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2.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of oral anticoagulation on clinical and haemodynamic outcomes following successful transcatheter aortic valve implantation is unclear. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of oral anticoagulation within the first year after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. METHODS: All patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation in two French tertiary centres from 2010 to 2016 were included prospectively. The composite outcome of death, stroke, readmission for heart failure or major/life-threatening bleeding according to Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 criteria within 1year was evaluated. Valvular haemodynamic deterioration was defined as mean transprosthetic gradient ≥20mmHg or an increase of ≥10mmHg during echocardiographic follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 1139 patients included, 400 (35.1%) were discharged on oral anticoagulation. The primary endpoint was more frequent in the group with versus without oral anticoagulation (29.4% vs. 17.3% 21.5%; hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.42-2.35). Composite endpoint risk factors were chronic pulmonary and kidney diseases, previous atrial fibrillation, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30% at discharge and no femoral vascular approach, but not oral anticoagulation prescription at discharge. Conversely, 58 patients were identified with valvular haemodynamic deterioration, including 11 (19%) in the group with oral anticoagulation and 47 (81%) in the group without oral anticoagulation. Valvular haemodynamic deterioration risk factors were absence of oral anticoagulation exposure, increased body mass index, use of a balloon-expandable bioprosthesis and use of a bioprosthesis with diameter ≤23mm. Antithrombotic treatment crossover (i.e. oral anticoagulation interruption or introduction during follow-up) occurred in 9.6% of patients, and was a risk factor for death (adjusted hazard ratio 3.39, 95% confidence interval 1.63-7.07). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline characteristics, rather than oral anticoagulation prescription at discharge, were associated with adverse outcomes following successful transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Conversely, oral anticoagulation was associated with reduced valvular haemodynamic deterioration.

3.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 140(3): 220-224, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049553

RESUMO

Background: We previously described that adenoid tissue in children with chronic otitis media (COM) contained more mucosal biofilms than adenoid tissue removed for hypertrophy.Aims/objectives: The aim of the second part was to characterize nasopharyngeal microbiota and explore virulence of the most common middle ear pathogens.Material and methods: Bacteriological analysis was performed following a culture-based approach on the samples recovered from 30 patients of COM group (15 biofilm-positive and 15 biofilm-negative) and from 30 patients of a control group (15 biofilm-positive and 15 biofilm-negative). Virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae were investigated.Results: The most frequent species were Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The presence of biofilm was statistically associated with an increase of the number of bacterial species and Firmicutes phylum regardless of the condition (case/control). No virulence factors associated with invasive isolates were found for the most common middle ear pathogens.Conclusions and significance: This case-control study demonstrated that the presence of COM plus biofilm was associated with a given microbiota which contained more Firmicutes. Our study allows a better understanding of physiopathological mechanisms involved in chronic otitis media and paves the way for further investigations.

4.
Therapie ; 75(1): 21-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063399

RESUMO

Single-arm studies are sometimes used as pivotal studies but they have methodological limitations which prevent them from obtaining the high level of reliability as for a randomised controlled study which remains the gold standard in the evaluation of new treatments. The objective of this roundtable was to discuss the limitations of these single-arm studies, to analyse available and acceptable solutions in order to propose guidelines for their conduct and assessment. Single-arm studies themselves are intrinsically inappropriate for demonstrating the benefit of a new treatment because it is impossible to infer the benefit from a value obtained under treatment without knowing what it would have been in the absence of the new treatment. The implication is that comparison with other data is necessary. However this comparison has limitations due to (1) the post hoc choice of the reference used for comparison, (2) the confusion bias for which an adjustment approach is imperative and, (3) the other biases, measure and attrition among others. When these limitations are taken into account this should, first and foremost, lead to the conduct of externally controlled trials instead of single-arm trials as is proposed by the latest version of ICH E10. Moreover, the external control must be formalised in the study protocol with a priori selection of both the reference control and the formal method of comparison: test in relation to a standard, adjustment on individual data, a synthetic control group or matching-adjusted indirect comparisons (MAIC). Lastly, externally controlled studies must be restricted to situations where randomisation is infeasible. To be acceptable, these studies must be able to guarantee freedom from residual confusion bias, which is only truly acceptable if the observed effect is dramatic and the usual course of the disease is highly predicable.

