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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 943, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of people who inject drugs (PWID) living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have not been treated. It is unknown whether inclusion of HCV diagnostics and treatment into integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics will improve uptake and outcome of HCV treatment in PWID. The aim is to assess the efficacy of integrating HCV treatment to PWID and this paper will present the protocol for an ongoing trial. METHODS: INTRO-HCV is a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial that will compare the efficacy of integrated treatment of HCV in PWID with the current standard treatment. Integrated treatment includes testing for HCV, assessing liver fibrosis with transient elastography, counselling, treatment delivery, follow-up and evaluation provided by integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics. Most of these clinics for PWID provide opioid agonist therapy while some clinics provide low-threshold care without opioid agonist therapy. Standard care involves referral to further diagnostics, treatment and treatment follow-up given in a hospital outpatient clinic with equivalent medications. The differences between the delivery platforms in the two trial arms involve use of a drop-in approach rather than specific appointment times, no need for additional travelling, less blood samples taken during treatment, and treatment given from already known clinicians. The trial will recruit approximately 200 HCV infected individuals in Bergen and Stavanger, Norway. The primary outcomes are time to treatment initiation and sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, treatment adherence, changes in quality of life, fatigue and psychological well-being, changes in drug use, infection related risk behaviour, and risk of reinfection. The target group is PWID with HCV diagnosed receiving treatment and care within clinics for PWID. DISCUSSION: This study will inform on the effects of an integrated treatment program for HCV in clinics for PWID compared to standard care aiming to increase access to treatment and improving treatment adherence. If the integrated treatment model is found to be safe and efficacious, it can be considered for further scale-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov.no. NCT03155906.

2.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603999

RESUMO

Globally, 35 million people are living with HIV (PLHIV) and 257 million have chronic HBV infection (HBsAg positive). The extent of HIV-HBsAg co-infection is unknown. We undertook a systematic review to estimate the global burden of HBsAg co-infection in PLHIV. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and other databases for published studies (2002-2018) measuring prevalence of HBsAg among PLHIV. The review was registered with PROSPERO (#CRD42019123388). Populations were categorised by HIV-exposure category. The global burden of co-infection was estimated by applying regional co-infection prevalence estimates to UNAIDS estimates of PLHIV. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the odds of HBsAg among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals. We identified 506 estimates (475 studies) of HIV-HBsAg co-infection prevalence from 80/195 (41.0%) countries. Globally, the prevalence of HIV-HBsAg co-infection is 6.1% (IQR 4.0-9.9%) in PLHIV, or 2.6 million HIV-HBsAg co-infections (IQR 1.9-4.2). The greatest burden (69% of cases; 1.9 million) is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globally there was little difference in prevalence of HIV-HBsAg co-infection by population group (approximately 6-7%), but slightly higher among PWID (11.8% IQR 6. 0-16.9%). Odds of HBsAg infection is 1.4 times higher among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals. There is therefore, a high global burden of HIV-HBsAg co-infection, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings highlight the importance of specific targeting PLHIV for testing, catch-up HBV vaccination and other preventative interventions. The global scale-up of HIV treatment for PLHIV using a tenofovir-based ART regimen provides an opportunity to simultaneously treat those with HBsAg co-infection and reduce mother-to-child transmission of HBV alongside HIV.

3.
Health Policy Plan ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603470

RESUMO

There is some evidence that female sex workers (FSWs) receive greater earnings for providing unprotected sex. In 2003, the landscape of the fight against HIV/AIDS dramatically changed in India with the introduction of Avahan, the largest HIV prevention programme implemented globally. Using a unique, cross-sectional bio-behavioural dataset from 3591 FSWs located in the four Indian states where Avahan was implemented, we estimate the economic loss faced by FSWs who always use condoms. We estimate the causal effect of condom use on the price charged during the last paid sexual intercourse using the random targeting of Avahan as an instrumental variable. Results indicate that FSWs who always use condoms face an income loss of 65% (INR125, US$2.60) per sex act compared to peers providing unprotected sex, consistent with our expectations. The main finding confirms that clients have a preference for unprotected sex and that policies aiming at changing clients' preferences and at improving the bargaining power of FSWs are required to limit the spread of HIV.

