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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165337

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate socioeconomic and ethnic group inequalities in prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the 27 federative units of Brazil. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three household surveys were carried out on May 14-21, June 4-7, and June 21-24, 2020 in 133 Brazilian urban areas. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 250 individuals in each city to undergo a rapid antibody test. Subjects answered a questionnaire on household assets, schooling and self-reported skin color/ethnicity using the standard Brazilian classification in five categories: white, black, brown, Asian or indigenous. Principal component analyses of assets was used to classify socioeconomic position into five wealth quintiles. Poisson regression was used for the analyses. Results: 25 025 subjects were tested in the first, 31 165 in the second, and 33 207 in the third wave of the survey, with prevalence of positive results equal to 1.4%, 2.4%, and 2.9% respectively. Individuals in the poorest quintile were 2.16 times (95% confidence interval 1.86; 2.51) more likely to test positive than those in the wealthiest quintile, and those with 12 or more years of schooling had lower prevalence than subjects with less education. Indigenous individuals had 4.71 (3.65; 6.08) times higher prevalence than whites, as did those with black or brown skin color. Adjustment for region of the country reduced the prevalence ratios according to wealth, education and ethnicity, but results remained statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil shows steep class and ethnic gradients, with lowest risks among white, educated and wealthy individuals.

3.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13097, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145965

RESUMO

The inappropriate marketing and aggressive promotion of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) undermines breastfeeding and harms child and maternal health in all country contexts. Although a global milk formula 'sales boom' is reportedly underway, few studies have investigated its dynamics and determinants. This study takes two steps. First, it describes trends and patterns in global formula sales volumes (apparent consumption), by country income and region. Data are reported for 77 countries, for the years 2005-19, and for the standard (0-6 months), follow-up (7-12 m), toddler (13-36 m), and special (0-6 m) categories. Second, it draws from the literature to understand how transformations underway in first-food systems - those that provision foods for children aged 0-36 months - explain the global transition to higher formula diets. Total world formula sales grew by 121.5% between 2005 and 2019, from 3.5 to 7.4 kg/child, led by highly-populated middle-income countries. Growth was rapid in South East and East Asia, especially in China, which now accounts for one third of world sales. This transition is linked with factors that generate demand for BMS, including rising incomes, urbanisation, the changing nature of woman's work, social norms, media influences and medicalisation. It also reflects the globalization of the baby food industry and its supply chains, including the increasing intensity and sophistication of its marketing practices. Policy and regulatory frameworks designed to protect, promote and support breastfeeding are partially or completely inadequate in the majority of countries, hence supporting industry expansion over child nutrition. The results raise serious concern for global child and maternal health.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53012