7.
Stroke ; 51(4): 1231-1239, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078484

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The TST trial (Treat Stroke to Target) evaluated the benefit of targeting a LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol of <70 mg/dL to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in 2860 patients with ischemic stroke with atherosclerotic stenosis of cerebral vasculature or aortic arch plaque >4 mm, in a French and Korean population. The follow-up lasted a median of 5.3 years in French patients (similar to the median follow-up time in the SPARCL trial [Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level]) and 2.0 years in Korean patients. Exposure duration to statin is a well-known driver for cardiovascular risk reduction. We report here the TST results in the French cohort. Methods- One thousand seventy-three French patients were assigned to <70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) and 1075 to 100±10 mg/dL (90-110 mg/dL, 2.3-2.8 mmol/L). To achieve these goals, investigators used the statin and dosage of their choice and added ezetimibe on top if needed. The primary outcome was the composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, new symptoms requiring urgent coronary or carotid revascularization and vascular death. Results- After a median follow-up of 5.3 years, the achieved LDL cholesterol was 66 (1.69 mmol/L) and 96 mg/dL (2.46 mmol/L) on average, respectively. The primary end point occurred in 9.6% and 12.9% of patients, respectively (HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57-0.94]; P=0.019). Cerebral infarction or urgent carotid revascularization following transient ischemic attack was reduced by 27% (P=0.046). Cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage was reduced by 28% (P=0.023). The primary outcome or intracranial hemorrhage was reduced by 25% (P=0.021). Intracranial hemorrhages occurred in 13 and 11 patients, respectively (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.53-2.62]; P=0.70). Conclusions- After an ischemic stroke of documented atherosclerotic origin, targeting a LDL cholesterol of <70 mg/dL during 5.3 years avoided 1 subsequent major vascular event in 4 (number needed to treat of 30) and no increase in intracranial hemorrhage. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01252875.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 382(1): 9, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of intensive lipid-lowering therapy by means of statin medications is recommended after transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke of atherosclerotic origin. The target level for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events after stroke has not been well studied. METHODS: In this parallel-group trial conducted in France and South Korea, we randomly assigned patients with ischemic stroke in the previous 3 months or a TIA within the previous 15 days to a target LDL cholesterol level of less than 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) (lower-target group) or to a target range of 90 mg to 110 mg per deciliter (2.3 to 2.8 mmol per liter) (higher-target group). All the patients had evidence of cerebrovascular or coronary-artery atherosclerosis and received a statin, ezetimibe, or both. The composite primary end point of major cardiovascular events included ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, new symptoms leading to urgent coronary or carotid revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: A total of 2860 patients were enrolled and followed for a median of 3.5 years; 1430 were assigned to each LDL cholesterol target group. The mean LDL cholesterol level at baseline was 135 mg per deciliter (3.5 mmol per liter), and the mean achieved LDL cholesterol level was 65 mg per deciliter (1.7 mmol per liter) in the lower-target group and 96 mg per deciliter (2.5 mmol per liter) in the higher-target group. The trial was stopped for administrative reasons after 277 of an anticipated 385 end-point events had occurred. The composite primary end point occurred in 121 patients (8.5%) in the lower-target group and in 156 (10.9%) in the higher-target group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and newly diagnosed diabetes did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: After an ischemic stroke or TIA with evidence of atherosclerosis, patients who had a target LDL cholesterol level of less than 70 mg per deciliter had a lower risk of subsequent cardiovascular events than those who had a target range of 90 mg to 110 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; Treat Stroke to Target ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01252875.).


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue
9.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(1): 65-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) in combination with clopidogrel improve clinical outcome in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI); however, finding a balance that minimizes both thrombotic and bleeding risk remains fundamental. The efficacy and safety of GPI in addition to ticagrelor, a more potent P2Y12-inhibitor, have not been fully investigated. METHODS: 1,630 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were analyzed in this subanalysis of the ATLANTIC trial. Patients were divided in three groups: no GPI, GPI administration routinely before primary PCI, and GPI administration in bailout situations. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, urgent target revascularization, and definite stent thrombosis at 30 days. The safety outcome was non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related PLATO major bleeding at 30 days. RESULTS: Compared with no GPI (n = 930), routine GPI (n = 525) or bailout GPI (n = 175) was not associated with an improved primary efficacy outcome (4.2% no GPI vs. 4.0% routine GPI vs. 6.9% bailout GPI; p = 0.58). After multivariate analysis, the use of GPI in bailout situations was associated with a higher incidence of non-CABG-related bleeding compared with no GPI (odds ratio [OR] 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-6.64; p = 0.03). However, routine GPI use compared with no GPI was not associated with a significant increase in bleeding (OR 1.78, 95% CI 0.88-3.61; p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Use of GPIs in addition to ticagrelor in STEMI patients was not associated with an improvement in 30-day ischemic outcome. A significant increase in 30-day non-CABG-related PLATO major bleeding was seen in patients who received GPIs in a bailout situation.