4.
Addiction ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Traditional detachable syringes used by people who inject drugs (PWID) retain larger volumes of blood when the plunger is depressed than syringes with fixed needles - referred to as high (HDSS) and low dead space syringes (LDSS), respectively. Evidence suggests that using HDSS may result in greater hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk than LDSS. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of an intervention to introduce detachable LDSS in a needle and syringe programme (NSP). DESIGN: HCV transmission and disease progression model with cost-effectiveness analysis using a health-care perspective. Detachable LDSS are associated with increased costs (£0.01) per syringe, yearly staff training costs (£536) and an estimated decreased risk (by 47.5%) of HCV transmission compared with HDSS. The intervention was modelled for 10 years, with costs and health benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) tracked over 50 years. SETTING: Bristol, UK PARTICIPANTS/CASES: PWID attending NSP INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Gradual replacement of HDSS at NSP, with 8%, 58% and 95% of HDSS being replaced by detachable LDSS in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. Comparator was continuing use of HDSS. MEASUREMENTS: Net monetary benefit. Benefits were measured in QALYs. FINDINGS: Introducing detachable LDSS was associated with a small increase in intervention costs (£21,717) compared with not introducing detachable LDSS, but considerable savings in HCV-related treatment and care costs (£4,138,118). Overall cost savings were £4,116,401 over 50 years and QALY gains were 1,000, with an estimated 30% reduction in new infections over the 10 year intervention period. In all sensitivity analyses, detachable LDSS resulted in cost savings and additional QALYs. Threshold analyses suggested detachable LDSS would need to reduce HCV transmission risk of HDSS by 0.26% to be cost-saving and 0.04% to be cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Replacing high dead space syringes with detachable low dead space syringes in needle and syringe programmes in the UK is likely to be a cost-saving approach for reducing hepatitis C virus transmission.