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions among Haitians, Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic and Dominicans. Methods. Cross-sectional study using data from nationally representative surveys carried out in Haiti in 2012 and in the Dominican Republic in 2014. Nine indicators were compared: demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods, antenatal care, delivery care (skilled birth attendance), child vaccination (BCG, measles and DPT3), child case management (oral rehydration salts for diarrhea and careseeking for suspected pneumonia), and the composite coverage index. Wealth was measured through an asset-based index, divided into tertiles, and place of residence (urban or rural) was established according to the country definition. Results. Haitians showed the lowest coverage for demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (44.2%), antenatal care (65.3%), skilled birth attendance (39.5%) and careseeking for suspected pneumonia (37.9%), and the highest for oral rehydration salts for diarrhea (52.9%), whereas Haitian migrants had the lowest coverage in DPT3 (44.1%) and oral rehydration salts for diarrhea (38%) and the highest in careseeking for suspected pneumonia (80.7%). Dominicans presented the highest coverage for most indicators, except oral rehydration salts for diarrhea and careseeking for suspected pneumonia. The composite coverage index was 79.2% for Dominicans, 69.0% for Haitian migrants, and 52.6% for Haitians. Socioeconomic inequalities generally had pro-rich and pro-urban pattern in all analyzed groups. Conclusion. Haitian migrants presented higher coverage than Haitians, but lower than Dominicans. Both countries should plan actions and policies to increase coverage and address inequalities of maternal health interventions.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la cobertura y las desigualdades en las intervenciones de salud maternoinfantil entre haitianos, migrantes haitianos en la República Dominicana y dominicanos. Métodos. Estudio transversal con datos de encuestas representativas a nivel nacional realizadas en Haití en 2012 y en la República Dominicana en 2014. Se compararon nueve indicadores: demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos modernos, atención prenatal, atención del parto (por personal de salud calificado), vacunación infantil (BCG, sarampión y DPT3), gestión de casos de enfermedad en la infancia (administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea y búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía), e índice de cobertura compuesto. La riqueza se midió mediante un índice basado en los activos, dividido en terciles, y el lugar de residencia (urbano o rural) se determinó según la definición del país. Resultados. La población haitiana mostró la menor cobertura respecto de la demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos modernos (44,2%), atención prenatal (65,3%), asistencia calificada en el parto (39,5%) y búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía (37,9%), y la mayor respecto de la administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea (52,9%); los migrantes haitianos presentaron la menor cobertura en DPT3 (44,1%) y la administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea (38%) y la mayor en la búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía (80,7%). La población dominicana presentó la cobertura más alta en la mayoría de los indicadores, excepto en la administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea y en la búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía. El índice de cobertura compuesto fue de 79,2% para los dominicanos, 69,0% para los migrantes haitianos y 52,6% para los haitianos. Las desigualdades socioeconómicas generalmente tenían un patrón prorrico y prourbano en todos los grupos analizados. Conclusión. Los migrantes haitianos en la República Dominicana presentaron una mayor cobertura que la población haitiana residente en Haití, pero menor que la población dominicana. Ambos países deberían planificar acciones y políticas para aumentar la cobertura y abordar las desigualdades existentes en las intervenciones de salud materna.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , Saúde Materna , Saúde da Criança , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Haiti , República Dominicana , Migração Humana , Saúde Materna , Saúde da Criança , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Haiti , República Dominicana
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020406, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214898

RESUMO

Background: Every year more than 200 million children under-five years fail to achieve their full developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although women´s empowerment has been associated with improved child health and development outcomes, this is a topic little studied in LMICs. We investigated the associations between women´s empowerment and early childhood development among a sample population of 84537 children aged 36-59 months from national health surveys of 26 African countries. Methods: We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) ranging from 2010 to 2018. Four developmental domains were assessed among children using the Early Childhood Development Index: literacy-numeracy, physical, learning and socioemotional. Women's empowerment in attitude to violence, social independence and decision-making was evaluated using the SWPER global, a validated survey-based index. We reported effect sizes for each country and a combined estimate of the association. The study covers all countries with surveys in the region and uses a novel approach for measuring women's empowerment, the SWPER. Results: Across all countries, 15.1% of the children were on track in the literacy-numeracy domain, 92.3% in physical, 81.3% in learning and 67.8% in socio-emotional. The odds of a child being on track in literacy-numeracy increased by 34% (odds ratio (OR) = 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-1.37), 88% (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.85-1.91) and 34% (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.29-1.39), with a one standard deviation increase in the scores of attitudes to violence, social independence and decision-making domains of empowerment, respectively. No effect of empowerment was observed for the other domains of child development. Conclusions: Our results show a consistent positive effect of empowerment on the literacy-numeracy domain of child development cross-nationally in Africa and this was particularly evident for the social independence domain of the SWPER. Programs and interventions may also consider addressing the reduction of gender inequalities to improve child development.

