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1.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2455-2468, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155273

RESUMO

Despite global commitments to achieving gender equality and improving health and wellbeing for all, quantitative data and methods to precisely estimate the effect of gender norms on health inequities are underdeveloped. Nonetheless, existing global, national, and subnational data provide some key opportunities for testing associations between gender norms and health. Using innovative approaches to analysing proxies for gender norms, we generated evidence that gender norms impact the health of women and men across life stages, health sectors, and world regions. Six case studies showed that: (1) gender norms are complex and can intersect with other social factors to impact health over the life course; (2) early gender-normative influences by parents and peers can have multiple and differing health consequences for girls and boys; (3) non-conformity with, and transgression of, gender norms can be harmful to health, particularly when they trigger negative sanctions; and (4) the impact of gender norms on health can be context-specific, demanding care when designing effective gender-transformative health policies and programmes. Limitations of survey-based data are described that resulted in missed opportunities for investigating certain populations and domains. Recommendations for optimising and advancing research on the health impacts of gender norms are made.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Identidade de Gênero , Normas Sociais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i54-i62, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant-mortality rates have been declining in many low- and middle-income countries, including Brazil. Information on causes of death and on socio-economic inequalities is scarce. METHODS: Four birth cohorts were carried out in the city of Pelotas in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, each including all hospital births in the calendar year. Surveillance in hospitals and vital registries, accompanied by interviews with doctors and families, detected fetal and infant deaths and ascertained their causes. Late-fetal (stillbirth)-, neonatal- and post-neonatal-death rates were calculated. RESULTS: All-cause and cause-specific death rates were reduced. During the study period, stillbirths fell by 47.8% (from 16.1 to 8.4 per 1000), neonatal mortality by 57.0% (from 20.1 to 8.7) and infant mortality by 62.0% (from 36.4 to 13.8). Perinatal causes were the leading causes of death in the four cohorts; deaths due to infectious diseases showed the largest reductions, with diarrhoea causing 25 deaths in 1982 and none in 2015. Late-fetal-, neonatal- and infant-mortality rates were higher for children born to Brown or Black women and to low-income women. Absolute socio-economic inequalities based on income-expressed in deaths per 1000 births-were reduced over time but relative inequalities-expressed as ratios of mortality rates-tended to remain stable. CONCLUSION: The observed improvements are likely due to progress in social determinants of health and expansion of health care. In spite of progress, current levels remain substantially greater than those observed in high-income countries, and social and ethnic inequalities persist.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i4-i15, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few low-middle-income countries have data from comparable birth cohort studies spanning over time. We report on the methods used by the Pelotas cohorts (1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015) and describe time trends in sociodemographic characteristics of the participant families. METHODS: During the four study years, all maternity hospitals in the city were visited daily, and all urban women giving birth were enrolled. Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected using standardized questionnaires, including data on maternal and paternal skin colour, age and schooling, maternal marital status, family income and household characteristics. The analyses included comparisons of time trends and of socioeconomic and ethnic group inequalities. RESULTS: Despite a near 50% increase in the city's population between 1982 and 2015, the total number of births declined from 6011 to 4387. The proportion of mothers aged ≥35 years increased from 9.9% to 14.8%, and average maternal schooling from 6.5 [standard deviation (SD) 4.2] to 10.1 (SD 4.0) years. Treated water was available in 95.3% of households in 1982 and 99.3% in 2015. Three-quarters of the families had a refrigerator in 1982, compared with 98.3% in 2015. Absolute income-related inequalities in maternal schooling, household crowding, household appliances and access to treated water were markedly reduced between 1982 and 2015. Maternal skin colour was associated with inequalities in age at childbearing and schooling, as well as with household characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: During the 33-year period, there were positive changes in social and environmental determinants of health, including income, education, fertility and characteristics of the home environment. Socioeconomic inequality was also reduced.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Materna/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Fertilidade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i16-i25, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil experienced important progress in maternal and child health in recent decades. We aimed at describing secular trends as well as socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in reproductive history indicators (birth spacing, previous adverse perinatal outcome, parity and multiple births) over a 33-year span. METHODS: Four population-based birth cohort studies included all hospital births in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on reproductive history was collected through interviews. Indicators were stratified by family income quintiles and skin colour. Absolute and relative measures of inequality were calculated. RESULTS: From 1982 to 2015, the proportion of primiparae increased from 39.2% to 49.6%, and median birth interval increased by 23.2 months. Poor women were more likely to report short intervals and higher parity, although reductions were observed in all income and ethnic groups. History of previous low birthweight was inversely related to income and increased by 7.7% points (pp) over time-more rapidly in the richest (12.1 pp) than in the poorest quintile (0.4 pp). Multiple births increased from 1.7% to 2.7%, with the highest increase observed among the richest quintile and for white women (220% and 70% increase, respectively). Absolute and relative income and ethnic-related inequalities for short birth intervals increased, whereas inequalities for previous low birthweight decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: In this 33-year period there were increases in birth intervals, multiple births and reports of previous low-birthweight infants. These trends may be explained by increased family planning coverage, assisted reproduction and a rise in preterm births, respectively. Our results show that socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in health are dynamic and vary over time, within the same location.