5.
Lancet ; 394(10208): 1560-1579, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657732

RESUMO

We summarise the evidence for medicinal uses of opioids, harms related to the extramedical use of, and dependence on, these drugs, and a wide range of interventions used to address these harms. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study estimated that in 2017, 40·5 million people were dependent on opioids (95% uncertainty interval 34·3-47·9 million) and 109 500 people (105 800-113 600) died from opioid overdose. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) can be highly effective in reducing illicit opioid use and improving multiple health and social outcomes-eg, by reducing overall mortality and key causes of death, including overdose, suicide, HIV, hepatitis C virus, and other injuries. Mathematical modelling suggests that scaling up the use of OAT and retaining people in treatment, including in prison, could avert a median of 7·7% of deaths in Kentucky, 10·7% in Kiev, and 25·9% in Tehran over 20 years (compared with no OAT), with the greater effects in Tehran and Kiev being due to reductions in HIV mortality, given the higher prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs in those settings. Other interventions have varied evidence for effectiveness and patient acceptability, and typically affect a narrower set of outcomes than OAT does. Other effective interventions focus on preventing harm related to opioids. Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of a range of interventions to improve the health and wellbeing of people who are dependent on opioids, coverage is low, even in high-income countries. Treatment quality might be less than desirable, and considerable harm might be caused to individuals, society, and the economy by the criminalisation of extramedical opioid use and dependence. Alternative policy frameworks are recommended that adopt an approach based on human rights and public health, do not make drug use a criminal behaviour, and seek to reduce drug-related harm at the population level.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029538, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second largest contributor to liver disease in the UK, with injecting drug use as the main risk factor among the estimated 200 000 people currently infected. Despite effective prevention interventions, chronic HCV prevalence remains around 40% among people who inject drugs (PWID). New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapies combine high cure rates (>90%) and short treatment duration (8 to 12 weeks). Theoretical mathematical modelling evidence suggests HCV treatment scale-up can prevent transmission and substantially reduce HCV prevalence/incidence among PWID. Our primary aim is to generate empirical evidence on the effectiveness of HCV 'Treatment as Prevention' (TasP) in PWID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to establish a natural experiment with Tayside, Scotland, as a single intervention site where HCV care pathways are being expanded (including specialist drug treatment clinics, needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), pharmacies and prison) and HCV treatment for PWID is being rapidly scaled-up. Other sites in Scotland and England will act as potential controls. Over 2 years from 2017/2018, at least 500 PWID will be treated in Tayside, which simulation studies project will reduce chronic HCV prevalence among PWID by 62% (from 26% to 10%) and HCV incidence will fall by approximately 2/3 (from 4.2 per 100 person-years (p100py) to 1.4 p100py). Treatment response and re-infection rates will be monitored. We will conduct focus groups and interviews with service providers and patients that accept and decline treatment to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing TasP. We will conduct longitudinal interviews with up to 40 PWID to assess whether successful HCV treatment alters their perspectives on and engagement with drug treatment and recovery. Trained peer researchers will be involved in data collection and dissemination. The primary outcome - chronic HCV prevalence in PWID - is measured using information from the Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative survey in Scotland and the Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Programme in England, conducted at least four times before and three times during and after the intervention. We will adapt Bayesian synthetic control methods (specifically the Causal Impact Method) to generate the cumulative impact of the intervention on chronic HCV prevalence and incidence. We will use a dynamic HCV transmission and economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the HCV TasP intervention, and to estimate the contribution of the scale-up in HCV treatment to observe changes in HCV prevalence. Through the qualitative data we will systematically explore key mechanisms of TasP real world implementation from provider and patient perspectives to develop a manual for scaling up HCV treatment in other settings. We will compare qualitative accounts of drug treatment and recovery with a 'virtual cohort' of PWID linking information on HCV treatment with Scottish Drug treatment databases to test whether DAA treatment improves drug treatment outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Extending HCV community care pathways is covered by ethics (ERADICATE C, ISRCTN27564683, Super DOT C Trial clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02706223). Ethical approval for extra data collection from patients including health utilities and qualitative interviews has been granted (REC ref: 18/ES/0128) and ISCRCTN registration has been completed (ISRCTN72038467). Our findings will have direct National Health Service and patient relevance; informing prioritisation given to early HCV treatment for PWID. We will present findings to practitioners and policymakers, and support design of an evaluation of HCV TasP in England.

7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 76, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea and chlamydia testing rates are poor among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). A quasi-experimental study suggested that a pay-it-forward strategy increased dual gonorrhea/chlamydia testing among MSM. Pay-it-forward offers an individual a gift (e.g., a free test) and then asks the same person if they would like to give a gift to another person. This article reports the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate dual gonorrhea/chlamydia test uptake and other outcomes among MSM in three arms - a pay-it-forward arm, a pay-what-you-want arm, and a standard of care arm. METHODS: Three hundred MSM will be recruited at three HIV testing sites in Guangzhou and Beijing. Testing sites include two hospital-based MSM sexually transmitted diseases clinics and one MSM community-based organization. Eligible participants will be born biologically male, aged 16 years or older, reporting previous anal sex with another man, having never participated in the pay-it-forward program, without previous gonorrhea and chlamydia testing in the past 12 months, and residing in China. Following a cluster randomized design, every cluster of ten participants will be randomly allocated into one of three arms: (1) a pay-it-forward arm in which men are offered free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing and then asked whether they would like to donate ("pay it forward") toward testing for future testers; (2) a pay-what-you-want arm in which men are offered free testing and told to decide how much to pay after receiving the test; (3) a standard of care arm in which men can pay the full price for dual gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing. The primary outcome is dual gonorrhoea/chlamydia testing as verified by administrative records. Secondary outcomes include incremental cost per test, incremental cost per diagnosis, community connectedness, and social cohesion. Primary outcome will be calculated for each arm using intention-to-treat and compared using one-sided 95% confidence intervals with a margin of 20% increase defined as superiority. DISCUSSION: This study will examine the pay-it-forward strategy in comparison to the standard of care in improving test uptake for gonorrhea and chlamydia. We will leverage the cluster randomized controlled trial to provide scientific evidence on the potential effect of pay-it-forward. Findings from this study will shed light on novel intervention methods for increasing preventive health service utilization and innovate ways to finance it among communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03741725 . Registered on 12 November 2018.

