary analysis was based on all events that occurred in the intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02617290. FINDINGS: Between Jan 9, 2017, and May 28, 2020, 1910 patients were randomly assigned at 49 sites, 956 to the ticagrelor group and 954 to the clopidogrel group. 15 patients were excluded from the ticagrelor group and 12 from the clopidogrel group. At 48 h, the primary outcome was observed in 334 (35%) of 941 patients in the ticagrelor group and 341 (36%) of 942 patients in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio [OR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·80-1·17; p=0·75). The primary safety outcome did not differ between the two groups, but minor bleeding events were more frequently observed with ticagrelor than clopidogrel at 30 days (105 [11%] of 941 patients in the ticagrelor group vs 71 [8%] of 942 patients in the clopidogrel group; OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·12-2·11; p=0·0070). INTERPRETATION: Ticagrelor was not superior to clopidogrel in reducing periprocedural myocardial necrosis after elective PCI and did not cause an increase in major bleeding, but did increase the rate of minor bleeding at 30 days. These results support the use of clopidogrel as the standard of care for elective PCI. FUNDING: ACTION Study Group and AstraZeneca.

14.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044488

RESUMO

Importance: In patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction, surgical decompression reduces the risk of death and increases the chance of a favorable outcome. Uncertainties, however, still remain about the benefit of this treatment for specific patient groups. Objective: To assess whether surgical decompression for space-occupying hemispheric infarction is associated with a reduced risk of death and an increased chance of favorable outcomes, as well as whether this association is modified by patient characteristics. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Stroke Trials Registry were searched from database inception to October 9, 2019, for English-language articles that reported on the results of randomized clinical trials of surgical decompression vs conservative treatment in patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction. Study Selection: Published and unpublished randomized clinical trials comparing surgical decompression with medical treatment alone were selected. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Patient-level data were extracted from the trial databases according to a predefined protocol and statistical analysis plan. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias were used. One-stage, mixed-effect logistic regression modeling was used for all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score ≤3) at 1 year after stroke. Secondary outcomes included death, reasonable (mRS score ≤4) and excellent (mRS score ≤2) outcomes at 6 months and 1 year, and an ordinal shift analysis across all levels of the mRS. Variables for subgroup analyses were age, sex, presence of aphasia, stroke severity, time to randomization, and involved vascular territories. Results: Data from 488 patients from 7 trials from 6 countries were available for analysis. The risk of bias was considered low to moderate for 6 studies. Surgical decompression was associated with a decreased chance of death (adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.10-0.24) and increased chance of a favorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.55-5.60), without evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effect across any of the prespecified subgroups. Too few patients were treated later than 48 hours after stroke onset to allow reliable conclusions in this subgroup, and the reported proportions of elderly patients reaching a favorable outcome differed considerably among studies. Conclusions and Relevance: The results suggest that the benefit of surgical decompression for space-occupying hemispheric infarction is consistent across a wide range of patients. The benefit of surgery after day 2 and in elderly patients remains uncertain.

15.
Neurology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine long-term vascular outcomes of Asian patients who experienced TIA or minor ischemic stroke and to compare the outcomes of Asians with those of non-Asians, in the context of modern guideline-based prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a sub-analysis of the TIAregistry.org project, in which 3,847 patients (882 from Asian and 2,965 from non-Asian countries) with a recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke were assessed and treated by specialists at 42 dedicated units from 14 countries and followed for 5 years. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal stroke, and non-fatal acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: No differences were observed in the 5-year risk of the primary outcome (14.0% vs 11.7%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% CI, 0.88-1.37; p = 0.41) and stroke (10.7% vs 8.5%; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.90-1.51; p = 0.24) between Asian and non-Asian patients. Asians were at higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage (1.8% vs 0.8%; HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.09-4.57; p = 0.029). Multivariable analysis showed that the presence of multiple acute infarctions on initial brain imaging was an independent predictor of primary outcome and modified Rankin Scale score of >1 in both Asian (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.11-3.29; p = 0.020) and non-Asian (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.90; p = 0.037) patients. CONCLUSION: The long-term risk of vascular events in Asian patients was as low as that in non-Asian patients, while Asians had a 2.2-fold higher intracranial hemorrhage risk. Multiple acute infarctions were independently associated with future disability in both groups. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that among people who experienced TIA or minor stroke, Asians have a similar 5-year risk of cardiovascular death, stroke and acute coronary syndrome as non-Asians.

16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of tocilizumab, an antibody against IL-6 receptor, in patients with hand osteoarthritis. METHODS: This was a multicentre, 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study from November 2015 to October 2018. Patients with symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (pain ≥40 on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) despite analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; at least three painful joints, Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥2) were randomised to receive two infusions 4 weeks apart (weeks 0 and 4) of tocilizumab (8 mg/kg intravenous) or placebo. The primary endpoint was changed in VAS pain at week 6. Secondary outcomes included the number of painful and swollen joints, duration of morning stiffness, patients' and physicians' global assessment and function scores. RESULTS: Of 104 patients screened, 91 (45 to tocilizumab and 46 to placebo; 82% women; mean age 64.4 (SD 8.7) years) were randomly assigned and 79 completed the 12-week study visit. The mean change between baseline and week 6 on the VAS for pain (primary outcome) was -7.9 (SD 19.4) and -9.9 (SD 20.1) in the tocilizumab and placebo groups (p=0.7). The groups did not differ for any secondary outcomes at weeks 4, 6, 8 or 12. Overall, adverse events were slightly more frequent in the tocilizumab than placebo group. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab was no more effective than placebo for pain relief in patients with hand osteoarthritis.