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prole de Múltiplos Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Paridade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i80-i88, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of child undernutrition have declined in many middle-income countries, whereas overweight and obesity have increased. We describe time trends in nutritional indicators at age 1 year in the 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts. METHODS: Each study included all children born in the urban area of the city, with over 4 200 births in each cohort. Children were measured at approximately 12 months of age. Anthropometric indicators were calculated according to World Health Organization Growth Standards. Stunting and wasting were defined as <-2 Z scores for length for age and weight for length, and overweight as >2 Z scores for weight for length. Prevalence was stratified by sex, maternal skin colour and family income. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting declined by 53% (from 8.3% to 3.9%) from 1982 to 2015. Wasting prevalence remained stable at low levels (1.8% in 1982 and 1.7% in 2015), whereas overweight increased by 88% (6.5% to 12.2%). Undernutrition was more common among boys, those born to mothers with brown or black skin colour and in the poorest quintile of families. Socioeconomic inequalities in undernutrition decreased markedly over time. Overweight was markedly more common among the rich in 1982, but fast increase among the poor eliminated socioeconomic differences by 2015, when all groups showed similar prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the rapid nutrition transition in Brazil, with marked reduction in levels and inequalities in undernutrition in parallel with a rapid increase in overweight, which became the main nutritional problem for children.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/embriologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Estatura , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Padrões de Referência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i37-i45, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal care and correctly indicated caesarean section can positively impact on health outcomes of the mother and newborn. Our objective was to describe how coverage and inequalities for these interventions changed from 1982 to 2015 in Pelotas, Brazil. METHODS: Using perinatal data from the 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 Pelotas birth cohorts, we assessed antenatal care coverage and caesarean section rates over time. Antenatal care indicators included the median number of visits, the prevalence of mothers attending at least six visits and the proportion who started antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy and attended at least six visits. We described these outcomes according to income quintiles and maternal skin colour, to identify inequalities. We described overall, private sector and public sector caesarean section rates. Differences in prevalence were tested using chi-square testing and median differences using Kruskal-Wallis testing. RESULTS: From 1982 to 2015, the median number of antenatal care visits and the prevalence of mothers attending at least six visits increased in all income quintiles and skin colour groups. Inequalities were reduced, but not eliminated. The overall proportion of caesarean births increased from 27.6% in 1982 to 65.1% in 2015, when 93.9% of the births in the private sector were by caesarean section. Absolute income-related inequalities in caesarean sections increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Special attention should be given to the antenatal care of poor and Black women in order to reduce inequalities. The explosive increase in caesarean sections requires radical changes in delivery care policies, in order to reverse the current trend.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cesárea/tendências , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i72-i79, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil has made substantial improvements in the duration of breastfeeding. We use data from four population-based cohorts to examine how trends and inequalities in breastfeeding indicators changed over time in a Brazilian city. METHODS: Data from four birth cohorts, each including all births in a calendar year (1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015) in the city of Pelotas were used. Information on breastfeeding was collected when children were aged between 3 and 20 months. The prevalences of continued breastfeeding at 1 year of age and of exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months were calculated according to family income, maternal skin colour and sex. RESULTS: Prevalence of breastfeeding at 12 months increased from 16% to 41% in the 33-year period. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months increased from 7% in 1993 to 45% in 2015. Increases in exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months were seen in all socioeconomic groups, but the 2015 rates remain highest (57.2%) among the women in the richest quintile, and lowest among those in the poorest quintile (34.6%). Black mothers were more likely to breastfeed at 12 months than Whites in the four cohorts. In the earlier cohorts, breastfeeding at 12 months was more common among the poor, but by 2015 these differences had disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: There were important positive changes in breastfeeding practices during this period, but less than half of the children in 2015 were receiving the full benefits of breast milk. Improved breastfeeding practices are being adopted by high-income women to a greater extent than by poor women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado do Lactente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i63-i71, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital admissions in infancy are declining in several countries. We describe admissions to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and other hospitalizations over a 33-year period in the Brazilian city of Pelotas. METHODS: We analysed data from four population-based birth cohorts launched in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, each including all hospital births in the calendar year. NICU and other hospital admissions during infancy were reported by the mothers in the perinatal interview and at the 12-month visit, respectively. We describe these outcomes by sex of the child, family income and maternal skin colour. RESULTS: In 1982, NICUs did not exist in the city; admissions into NICUs increased from 2.7% of all newborns in 1993 to 6.7% in 2015, and admission rates were similar in all income groups. Hospitalizations during the first year of life fell by 29%, from 23.7% in 1982 to 16.8% in 2015, and diarrhoea admissions fell by 95.2%. Pneumonia admissions fell by 46.3% from 1993 to 2015 (no data available for 1982). Admissions due to perinatal causes increased during the period. In the poorest income quintile, total admissions fell by 33% (from 35.7% to 23.9%), but in the richest quintile these remained stable at around 10%, leading to a reduction in inequalities. Over the whole period, children born to women with black or brown skin were 30% more likely to be admitted than those of white-skinned mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas NICU admissions increased, total admissions in the first year of life declined by nearly one-third. Socioeconomic disparities were reduced, but important gaps remain.