10.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(1): 61-71, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adherence to non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may be lower than to vitamin K antagonists because NOACs do not require routine monitoring. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of an educational program on adherence and persistence with apixaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). METHODS: Patients with NVAF eligible for NOACs with one or more stroke risk factor (prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, age ≥ 75 years, hypertension, diabetes, or symptomatic heart failure) were randomized (1:1) to standard of care (SOC) or SOC with additional educational (information booklet, reminder tools, virtual clinic access). The primary outcome was adherence to apixaban (2.5 or 5 mg twice daily) at 24 weeks. Patients receiving the educational program were re-randomized (1:1) to continue the program for 24 further weeks or to switch to secondary SOC. Implementation adherence and persistence were reassessed at 48 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 1162 patients were randomized (SOC, 583; educational program, 579). Mean implementation adherence ± standard deviation (SD) at 24 weeks was 91.6% ± 17.1 for SOC and 91.9% ± 16.1 for the educational program arm; results did not differ significantly between groups at any time-point. At 48 weeks, implementation adherence was 90.4% ± 18.0, 90.1% ± 18.6, and 89.3% ± 18.1 for continued educational program, SOC, and secondary SOC, respectively; and corresponding persistence was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.3-89.7), 85.2% (95% CI 81.5-88.2), and 87.8% (95% CI 83.4-91.1). Serious adverse events were similar across groups. CONCLUSION: High implementation adherence and persistence with apixaban were observed in patients with NVAF receiving apixaban. The educational program did not show additional benefits. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT01884350].

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High glucocorticoid levels in rodents inhibit development of beta cells during fetal life and lead to insulin deficiency in adulthood. To test whether similar phenomena occur in humans, we compared beta-cell function in adults who were exposed to glucocorticoids during the first part of fetal life with that of nonexposed subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 16 adult participants exposed to glucocorticoids during the first part of fetal life and in 16 nonexposed healthy participants with normal glucose tolerance who were matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Exposed participants had been born to mothers who were treated with dexamethasone 1 to 1.5 mg/day from the sixth gestational week (GW) to prevent genital virilization in children at risk of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. We selected offspring of mothers who stopped dexamethasone before the 18th GW following negative genotyping of the fetus. Insulin and glucagon secretion were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and graded intravenous (IV) glucose and arginine tests. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp. RESULTS: Age, BMI, and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. Insulinogenic index during OGTT and insulin sensitivity during the clamp were similar in the 2 groups. In exposed subjects, insulin secretion during graded IV glucose infusion and after arginine administration decreased by 17% (P = 0.02) and 22% (P = 0.002), respectively, while glucagon secretion after arginine increased. CONCLUSION: Overexposure to glucocorticoids during the first part of fetal life is associated with lower insulin secretion at adult age, which may lead to abnormal glucose tolerance later in life.

12.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 95(3): 494-500, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the impact of the preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow on clinical outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the TIMI flow 0/1 prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a poor clinical outcome. However, it is unclear whether the same is true in patients with ongoing STEMI of less than 6 hr duration, rapid reperfusion, and modern guideline-adherent therapy. METHODS: The ATLANTIC study compared prehospital versus inhospital treatment with ticagrelor in patients with acute STEMI. For this analysis, patients were divided into three groups according to the preprocedural TIMI flow grade of the infarct vessel: TIMI 0/1, TIMI 2, and TIMI 3. RESULTS: From a total of 1,680 patients, 1,113 had TIMI 0/1, 279 TIMI 2, and 288 TIMI 3 flow before primary PCI. At 30 days, the composite ischemic endpoint (5.5, 2.9, and 2.1%, p < .05) and all-cause death (3.0, 1.4, and 2.1%, p = .30) were highest in patients with TIMI flow 0/1. After adjustment, preprocedural TIMI flow <3 (versus 3) was not an independent predictor of major adverse ischemic events within 30 days (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.74-4.85). However, definite stent thrombosis occurred only in patients with initial TIMI flow 0/1 (1.0%). Among these patients, those with prehospital administration of ticagrelor were less often affected (0.3% vs. 1.3%, p < .05). CONCLUSION: In this post-hoc analysis, preprocedural TIMI flow was not independently associated with a higher rate of adverse ischemic events.