6.
Am J Prev Med ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coverage of health interventions usually shows social gradients with higher levels among wealthy than among poor individuals. Owing to the upsurge of vaccine hesitancy in high-income countries, the authors hypothesized that the social gradient may be changing over time also in the low- and middle-income countries and set out to test this hypothesis. METHODS: In January 2020, surveys conducted from 2010 to 2018 in 86 low- and middle-income countries were analyzed to assess full immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months. The authors calculated full immunization coverage point estimates and 95% CIs for each country and wealth quintile. To explore wealth-related inequalities, the authors estimated the slope index of inequality and calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient between these values and per capita gross domestic product. Time trends were analyzed in 10 countries with recent evidence of hesitancy. RESULTS: Pro-poor patterns were defined as significant slope index of inequality values with higher coverage among poor children, and pro-rich patterns were defined as the reverse pattern. A total of 11 countries showed pro-poor patterns in the most recent survey, accounting for 20% of upper middle- and 7% of low-income countries. The correlation between the slope index of inequality and log per capita gross domestic product was -0.38 (p<0.001). Among the 10 countries with recent evidence of hesitancy, 5 showed full immunization coverage declines over time in the wealthiest quintiles, and 4 switched from pro-rich to pro-poor patterns throughout the years. CONCLUSIONS: Lower full immunization coverage was found among the wealthy than among the poor in the 10 countries, especially in the upper middle-income group, consistent with the emergence of vaccine hesitancy. SUPPLEMENT INFORMATION: This article is part of a supplement entitled Global Vaccination Equity, which is sponsored by the Global Institute for Vaccine Equity at the University of Michigan School of Public Health.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52948

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To investigate socioeconomic and ethnic group inequalities in prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the 27 federative units of Brazil. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, three household surveys were carried out on May 14-21, June 4-7, and June 21-24, 2020 in 133 Brazilian urban areas. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 250 individuals in each city to undergo a rapid antibody test. Subjects answered a questionnaire on household assets, schooling and self-reported skin color/ethnicity using the standard Brazilian classification in five categories: white, black, brown, Asian or indigenous. Principal component analyses of assets was used to classify socioeconomic position into five wealth quintiles. Poisson regression was used for the analyses. Results. 25 025 subjects were tested in the first, 31 165 in the second, and 33 207 in the third wave of the survey, with prevalence of positive results equal to 1.4%, 2.4%, and 2.9% respectively. Individuals in the poorest quintile were 2.16 times (95% confidence interval 1.86; 2.51) more likely to test positive than those in the wealthiest quintile, and those with 12 or more years of schooling had lower prevalence than subjects with less education. Indigenous individuals had 4.71 (3.65; 6.08) times higher prevalence than whites, as did those with black or brown skin color. Adjustment for region of the country reduced the prevalence ratios according to wealth, education and ethnicity, but results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. The prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil shows steep class and ethnic gradients, with lowest risks among white, educated and wealthy individuals.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Investigar las desigualdades socioeconómicas y entre distintos grupos étnicos en la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el SARS-CoV-2 en las 27 unidades federativas del Brasil. Métodos. En este estudio transversal, se realizaron tres encuestas de hogares los días 14-21 de mayo, 4-7 de junio y 21-24 de junio, 2020 en 133 áreas urbanas brasileñas. Se utilizó un muestreo de etapas múltiples para seleccionar 250 individuos en cada ciudad a fin de someterlos a una prueba rápida de anticuerpos. Los sujetos respondieron un cuestionario sobre los bienes del hogar, la escolaridad y el color de la piel/etnia (autodeclarado utilizando la clasificación brasileña estándar de cinco categorías: blanco, negro, pardo, asiático o indígena). Se utilizó el análisis de los componentes principales de los bienes para clasificar la posición socioeconómica en cinco quintiles de riqueza. Se empleó la regresión de Poisson para los análisis. Resultados. Se analizaron 25 025 sujetos en la primera encuesta, 31 165 en la segunda y 33 207 en la tercera, que mostraron una prevalencia de resultados positivos de 1,4%, 2,4% y 2,9% respectivamente. Los individuos del quintil más pobre tuvieron 2,16 veces más probabilidades de presentar un resultado positivo (intervalo de confianza del 95% 1,86; 2,51) que los del quintil más rico, y los que tenían 12 o más años de escolaridad tuvieron una prevalencia menor que los sujetos con menos educación. Las personas indígenas presentaron una prevalencia 4,71 (3,65; 6,08) veces mayor que las blancas, al igual que las de piel negra o parda. El ajuste por región del país redujo los índices de prevalencia según la riqueza, la educación y el origen étnico, pero los resultados siguieron siendo estadísticamente significativos. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el SARS-CoV-2 en el Brasil muestra gradientes relacionados con la posición socioeconómica y la etnia muy pronunciados, con menor riesgo en las personas blancas, educadas y ricas.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Investigar as desigualdades socioeconômicas e étnicas na prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 nas 27 unidades federativas do Brasil. Métodos. Neste estudo transversal, três pesquisas domiciliares foram realizadas de 14 a 21 de maio, 4 a 7 de junho, e 21-24 de junho, 2020 em 133 áreas urbanas brasileiras. Amostragem em várias etapas foi utilizada para selecionar 250 indivíduos em cada cidade para se submeter a um teste rápido de anticorpos. Os sujeitos responderam a um questionário sobre bens domésticos, escolaridade e cor da pele/etnicidade (auto-relatada utilizando a classificação padrão brasileira de cinco categorias: branco, preto, pardo, asiático ou indígena). A análise dos componentes principais dos ativos foi utilizada para classificar a posição socioeconómica em cinco quintis de riqueza. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para as análises. Resultados. 25 025 indivíduos foram testados na primeira pesquisa, 31 165 na segunda, e 33 207 na terceira, com prevalência de resultados positivos de 1,4%, 2,4% e 2,9%, respectivamente. Indivíduos no quintil mais pobre tinham 2,16 vezes (intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,86; 2,51) mais probabilidade de ter um resultado positivo do que aqueles do quintil mais rico, e aqueles com 12 ou mais anos de escolaridade tinham uma prevalência menor do que aqueles com menos educação. Os indivíduos indígenas tinham 4,71 (3,65; 6,08) vezes mais prevalência do que os brancos, assim como aqueles com cor da pele preta ou parda. O ajuste regional reduziu as taxas de prevalência de acordo com a riqueza, educação e etnia, mas os resultados permaneceram estatisticamente significativos. Conclusões. A prevalência de anticorpos contra a SARS-CoV-2 no Brasil mostra gradientes relacionados com a posição socioeconómica e a etnia muito acentuados, com os menores riscos entre os indivíduos brancos, educados e ricos.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iniquidade Social , Brasil , Epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iniquidade Social , Brasil , Epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iniquidade Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52940