Assuntos
Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i26-i36, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy have short- and long-term consequences for the health of women and children. This study was aimed at evaluating maternal height,- and overweight or obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy and gestational weight gain, according to socioeconomic status and maternal skin colour of mothers in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city, in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015. METHODS: In 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas were visited daily, all deliveries were identified and mothers who lived in the urban area of the city were interviewed. Maternal weight at the beginning of the pregnancy was self-reported by the mother or obtained from the antenatal card. Maternal height was collected from the maternity records or measured by the research team. Overweight or obesity was defined by a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Gestational weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. RESULTS: In the four cohorts, we evaluated 19 931 women. From 1982 to 2015, the prevalence of overweight or obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy increased from 22.1% to 47.0% and height increased by an average of 5.2 cm, whereas gestational weight gain did not change. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with maternal height, and the difference between the poorest and the wealthiest decreased. Overweight or obesity was lower among those mothers in the extreme categories of family income. CONCLUSIONS: Over the 33-year span, mothers were taller at the beginning of the pregnancy, but the prevalence of overweight or obesity more than doubled.


Assuntos
Estatura , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Prevalência , Classe Social , Ganho de Peso
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(2): e227-e235, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in contraceptive use has largely been driven by short-acting methods of contraception, despite the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptives. Several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have made important progress increasing the use of modern contraceptives, but important inequalities remain. We assessed the prevalence and demand for modern contraceptive use in Latin America and the Caribbean with data from national health surveys. METHODS: Our data sources included demographic and health surveys, multiple indicator cluster surveys, and reproductive health surveys carried out since 2004 in 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Analyses were based on sexually active women aged 15-49 years irrespective of marital status, except in Argentina and Brazil, where analyses were restricted to women who were married or in a union. We calculated contraceptive prevalence and demand for family planning satisfied. Contraceptive prevalence was defined as the percentage of sexually active women aged 15-49 years who (or whose partners) were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. Demand for family planning satisfied was defined as the proportion of women in need of contraception who were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. We separated survey data for modern contraceptive use by type of contraception used (long-acting, short-acting, or permanent). We also stratified survey data by wealth, area of residence, education, ethnicity, age, and a combination of wealth and area of residence. Wealth-related absolute and relative inequalities were estimated both for contraceptive prevalence and demand for family planning satisfied. FINDINGS: We report on surveys from 23 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, analysing a sample of 212 573 women. The lowest modern contraceptive prevalence was observed in Haiti (31·3%) and Bolivia (34·6%); inequalities were wide in Bolivia, but almost non-existent in Haiti. Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Paraguay had over 70% of modern contraceptive prevalence with low absolute inequalities. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives was below 10% in 17 of the 23 countries. Only Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Trinidad and Tobago had more than 10% of women adopting long-acting contraceptive methods. Mexico was the only country in which long-acting contraceptive methods were more frequently used than short-acting methods. Young women aged 15-17 years, indigenous women, those in lower wealth quintiles, those living in rural areas, and those without education showed particularly low use of long-acting reversible contraceptives. INTERPRETATION: Long-acting reversible contraceptives are seldom used in Latin America and the Caribbean. Because of their high effectiveness, convenience, and ease of continuation, availability of long-acting reversible contraceptives should be expanded and their use promoted, including among young and nulliparous women. In addition to suitable family planning services, information and counselling should be provided to women on a personal basis. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Pan American Health Organization.