13.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 192, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no quality evidence of the benefit of defunctioning ileostomy (DI) in ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAAs) performed for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but most surgical teams currently resort to DI. In the case of a staged procedure with subtotal colectomy first, completion proctectomy with IPAA is performed for healthy patients, namely, after nutritional support, inflammation reduction and immunosuppressive agent weaning. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to assess the need for systematic DI after completion proctectomy and IPAA for IBD. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicenter randomized open trial comparing completion proctectomy and IPAA without (experimental) or with (control) DI in patients presenting with ulcerative colitis or indeterminate colitis. Crohn's disease patients will not be included. The design is a superiority trial. The main objective is to compare the 6-month global postoperative morbidity, encompassing both surgical and medical complications, between the two groups. The morbidity of DI closure will be included, as appropriate. The sample size calculation is based on the hypothesis that the overall 6-month morbidity rate is 30% in the case of no stoma creation (i.e., experimental group) vs. 55% otherwise (control group). With the alpha risk and power are fixed to 0.05 and 0.80, respectively, and considering a dropout rate of 10%, the objective is set to 194 patients. The secondary objectives are to compare both strategies in terms of morbi-mortality at 6 months and functional results as well as quality of life at 12 months, namely, the 6-month major morbidity and unplanned reoperation rates, 6-month anastomotic leakage rate, 6-month mortality, length of hospital stay, 6-month unplanned readmission rate, quality of life assessed 3 and 12 months from continuity restoration (i.e., either IPAA or stoma closure), functional results assessed 3 and 12 months from continuity restoration, 12-month pouch results, 12-month cost-utility analysis, and 12-month global morbidity. DISCUSSION: The IDEAL trial is a nationwide multicenter study that will help choose the optimal strategy between DI and no ileostomy in completion proctectomy with IPAA for IBD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT03872271, date of registration March 13th, 2019.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(11): e007749, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the ARCTIC trial (Assessment by a Double Randomization of a Conventional Antiplatelet Strategy Versus a Monitoring-Guided Strategy for Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation and of Treatment Interruption Versus Continuation One Year After Stenting), treatment adjustment following platelet function testing failed to improve clinical outcomes. However, high-on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) is considered as a predictor of poor ischemic outcome. This prespecified substudy evaluated clinical outcomes according to the residual platelet reactivity status after antiplatelet therapy adjustment. METHODS: We analyzed the 1213 patients assigned to the monitoring arm of the ARCTIC trial in whom platelet reactivity was evaluated by the VerifyNow P2Y12 test before percutaneous coronary intervention and during the maintenance phase (at 14 days). HPR was defined as platelet reaction unit≥235U. The primary ischemic end point, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or urgent revascularization and the safety end point of major bleeding were assessed according to the platelet reactivity status. RESULTS: Before percutaneous coronary intervention, 35.7% of patients displayed HPR (n=419). During the acute phase, between percutaneous coronary intervention and the 14-day platelet function testing, ischemic (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.74-1.18]; P=0.58) and safety outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 0.22-7.59]; P=0.78) were similar in HPR and non-HPR patients. During the maintenance phase, the proportion of HPR patients (n=186, 17.4%) decreased by 56%. At 1-year, there was no difference for the ischemic end point (5.9% versus 6.0%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.40-1.58]; P=0.51) and a nonsignificant higher rate of major bleedings (2.7% versus 1.0%, hazard ratio, 2.83 [95% CI, 0.96-8.41]; P=0.06) in HPR versus non-HPR patients. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of HPR was halved after platelet function testing and treatment adjustment but without significant ischemic benefit at 1 year. HPR seems more as a modifiable risk marker than a risk factor of ischemic outcome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00827411.