8.
Liver Int ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454466

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: In Indonesia 1.9 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but a national strategic plan for elimination has not yet been developed, despite the availability of low-cost treatments which could save many lives. We used epidemiological and cost modelling to estimate targets and resource requirements of a national elimination program and explore the potential impact and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: To model the HCV epidemic, we used a dynamic model, parameterised with Indonesia-specific data, accounting for disease progression, injecting drug use and demographics. Future scale-up scenarios were designed for 2018-2050 to capture possible policy choices. Costs of an initial 5-year national strategy and of long-term elimination were estimated for the most feasible scenario, as agreed with government and local partners. Cost savings from reduced drug and diagnostics prices were also estimated. The cost-effectiveness of baseline predictions and those with drug price reductions were compared to the no treatment scenario. RESULTS: Elimination by 2045, considered the most feasible path to scale-up, would prevent 739 000 new infections and avert 158 000 HCV-related deaths. The costs would be $5.6 billion (USD) using baseline prices but could fall to $2.7 billion if price reductions for HCV drugs and diagnostics are secured. With these price reductions, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for a 2045 elimination program would be cost-effective at $300 (USD) per year of life saved vs the no treatment scenario. CONCLUSIONS: This study has underpinned advocacy efforts to secure Indonesian government commitment to HCV elimination, and provides further inputs for HCV strategic planning efforts.

9.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392812

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently produced guidelines advising a treat-all policy for HCV to encourage widespread treatment scale-up for achieving HCV elimination. We modelled the prevention impact achieved (HCV infections averted [IA]) from initiating this policy compared with treating different subgroups at country, regional and global levels. We assessed what country-level factors affect impact. A dynamic, deterministic HCV transmission model was calibrated to data from global systematic reviews and UN data sets to simulate country-level HCV epidemics with ongoing levels of treatment. For each country, the model projected the prevention impact (in HCV IA per treatment undertaken) of initiating four treatment strategies; either selected randomly (treat-all) or targeted among people who inject drugs (PWID), people aged ≥35, or those with cirrhosis. The IA was assessed over 20 years. Linear regression was used to identify associations between IA per treatment and demographic factors. Eighty-eight countries (85% of the global population) were modelled. Globally, the model estimated 0.35 (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.16-0.61) IA over 20 years for every randomly allocated treatment, 0.30 (95%CrI: 0.12-0.53) from treating those aged ≥35 and 0.28 (95%CrI: 0.12-0.49) for those with cirrhosis. Globally, treating PWID achieved 1.27 (95%CrI: 0.68-2.04) IA per treatment. The IA per randomly allocated treatment was positively associated with a country's population growth rate and negatively associated with higher HCV prevalence among PWID. In conclusion, appreciable prevention benefits could be achieved from WHO's treat-all strategy, although greater benefits per treatment can be achieved through targeting PWID. Higher impact will be achieved in countries with high population growth.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 996, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterosexual men in South Africa are a large key population to exposure to HIV, yet preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among this population have not, to date, been investigated in the literature. This paper aims to explore HIV prevention preferences among heterosexual men in urban South Africa, as well as to examine the demand and characteristics of men who favour long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP over condoms and oral PrEP. METHODS: Data were collected among 178 self-reported HIV-negative heterosexual men, who were given example products and information before being asked which they preferred. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse which characteristics were associated with product choice. RESULTS: 48% (n = 85) of participants preferred LAI PrEP, while 33% (n = 58) and 20% (n = 35) chose oral PrEP and condoms respectively. Having children (marginal effect = 0.22; 95% CI [0.01, 0.44]) or having higher risk attitude scores (marginal effect = 0.03; 95% CI [0.01, 0.06]) was significantly associated with a choice of LAI PrEP, while those who had unprotected anal intercourse (marginal effect = - 0.42; 95% CI [- 0.57, - 0.27]) and those who were concerned with protection against other sexually transmitted infections over HIV (marginal effect = - 0.42; 95% CI [- 0.60, - 0.24]) appeared less likely to prefer LAI PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested a relatively high demand and theoretical acceptability for LAI PrEP among heterosexual men in urban South Africa, but there appeared to be fewer distinct predictors for the willingness to use LAI PrEP compared to studies conducted among gay and bisexual men and women. Nevertheless, the findings contribute to the mapping of the demand and determinants of heterosexual men's preferences for novel antiretroviral-based prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, and the data could aid in the differentiated design of future HIV prevention strategies using LAI PrEP in conjunction with other methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
11.
Addiction ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307116