13.
BMJ Open ; 8(8): e021538, 2018 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the high rates of caesarean sections (CSs) in Brazil have impacted on the prevalence of preterm and early-term births. DESIGN: Individual-level, cross-sectional analyses of a national database. SETTING: All hospital births occurring in the country in 2015. PARTICIPANTS: 2 903 716 hospital-delivered singletons in 3157 municipalities, representing >96% of the country's births. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: CS rates and gestational age distribution (<37, 37-38, 39-41 and 42 or more weeks' gestation). Outcomes were analysed according to maternal education, measured in years of schooling and municipal CS rates. Analyses were also adjusted for maternal age, marital status and parity. RESULTS: Prevalence of CS was 55.5%, preterm prevalence (<37 weeks' gestation) was 10.1% and early-term births (37-38 weeks of gestation) represented 29.8% of all births, ranging from 24.9% among women with <4 years of schooling to 39.8% among those with >12 years of education. The adjusted prevalence ratios of preterm and early-term birth were, respectively, 1.215 (1.174-1.257) and 1.643 (1.616-1.671) higher in municipalities with≥80% CS compared with those <30%. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil faces three inter-related epidemics: a CS epidemic; an epidemic of early-term births, associated with the high CS rates; and an epidemic of preterm birth, also associated with CS but mostly linked to poverty-related risk factors. The high rates of preterm and early-term births produce an excess of newborns at higher risk of short-term morbidity and mortality, as well as long-term developmental problems. Compared with high-income countries, there is an annual excess of 354 000 preterm and early-term births in Brazil.

15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(8): e902-e913, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latin American and Caribbean populations include three main ethnic groups: indigenous people, people of African descent, and people of European descent. We investigated ethnic inequalities among these groups in population coverage with reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions. METHODS: We analysed 16 standardised, nationally representative surveys carried out from 2004 to 2015 in Latin America and the Caribbean that provided information on ethnicity or a proxy indicator (household language or skin colour) and on coverage of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions. We selected four outcomes: coverage with modern contraception, antenatal care coverage (defined as four or more antenatal visits), and skilled attendants at birth for women aged 15-49 years; and coverage with three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT3) vaccine among children aged 12-23 months. We classified women and children as indigenous, of African descent, or other ancestry (reference group) on the basis of their self-reported ethnicity or language. Mediating variables included wealth quintiles (based on household asset indices), woman's education, and urban-rural residence. We calculated crude and adjusted coverage ratios using Poisson regression. FINDINGS: Ethnic gaps in coverage varied substantially from country to country. In most countries, coverage with modern contraception (median coverage ratio 0·82, IQR 0·66-0·92), antenatal care (0·86, 0·75-0·94), and skilled birth attendants (0·75, 0·68-0·92) was lower among indigenous women than in the reference group. Only three countries (Nicaragua, Panama, and Paraguay) showed significant gaps in DPT3 coverage between the indigenous and the reference groups. The differences were attenuated but persisted after adjustment for wealth, education, and residence. Women and children of African descent showed similar coverage to the reference group in most countries. INTERPRETATION: The lower coverage levels for indigenous women are pervasive, and cannot be explained solely by differences in wealth, education, or residence. Interventions delivered at community level-such as vaccines-show less inequality than those requiring access to services, such as birth attendance. Regular monitoring of ethnic inequalities is essential to evaluate existing initiatives aimed at the inclusion of minorities and to plan effective multisectoral policies and programmes. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (through the Countdown to 2030 initiative) and the Wellcome Trust.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939270

RESUMO

Background: Despite positive changes in most maternal risk factors in Brazil, previous studies did not show reductions in preterm birth and low birthweight. We analysed trends and inequalities in these outcomes over a 33-year period in a Brazilian city. Methods: Four population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, with samples ranging from 4231 to 5914 liveborn children. Low birthweight (LBW) was defined as <2500 g, and preterm birth as less than 37 weeks of gestation. Information was collected on family income, maternal skin colour and other risk factors for low birthweight. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the contribution of risk factors to time trends in birthweight. Results: Preterm births increased from 5.8% (1982) to 13.8% (2015), and LBW prevalence increased from 9.0% to 10.1%, being higher for boys and for children born to mothers with low income and brown or black skin colour. Mean birthweight remained stable, around 3200 g, but increased from 3058 to 3146 g in the poorest quintile and decreased from 3307 to 3227 g in the richest quintile. After adjustment for risk factors for LBW, mean birthweight was estimated to have declined by 160 g over 1982-2015 (reductions of 103 g in the poorest and 213 g in the richest quintiles). Conclusions: Data from four birth cohorts show that preterm births increased markedly. Mean birthweights remained stable over a 33-year period. Increased prevalence of preterm and early term births, associated with high levels of obstetric interventions, has offset the expected improvements due to reduction in risk factors for low birthweight.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(24): 6177-6182, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844186