15.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(12): 765-772, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of and risk factors for readmission for heart failure after successful transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are unclear. AIMS: We sought to evaluate the incidence of, risk factors for and clinical impact of readmission for heart failure after successful TAVI in an unselected patient population. METHODS: All patients who underwent successful TAVI in two high-volume French tertiary centres from February 2010 to December 2016 were included prospectively and followed up for 1 year. A Cox multivariable model was used to assess risk factors for readmission for heart failure and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1139 patients (mean age 82.4±7.7years; 52.2% male sex) were included. Readmission for heart failure occurred in 99 (9.2%) patients. Risk factors for readmission for heart failure were previous atrial fibrillation (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR] 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.40), diabetes mellitus (adjHR 1.67, 95% CI 1.11-2.50), chronic kidney disease (adjHR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62), chronic pulmonary disease (adjHR 1.81, 95% CI 1.17-2.81) and left ventricular ejection fraction after TAVI ≤ 35% (adjHR 2.12, 95% CI 1.20-3.75). Readmission for heart failure was strongly associated with mortality (adjHR 3.11, 95% CI 1.95-4.94), along with increased Society of Thoracic Surgeons' score (adjHR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.12), chronic pulmonary disease (adjHR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.09), previous atrial fibrillation (adjHR 2.11, 95% CI 1.52-2.93) and shock during the index hospitalization (adjHR 2.56, 95% CI 1.41-4.65). CONCLUSIONS: Readmission for heart failure occurs in one in 10 patients after successful TAVI, and is a strong risk factor for mortality. Co-morbidities and left ventricular ejection fraction after TAVI≤35% are the main risk factors for readmission for heart failure.

16.
Respir Care ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extubation failure may have several causes, including swallowing dysfunction, aspiration, and excessive upper airway secretions. We hypothesized that a bedside global swallowing pattern assessment including 9 criteria (volume of pharyngeal secretions, 5 swallowing motor items, swallowing reflex, and 2 gag reflexes) performed prior to extubation could identify patients at risk of extubation failure related to aspiration or excessive upper airway secretions. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective observational study, all consecutive patients intubated and mechanically ventilated for ≥6 d were included. Before a planned extubation, a physiotherapist evaluated the 9 criteria of the swallowing assessment. The final extubation decision was left to the physician's discretion, blinded to the swallowing assessment. Extubation failure was defined as the need for re-intubation related to aspiration or excessive upper airway secretions within the first 72 h after extubation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range [IQR]). RESULTS: The study included 159 subjects (age 61 y [IQR 48-75]; male/female ratio 1.5; Simplified Acute Physiologic score II 54 [IQR 42-66]; duration of mechanical ventilation 11 d [IQR 8-17]). A total of 23 subjects (14.5%) required re-intubation, with 16 occurring within the first 72 h after extubation and 7 related to aspiration or excessive secretions. Swallowing assessment was significantly lower in subjects with re-intubation related to aspiration or excessive secretions within the first 72 h after extubation versus those not re-intubated for aspiration or excessive secretions (6 [IQR 5-7] vs 8 [IQR 7-8], P = .008, respectively). Among the 9 swallowing assessment criteria, normal right pharyngeal gag reflex was associated with a lower incidence of re-intubation related to aspiration or excessive secretions (odds ratio 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.59, P = .01), as well as normal left pharyngeal gag reflex (odds ratio 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.63, P = .01), with a negative predictive value of 0.98 for each reflex. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with prolonged ventilation, the presence of one or both gag reflexes could predict a reduction in extubation failure related to aspiration or excessive upper airway secretions.

17.
Stem Cells Dev ; 28(24): 1595-1606, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663453

RESUMO

Septic patients often die in a context of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), despite the macro-hemodynamic parameters being normalized and after the onset of antibiotic therapy. Microcirculation injury during sepsis affects capillary permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interactions and is thought to be instrumental in organ injury. Several studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) injection on survival and organ dysfunctions in sepsis models. In vivo activity of MSCs also appears to be very much dependent on the information provided before injection. Indeed preconditioning by interferon γ (IFNγ; MSC-IFNγ) increases immunosuppressive capacity of MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of MSC naive or IFNγ preconditioned on leukocyte-endothelium interactions in a polymicrobial sepsis model by intraperitoneal feces injection. Six hours (H6) after this induction, we used intravital microscopy in mice cremaster muscle venules to study the flow behavior of leukocytes. Plasmas were harvested to evaluate inflammation level and endothelial activation. We showed that MSC-IFNγ have a beneficial effect on microcirculation, by increasing the flow of white blood cells (WBCs) and the percentage of venules containing flowing WBCs, by significantly reducing the adhesion of WBCs and by increasing the average red blood cell velocity (VRBC). In conclusion, our results suggest that intravenous injection of preconditioned MSC-IFNγ improves microvascular hemodynamics in early phases of sepsis.