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment of people who inject drugs (PWID), combined with medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and syringe-service programs (SSP), to tackle the increasing HCV epidemic in the United States. DESIGN: HCV transmission and disease progression models with cost-effectiveness analysis using a health-care perspective. SETTING: Rural Perry County, KY (PC) and urban San Francisco, CA (SF), USA. Compared with PC, SF has a greater proportion of PWID with access to MAT or SSP. HCV treatment of PWID is negligible in both settings. PARTICIPANTS: PWID data were collected between 1998 and 2015 from Social Networks Among Appalachian People, U Find Out, Urban Health Study and National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System studies. INTERVENTIONS AND COMPARATOR: Three intervention scenarios modeled: baseline-existing SSP and MAT coverage with HCV screening and treatment with direct-acting antiviral for ex-injectors only as per standard of care; intervention 1-scale-up of SSP and MAT without changes to treatment; and intervention 2-scale-up as intervention 1 combined with HCV screening and treatment for current PWID. MEASUREMENTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and uncertainty using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Benefits were measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). FINDINGS: For both settings, intervention 2 is preferred to intervention 1 and the appropriate comparator for intervention 2 is the baseline scenario. Relative to baseline, for PC intervention 2 averts 1852 more HCV infections, increases QALYS by 3095, costs $21.6 million more and has an ICER of $6975/QALY. For SF, intervention 2 averts 36 473 more HCV infections, increases QALYs by 7893, costs $872 million more and has an ICER of $11 044/QALY. The cost-effectiveness of intervention 2 was robust to several sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis C screening and treatment for people who inject drugs, combined with medication-assisted treatment and syringe-service programs, is a cost-effective strategy for reducing hepatitis C burden in the United States.

12.
Int J Drug Policy ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at an elevated risk of fatal overdose in the first year after experiencing a non-fatal event. Such non-fatal events may also result in overdose-related sequelae, ranging from physical injury to paralysis. Given variation in drug markets and treatment availability across countries and regions, we may see similar variations in non-fatal overdose prevalence. Monitoring non-fatal overdose prevalence among PWID is essential for informing treatment intervention efforts, and thus our review aims to estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of non-fatal overdose, and determine characteristics associated with experiencing such an event. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to estimate country, regional, and global estimates of recent and lifetime non-fatal overdose prevalence among PWID. Using meta-regression analyses we also determined associations between sample characteristics and non-fatal overdose prevalence. RESULTS: An estimated 3.2 (1.8-5.2) million PWID have experienced at least one overdose in the previous year. Among PWID, 20.5% (15.0-26.1%) and 41.5% (34.6-48.4%) had experienced a non-fatal event in the previous 12 months and lifetime respectively. Frequent injecting was strongly associated with PWID reporting recent and lifetime non-fatal overdose. Estimates of recent non-fatal overdose were particularly high in Asia and North America. CONCLUSION: Around one in five PWID are at an elevated risk of fatally overdosing every year, however there is substantial geographical variation. In countries with higher rates of non-fatal overdose there is need to introduce or mainstream overdose prevention strategies such as opioid agonist treatment and naloxone administration training programs.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e030183, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The majority (>90%) of new or undiagnosed cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the UK are among individuals born in countries with intermediate or high prevalence levels (≥2%). We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of increased HBV case-finding among UK migrant populations, based on a one-time opt out case-finding approach in a primary care setting. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness evaluation. A decision model based on a Markov approach was built to assess the progression of HBV infection with and without treatment as a result of case-finding. The model parameters, including the cost and effects of case-finding and treatment, were estimated from the literature. All costs were expressed in 2017/2018 British Pounds (GBPs) and health outcomes as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). INTERVENTION: Hepatitis B virus case-finding among UK migrant populations born in countries with intermediate or high prevalence levels (≥2%) in a primary care setting compared with no intervention (background testing). RESULTS: At a 2% hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, the case-finding intervention led to a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £13 625 per QALY gained which was 87% and 98% likely of being cost-effective at willingness to pay (WTP) thresholds of £20 000 and £30 000 per additional QALY, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the intervention would remain cost-effective under a £20 000 WTP threshold as long as HBsAg prevalence among the migrant population is at least 1%. However, the results were sensitive to a number of parameters, especially the time horizon and probability of treatment uptake. CONCLUSIONS: HBV case-finding using a one-time opt out approach in primary care settings is very likely to be cost-effective among UK migrant populations with HBsAg prevalence ≥1% if the WTP for an additional QALY is around £20 000.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(8): 1539-1551, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150044