RESUMO

An increase in microcephaly, associated with an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil, prompted the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. While knowledge on biological and epidemiological aspects of ZIKV has advanced, demographic impacts remain poorly understood. This study uses time-series analysis to assess the impact of ZIKV on births. Data on births, fetal deaths, and hospitalizations due to abortion complications for Brazilian states, from 2010 to 2016, were used. Forecasts for September 2015 to December 2016 showed that 119,095 fewer births than expected were observed, particularly after April 2016 (a reduction significant at 0.05), demonstrating a link between publicity associated with the ZIKV epidemic and the decline in births. No significant changes were observed in fetal death rates. Although no significant increases in hospitalizations were forecasted, after the ZIKV outbreak hospitalizations happened earlier in the gestational period in most states. We argue that postponement of pregnancy and an increase in abortions may have contributed to the decline in births. Also, it is likely that an increase in safe abortions happened, albeit selective by socioeconomic status. Thus, the ZIKV epidemic resulted in a generation of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) babies that reflect and exacerbate regional and social inequalities. Since ZIKV transmission has declined, it is unlikely that reductions in births will continue. However, the possibility of a new epidemic is real. There is a need to address gaps in reproductive health and rights, and to understand CZS risk to better inform conception decisions.


Assuntos
Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Gravidez
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 104, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having high-quality data available by 2020, disaggregated by income, is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SGD). We explored how well coverage with skilled birth attendance (SBA) is predicted by asset-based wealth quintiles and by absolute income. METHODS: We used data from 293 national surveys conducted in 100 low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 1991 to 2014. Data on household income were computed using national income levels and income inequality data available from the World Bank and the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Multivariate regression was used to explore the predictive capacity of absolute income compared to the traditional measure of quintiles of wealth index. RESULTS: The mean SBA coverage was 68.9% (SD: 24.2), compared to 64.7% (SD: 26.6) for institutional delivery coverage. Median daily family income in the same period was US$ 6.4 (IQR: 3.5-14.0). In cross-country analyses, log absolute income predicts 51.5% of the variability in SBA coverage compared to 22.0% predicted by the wealth index. For within-country analysis, use of absolute income improved the understanding of the gap in SBA coverage among the richest and poorest families. Information on income allowed identification of countries - such as Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Egypt, Nepal and Rwanda - which were well above what would be expected solely from changes in income. CONCLUSION: Absolute income is a better predictor of SBA and institutional delivery coverage than the relative measure of quintiles of wealth index and may help identify countries where increased coverage is likely due to interventions other than increased income.

20.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 42, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. METHODS: Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data. The most recent surveys carried out since 2000 in 77 countries were included in the analysis. We estimated mDFPS among women aged 15-49 years. Subgroups with low coverage (mDFPS below 20%) were identified according to marital status, wealth, age, education, literacy, area of residence (urban or rural), geographic region and religion. RESULTS: Overall, only 52.9% of the women with a demand for family planning were using a modern contraceptive method, but coverage varied greatly. West & Central Africa showed the lowest coverage (32.9% mean mDFPS), whereas South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean had the highest coverage (approximately 70% mean mDFPS). Some countries showed high reliance on traditional contraceptive methods, markedly those from Central and Eastern Europe, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE & CIS). Albania, Azerbaijan, Benin, Chad and Congo Democratic Republic presented low mDFPS coverage (< 20%). The other countries had mDFPS above 20% at country-level, yet in many of these countries mDFPS coverage was low among women in the poorest wealth quintiles, in the youngest age groups, with little education and living in rural areas. Coverage according to marital status varied greatly: in Asia & Pacific and Latin America & the Caribbean mDFPS was higher among married women; the opposite was found in West & Central Africa and CEE & CIS countries. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the women in need were not using an effective family planning method. Subgroups requiring special attention include women who are poor, uneducated/illiterate, young, and living in rural areas. Efforts to increase mDFPS must address not only the supply side but also tackle the need to change social norms that might inhibit uptake of contraception.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , População Rural , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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