RESUMO

[EXTRACT]. The significant challenges to equity in health in the Region of the Americas, as detailed in the report of the Pan American Health Organization Independent Commission on Equity and Health Inequalities in the Americas, gave original impetus to this Special Issue on Equity in Health by the Pan American Journal of Public Health. The report, Just Societies: Health Equity and Dignified Lives, analyzed a vast body of evidence that indicated the overwhelming inequalities in the Region that relate to three factors: structural drivers, conditions of daily life, and governance for health equity (taking action). Highlighting the continued realities of the interrelationship between social and health inequities in the Americas is by no means new. However, since early 2020 this interrelationship has been further exposed and exacerbated by the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, which is testing governments, communities, economies, and individuals in ways previously unimagined in their scope and intensity. The crisis is exposing underlying inequalities in health and the cost of inaction to address this long-standing social injustice, and the COVID-19 response is even reversing improvements in social and health indicators made in the last two decades.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Equidade em Saúde , América , Monitoramento das Desigualdades em Saúde , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus
9.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and socio-economic inequalities in breast milk, breast milk substitutes (BMS) and other non-human milk consumption, by children under 2 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: We analysed the prevalence of continued breast-feeding at 1 and 2 years and frequency of formula and other non-human milk consumption by age in months. Indicators were estimated through 24-h dietary recall. Absolute and relative wealth indicators were used to describe within- and between-country socio-economic inequalities. SETTING: Nationally representative surveys from 2010 onwards from eighty-six LMIC. PARTICIPANTS: 394 977 children aged under 2 years. RESULTS: Breast-feeding declined sharply as children became older in all LMIC, especially in upper-middle-income countries. BMS consumption peaked at 6 months of age in low/lower-middle-income countries and at around 12 months in upper-middle-income countries. Irrespective of country, BMS consumption was higher in children from wealthier families, and breast-feeding in children from poorer families. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that BMS consumption was positively associated with absolute income, and breast-feeding negatively associated. Findings for other non-human milk consumption were less straightforward. Unmeasured factors at country level explained a substantial proportion of overall variability in BMS consumption and breast-feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Breast-feeding falls sharply as children become older, especially in wealthier families in upper-middle-income countries; this same group also consumes more BMS at any age. Country-level factors play an important role in explaining BMS consumption by all family wealth groups, suggesting that BMS marketing at national level might be partly responsible for the observed differences.