RESUMO

In the United States, hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is rising among people who inject drugs (PWID). Many regions have insufficient prevention intervention coverage. Using modeling, we investigated the impact of scaling up prevention and treatment interventions on HCV transmission among PWID in Perry County, Kentucky, and San Francisco, California, where HCV seroprevalence among PWID is >50%. A greater proportion of PWID access medication-assisted treatment (MAT) or syringe service programs (SSP) in urban San Francisco (established community) than in rural Perry County (young, expanding community). We modeled the proportion of HCV-infected PWID needing HCV treatment annually to reduce HCV incidence by 90% by 2030, with and without MAT scale-up (50% coverage, both settings) and SSP scale-up (Perry County only) from 2017. With current MAT and SSP coverage during 2017-2030, HCV incidence would increase in Perry County (from 21.3 to 22.6 per 100 person-years) and decrease in San Francisco (from 12.9 to 11.9 per 100 person-years). With concurrent MAT and SSP scale-up, 5% per year of HCV-infected PWID would need HCV treatment in Perry County to achieve incidence targets-13% per year without MAT and SSP scale-up. In San Francisco, a similar proportion would need HCV treatment (10% per year) irrespective of MAT scale-up. Reaching the same impact by 2025 would require increases in treatment rates of 45%-82%. Achievable provision of HCV treatment, alongside MAT and SSP scale-up (Perry County) and MAT scale-up (San Francisco), could reduce HCV incidence.