17.
Diabetes Metab ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039671

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate whether the initial care of women with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels at 5.1-6.9mmol/L before 22 weeks of gestation (WG), termed 'early fasting hyperglycaemia', is associated with fewer adverse outcomes than no initial care. METHODS: A total of 523 women with early fasting hyperglycaemia were retrospectively selected in our department (2012-2016) and separated into two groups: (i) those who received immediate care (n=255); and (ii) those who did not (n=268), but had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at or after 22 WG, with subsequent standard care if hyperglycaemia (by WHO criteria) was present. The number of cases of large-for-gestational age (LGA) infants, shoulder dystocia and preeclampsia with initial care of early fasting hyperglycaemia were compared after propensity score modelling and accounting for covariates. RESULTS: Of the 268 women with no initial care, 134 had hyperglycaemia after 22 WG and then received care. Women who received initial care vs those who did not were more likely to be insulin-treated during pregnancy (58.0% vs 20.9%, respectively; P<0.00001), gained less gestational weight (8.6±5.4kg vs 10.8±6.1kg, respectively; P<0.00001), had a lower rate of preeclampsia [1.2% vs 2.6%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.247 (0.082-0.759), P=0.01], and similar rates of LGA infants (12.2% vs 11.9%, respectively) and shoulder dystocia (1.6% vs 1.5%, respectively). When initial FPG levels were ≥ 5.5mmol/L (prespecified group, n=137), there was a lower rate of LGA infants [6.7% vs 16.1%, respectively; aOR: 0.332 (0.122-0.898); P=0.03]. CONCLUSION: Treating women with early fasting hyperglycaemia, especially when FPG is ≥ 5.5mmol/L, may improve pregnancy outcomes, although this now needs to be confirmed by randomized clinical trials.

18.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894227

RESUMO

AIMS: Critical culprit lesion locations (CCLL) such as left main (LM) and proximal left anterior descending (LAD) are associated with worse clinical outcome in myocardial infarction without cardiogenic shock (CS). We aimed to assess whether CCLL identifies a subgroup of patients at poorer prognosis when presenting with CS. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial, a core-laboratory reviewed all coronary angiograms to identify CCLL. CCLL was defined as a culprit lesion realizing a >70% diameter stenosis of LM, LM equivalent (>70% diameter stenoses of both proximal LAD and proximal circumflex), proximal LAD or, last remaining vessel. We evaluated the primary study endpoint of the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial according to CCLL. A total of 269 (43%) out of 626 patients eligible for this analysis had a CCLL. Death or renal replacement therapy within 30 days, death within 30 days and within 1 year were significantly higher in CCLL than in non-CCLL group (58.4% vs. 43.4%, p<0.001, 55.8% vs . 39.5%, p<0.001, 61.0% vs. 44.5%, p<0.001, respectively). It was consistent after adjustment for baseline and angiographic characteristics. No interaction with the randomization group (culprit lesion-only or immediate multivessel PCI) was found. CONCLUSIONS: CCLL is frequent in CS and independently associated with worse clinical outcome irrespective of the revascularization strategy.

19.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956651

RESUMO

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a soft-tissue sarcoma characterized by a high risk of local infiltration. The identification of the COL1A1-PDGFB t(17;22) translocation activating the PDGF pathway led to the use of imatinib in unresectable DFSP, with a response rate of 36-80%. Pazopanib is a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for soft-tissue sarcomas. We conducted a phase II study of patients with unresectable DFSP to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pazopanib. Patients received 800 mg of pazopanib daily. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate defined as the reduction of the largest diameter of the tumor by ≥30% at 6 months or at surgery. A total of 23 patients, including one pretreated with imatinib, were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 6.2 months (interquartile range = 5.6-7.8 months), five patients (22%, 95% confidence interval = 7-22%) had a partial response to pazopanib. The best objective response rate was 30% (95% confidence interval = 13-53%) using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. One patient with metastatic DFSP previously treated with imatinib died after 2.4 months. Nine patients (39%) discontinued the treatment owing to adverse events. Pharmacodynamics analyses of tumor samples were conducted: the enrichment of EGF and the EGFR-associated gene panel was associated with resistance, suggesting that EGFR-targeted therapies could be a therapeutic option to explore in DFSP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01059656.

20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 218, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term efficacy of tocilizumab in treatment-naive patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK). METHODS: Prospective open-labeled trial in naïve patients with TAK who received steroids at the dose of 0.7 mg/kg/day and 7 infusions of 8 mg/kg/month of tocilizumab. The primary endpoint was the number of patients who discontinued steroids after 7 infusions of tocilizumab. Secondary endpoints included disease activity and the number of relapses during 18-month follow-up. RESULTS: Thirteen patients with TAK were included, with a median age of 32 years [19-45] and 12 (92%) females. Six (54%) patients met the primary end-point. A significant decrease of disease activity was observed after 6 months of tocilizumab therapy: decrease of median NIH scale (3 [3, 4] at baseline, versus 1 [0-2] after 6 months; p < 0.001), ITAS-2010 score (5 [2-7] versus 3 [0-8]; p = 0.002), and ITAS-A score (7 [4-10] versus 4 [1-15]; p = 0.0001)]. During the 12-month follow-up after tocilizumab discontinuation, a relapse occurred among 5 patients (45%) out of 11 in which achieved remission after 6 months of tocilizumab. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab seems an effective steroid sparing therapy in TAK, but maintenance therapy is necessary. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02101333 . Registered on 02 April 2014.

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