10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1390-e1398, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based data on COVID-19 are essential for guiding policies. There are few such studies, particularly from low or middle-income countries. Brazil is currently a hotspot for COVID-19 globally. We aimed to investigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody prevalence by city and according to sex, age, ethnicity group, and socioeconomic status, and compare seroprevalence estimates with official statistics on deaths and cases. METHODS: In this repeated cross-sectional study, we did two seroprevalence surveys in 133 sentinel cities in all Brazilian states. We randomly selected households and randomly selected one individual from all household members. We excluded children younger than 1 year. Presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was assessed using a lateral flow point-of-care test, the WONDFO SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test (Wondfo Biotech, Guangzhou, China), using two drops of blood from finger prick samples. This lateral-flow assay detects IgG and IgM isotypes that are specific to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Participants also answered short questionnaires on sociodemographic information (sex, age, education, ethnicity, household size, and household assets) and compliance with physical distancing measures. FINDINGS: We included 25 025 participants in the first survey (May 14-21) and 31 165 in the second (June 4-7). For the 83 (62%) cities with sample sizes of more than 200 participants in both surveys, the pooled seroprevalence increased from 1·9% (95% CI 1·7-2·1) to 3·1% (2·8-3·4). City-level prevalence ranged from 0% to 25·4% in both surveys. 11 (69%) of 16 cities with prevalence above 2·0% in the first survey were located in a stretch along a 2000 km of the Amazon river in the northern region. In the second survey, we found 34 cities with prevalence above 2·0%, which included the same 11 Amazon cities plus 14 from the northeast region, where prevalence was increasing rapidly. Prevalence levels were lower in the south and centre-west, and intermediate in the southeast, where the highest level was found in Rio de Janeiro (7·5% [4·2-12·2]). In the second survey, prevalence was similar in men and women, but an increased prevalence was observed in participants aged 20-59 years and those living in crowded conditions (4·4% [3·5-5·6] for those living with households with six or more people). Prevalence among Indigenous people was 6·4% (4·1-9·4) compared with 1·4% (1·2-1·7) among White people. Prevalence in the poorest socioeconomic quintile was 3·7% (3·2-4·3) compared with 1·7% (1·4-2·2) in the wealthiest quintile. INTERPRETATION: Antibody prevalence was highly heterogeneous by country region, with rapid initial escalation in Brazil's north and northeast. Prevalence is strongly associated with Indigenous ancestry and low socioeconomic status. These population subgroups are unlikely to be protected if the policy response to the pandemic by the national government continues to downplay scientific evidence. FUNDING: Brazilian Ministry of Health, Instituto Serrapilheira, Brazilian Collective Health Association, and the JBS Fazer o Bem Faz Bem.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human growth is susceptible to damage from insults, particularly during periods of rapid growth. Identifying those periods and the normative limits that are compatible with adequate growth and development are the first key steps toward preventing impaired growth. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to construct international fetal growth velocity increment and conditional velocity standards from 14 to 40 weeks' gestation based on the same cohort that contributed to the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a prospective, longitudinal study of 4321 low-risk pregnancies from 8 geographically diverse populations in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project with rigorous standardization of all study procedures, equipment, and measurements that were performed by trained ultrasonographers. Gestational age was accurately determined clinically and confirmed by ultrasound measurement of crown-rump length at <14 weeks' gestation. Thereafter, the ultrasonographers, who were masked to the values, measured the fetal head circumference, biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length in triplicate every 5 weeks (within 1 week either side) using identical ultrasound equipment at each site (4-7 scans per pregnancy). Velocity increments across a range of intervals between measures were modeled using fractional polynomial regression. RESULTS: Peak velocity was observed at a similar gestational age: 16 and 17 weeks' gestation for head circumference (12.2 mm/wk), and 16 weeks' gestation for abdominal circumference (11.8 mm/wk) and femur length (3.2 mm/wk). However, velocity growth slowed down rapidly for head circumference, biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, and femur length, with an almost linear reduction toward term that was more marked for femur length. Conversely, abdominal circumference velocity remained relatively steady throughout pregnancy. The change in velocity with gestational age was more evident for head circumference, biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, and femur length than for abdominal circumference when the change was expressed as a percentage of fetal size at 40 weeks' gestation. We have also shown how to obtain accurate conditional fetal velocity based on our previous methodological work. CONCLUSION: The fetal skeleton and abdomen have different velocity growth patterns during intrauterine life. Accordingly, we have produced international Fetal Growth Velocity Increment Standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards so as to monitor fetal well-being comprehensively worldwide. Fetal growth velocity curves may be valuable if one wants to study the pathophysiology of fetal growth. We provide an application that can be used easily in clinical practice to evaluate changes in fetal size as conditional velocity for a more refined assessment of fetal growth than is possible at present (https://lxiao5.shinyapps.io/fetal_growth/). The application is freely available with the other INTERGROWTH-21st tools at https://intergrowth21.tghn.org/standards-tools/.