15.
Value Health ; 22(6): 693-703, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals are successful in curing hepatitis C virus infection in more than 95% of patients treated for 12 weeks, but they are expensive. Shortened treatment durations, which may have lower cure rates, have been proposed to reduce costs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of different shortened treatment durations for genotype 1 noncirrhotic treatment-naive patients. METHODS: Assuming a UK National Health Service perspective, we used a probabilistic decision tree and Markov model to compare 3 unstratified shortened treatment durations (8, 6, and 4 weeks) against a standard 12-week treatment duration. Patients failing shortened first-line treatment were re-treated with a 12-week treatment regimen. Parameter inputs were taken from published studies. RESULTS: The 8-week treatment duration had an expected incremental net monetary benefit of £7737 (95% confidence interval £3242-£11 819) versus the standard 12-week treatment, per 1000 patients. The 6-week treatment had a positive incremental net monetary benefit, although some uncertainty was observed. The probability that the 8- and 6-week treatments were the most cost-effective was 56% and 25%, respectively, whereas that for the 4-week treatment was 17%. Results were generally robust to sensitivity analyses, including a threshold analysis that showed that the 8-week treatment was the most cost-effective at all drug prices lower than £40 000 per 12-week course. CONCLUSIONS: Shortening treatments licensed for 12 weeks to 8 weeks is cost-effective in genotype 1 noncirrhotic treatment-naive patients. There was considerable uncertainty in the estimates for 6- and 4-week treatments, with some indication that the 6-week treatment may be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/economia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Cadeias de Markov , Sofosbuvir/economia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are produced in India at low cost. However, concerns surrounding reinfection and budgetary impact limit treatment scale-up in India. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of HCV treatment in India, including reinfection. METHODS: A closed cohort Markov model of HCV disease progression, treatment, and reinfection was parameterized. We compared treatment by fibrosis stage (F2-F4 or F0-F4) to no treatment from a health care payer perspective. Costs (2017 USD$, based on India-specific data) and health utilities (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) were attached to each health state. We assumed DAAs with 90% sustained viral response at $900/treatment and 1%/year reinfection, varied in the sensitivity analysis from 0.1-15%. We deemed the intervention cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) fell below India's per capita GDP ($1,709). We assessed the budgetary impact of treating all diagnosed individuals. RESULTS: HCV treatment for diagnosed F2-F4 individuals was cost-saving (net costs -$2,881 and net QALYs 3.18/person treated; negative ICER) compared to no treatment. HCV treatment remained cost-saving with reinfection rates of 15%/year. Treating all diagnosed individuals was likely cost-effective compared to delay until F2 (mean ICER $1,586/QALY gained, 67% of simulations falling under the $1,709 threshold) with 1%/year reinfection. For all scenarios, annual retesting for reinfection was more cost-effective than the current policy (one-time retest). Treating all diagnosed individuals and reinfections results in net costs of $445-1,334 million over 5 years (<0.25% of total health care expenditure over 5 years), and cost-savings within 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: HCV treatment was highly cost-effective in India, despite reinfection. Annual retesting for reinfection was cost-effective, supporting a policy change towards more frequent retesting. A comprehensive HCV treatment scale-up plan is warranted in India.