18.
Ann Surg ; 270(5): 827-834, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess recurrence risk factors following ileocolonic resection (ICR) for Crohn disease (CD) in a nationwide cohort study SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA:: Recurrence rate after ICR for CD can be up to 60%, but its predictive factors have never been evaluated in large prospective cohort studies. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 346 consecutive patients undergoing ICR for CD and a postoperative ileocoloscopy within 6 to 12 months after surgery at 19 academic French centers were included prospectively. RESULTS: Twelve-month postoperative endoscopic (Rutgeerts score ≥i2) and clinical recurrence rates were 57.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 54.2-61.0] and 11.3% (95% CI, 9-13.6), respectively. A total of 185 patients (54%) had a postoperative CD prophylaxis, comprising thiopurine in 69 (20%), or anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in 93 (27%). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, absence of postoperative smoking {odds ratio [OR] = 0.60 (95% CI, 0.40-0.91); P = 0.016}, postoperative prophylaxis [OR = 0.60 (95% CI, 0.41-0.88); P = 0.009], and penetrating disease behavior [OR = 0.58 (95% CI, 0.39-0.86); P = 0.007] were the only independent predictors of reduced endoscopic recurrence risk. Postoperative prophylaxis [OR 0.31 (95% CI, 0.15-0.66); P = 0.002), and penetrating behavior [OR = 00.36 (95% CI, 0.16-0.81); P = 0.013), were the only independent predictors of reduced clinical recurrence risk. Postoperative anti-TNF therapy was associated with a significant reduction of both 12-month risks of endoscopic (P < 0.001) and clinical (P = 0.019) recurrences. CONCLUSION: Absence of postoperative smoking, CD prophylaxis, and penetrating disease behavior could be independent predictors of reduced postoperative recurrence after ICR for CD. Prophylactic anti-TNF therapy reduces both endoscopic and clinical recurrence rates. It suggests that upfront surgery followed by postoperative anti-TNF therapy is probably the best therapeutic approach for complex CD (penetrating disease behavior).

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a cerebellar ataxia due to GAA repeat expansions in the FXN gene, and in affected patients, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) leads to poorer prognosis. We aimed to identify patients likely to develop worsening LVEF at an early stage. METHODS: We included 115 FRDA patients aged 30 ± 10 years with 620 ± 238 GAA repeats on the shorter allele and disease onset of 15 ± 7 years. RESULTS: At baseline, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was present in 53%, with LVEF 65 ± 7%, LV end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) 43 ± 5 mm, septal wall thickness (SWT) 11.8 ± 2.7 mm, and posterior wall thickness 11.1 ± 2.5 mm. After a mean follow-up of 13 ± 6 years, LVEF ≤ 50% was observed in 12 patients. The main determinants of LVEF ≤ 50% were GAA repeat number on the shorter allele (odds ratio [OR] 1.007, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003-1.012, p = 0.002), LVEDD (OR 1.217, 95% CI 1.058-1.399, p = 0.006), and SWT (OR 1.352, 95% CI 1.016-1.799, p = 0.04). High-risk patients were predicted 5 years before LVEF ≤ 50% occurred: area under the curve of 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97. Patients with GAA repeats > 800 were categorized as high risk, patients with 500 < GAA < 800 were high risk if LVEDD was ≥ 52.6 mm and SWT was ≥ 13.3 mm, and patients with GAA < 500 were low risk if LVEDD was < 52.6 mm and SWT was < 13.3 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic follow-up combined with size assessment of GAA repeat expansions is a powerful tool to identify patients at high risk of developing LV systolic dysfunction up to 5 years before clinical symptoms. Further studies are mandatory to investigate if these patients would benefit from cardiac interventions.

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