17.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(6): 435-444, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO aims to eliminate the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a public health threat by 2030. Injection drug use is an important risk factor for HCV transmission, but its contribution to country-level and global epidemics is unknown. We estimated the contribution of injection drug use to risk for HCV epidemics globally, regionally, and at country level. METHODS: We developed a dynamic deterministic HCV transmission model to simulate country-level HCV epidemics among people who inject drugs and the general population. Each country's model was calibrated using country-specific data from UN datasets and systematic reviews on the prevalence of HCV and injection drug use. The population attributable fraction of HCV transmission associated with injection drug use was estimated-defined here as the percentage of HCV infections prevented if additional HCV transmission due to injection drug use was removed between 2018 and 2030. FINDINGS: The model included 88 countries (85% of the global population). The model predicted 0·23% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 0·16-0·31) of the global population were injection drug users in 2017, and 8% (5-12) of prevalent HCV infections were among people who currently inject drugs. Globally, if the increased risk for HCV transmission among people who inject drugs was removed, an estimated 43% (95% CrI 25-67) of incident HCV infections would be prevented from 2018 to 2030, varying regionally. This population attributable fraction was higher in high-income countries (79%, 95% CrI 57-97) than in countries of low and middle income (38%, 24-64) and was associated with the percentage of a country's prevalent HCV infections that are among people who inject drugs. INTERPRETATION: Unsafe injecting practices among people who inject drugs contribute substantially to incident HCV infections globally. Any intervention that can reduce HCV transmission among people who inject drugs will have a pronounced effect on country-level incidence of HCV. FUNDING: None.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 306, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various integrated care models have been used to improve treatment completion of medications for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people with substance use disorders (SUD). We have conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether integrated models have impacts of the treatment of infectious diseases among marginalized people with SUD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed (1946 to 2018, on July 26, 2018) and Embase (from 1974 to 2018, on July 26, 2018) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies evaluating diverse integrated models' effects on sustained virological response (SVR), HIV suppression, HBV curation or suppression, completion of TB treatment regimen among people with SUD. The included studies were assessed qualitatively. RESULTS: Altogether, 1640 studies, and references to 1135 related reviews and RCTs were considered, and only seven RCTs and three cohort studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We identified nine integrated care models. Two studies, one RCT and one cohort study, showed a significant effect of their integrated models. The RCT evaluated psychosocial treatment, opioid agonist treatment (OAT) and directly observed TB treatment, and found a significant increase in TB treatment completions among intervention group compared to control group (60% versus 13%, p < 0.01). The cohort study including OAT and TB treatments had an effect on TB treatment completion in hospitalized patients (89% versus 73%, p = 0.03). Eight out of ten studies showed no significant effects of their integrated care models on defined outcomes. One of which having included 363 participants in a RCT showed no effect on SVR compared to the control group when the results adjusted for active substance use and alcohol dependence in a post-hoc analysis (11% versus 7%, p = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate uncertainty on the effects of integrated care models' on treatment for severe infectious diseases among people with SUD. Some studies point toward that integrated models could improve care of people with SUD, yet high-quality studies and preferably, sufficiently sized clinical trials are needed to conclude on the degree of impact.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Infect Dis ; 220(1): 78-90, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women-specific factors exist that increases vulnerability to drug-related harms from injection drug use, including blood-borne viruses (BBVs), but gender-based differences in BBV prevalence have not been systematically examined. METHODS: We conducted meta-analyses to estimate country, regional, and global prevalence of serologically confirmed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV; based on detection of anti-HCV antibody), and hepatitis B virus (HBV; based on detection of HBV surface antigen) in people who inject drugs (PWID), by gender. Gender-based differences in the BBV prevalence (calculated as the risk among women relative to the risk among men) were regressed on country-level prevalence and inequality measures (Gender inequality index, Human development index, Gini coefficient, and high, low or middle income of the country). RESULTS: Gender-based differences varied by countries and regions. HIV prevalence was higher among women than men in sub-Saharan Africa (relative risk [RR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-4.4) and South Asia (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7); anti-HCV was lower among women in the Middle East and North Africa (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, .5-.7) and East and Southeast Asia (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, .7-.9). Gender-based differences varied with country-levels of the BBV prevalence in the general population, human development, and income distribution. CONCLUSION: HIV was more prevalent in women who inject drugs as compared to their male counterparts in some countries, but there is variation between and within regions. In countries where women are at higher risks, there is a need to develop gender-sensitive harm-reduction services for the particularly marginalized population of women who inject drugs.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e026298, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: From 2011 to 2013, the Global Fund (GF) supported needle and syringe programmes in Mexico to prevent transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs. It remains unclear how GF withdrawal affected the costs, quality and coverage of needle and syringe programme provision. DESIGN: Costing study and longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Tijuana, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: Personnel from a local needle and syringe programme (n=6) and people who inject drugs (n=734) participating in a longitudinal study. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Provision of needle and syringe programme services and cost (per contact and per syringe distributed, in 2017 $USD) during GF support (2012) and after withdrawal (2015/16). An additional outcome included needle and syringe programme utilisation from a concurrent cohort of people who inject drugs during and after GF withdrawal. RESULTS: During the GF period, the needle and syringe programme distributed 55 920 syringes to 932 contacts (60 syringes/contact) across 14 geographical locations. After GF withdrew, the needle and syringe programme distributed 10 700 syringes to 2140 contacts (five syringes/contact) across three geographical locations. During the GF period, the cost per harm reduction contact was approximately 10-fold higher compared with after GF ($44.72 vs $3.81); however, the cost per syringe distributed was nearly equal ($0.75 vs $0.76) due to differences in syringes per contact and reductions in ancillary kit components. The mean log odds of accessing a needle and syringe programme in the post-GF period was significantly lower than during the GF period (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Withdrawal of GF support for needle and syringe programme provision in Mexico was associated with a substantial drop in provision of sterile syringes, geographical coverage and recent clean syringe utilisation among people who inject drugs. Better planning is required to ensure harm reduction programme sustainability is at scale after donor withdrawal.

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