12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 75, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To describe social distancing practices in nine municipalities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, stratified by gender, age, and educational attainment. METHODS Two sequential cross-sectional studies were conducted in the municipalities of Canoas, Caxias do Sul, Ijuí, Passo Fundo, Pelotas, Porto Alegre, Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Maria, and Uruguaiana to estimate the population prevalence of COVID-19. The study was designed to be representative of the urban population of these municipalities. A questionnaire including three questions about social distancing was also administered to the participants. Here, we present descriptive analyses of social distancing practices by subgroups and use chi-square tests for comparisons. RESULTS In terms of degree of social distancing, 25.8% of the interviewees reported being essentially isolated and 41.1% reported being quite isolated. 20.1% of respondents reported staying at home all the time, while 44.5% left only for essential activities. More than half of households reported receiving no visits from non-residents. Adults aged 20 to 59 reported the least social distancing, while more than 80% of participants aged 60 years or older reported being essentially isolated or quite isolated. Women reported more stringent distancing than men. Groups with higher educational attainment reported going out for daily activities more frequently. CONCLUSIONS The extremes of age are more protected by social distancing, but some groups remain highly exposed. This can be an important limiting factor in controlling progression of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Med ; 26(8): 1196-1199, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641783

RESUMO

Population-based data on COVID-19 are urgently needed. We report on three rounds of probability sample household surveys in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), carried out in nine large municipalities using the Wondfo lateral flow point-of-care test for immunoglobulin M and G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (https://en.wondfo.com.cn/product/wondfo-sars-cov-2-antibody-test-lateral-flow-method-2/). Before survey use, the assay underwent four validation studies with pooled estimates of sensitivity (84.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 81.4-87.8%) and specificity (99.0%; 95% CI = 97.8-99.7%). We calculated that the seroprevalence was 0.048% (2/4,151; 95% CI = 0.006-0.174) on 11-13 April (round 1), 0.135% (6/4,460; 95% CI = 0.049-0.293%) on 25-27 April (round 2) and 0.222% (10/4,500; 95% CI = 0.107-0.408) on 9-11 May (round 3), with a significant upward trend over the course of the surveys. Of 37 family members of positive individuals, 17 (35%) were also positive. The epidemic is at an early stage in the state, and there is high compliance with social distancing, unlike in other parts of Brazil. Periodic survey rounds will continue to monitor trends until at least the end of September, and our population-based data will inform decisions on preventive policies and health system preparedness at the state level.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e035258, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the construction of the international INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment (INTER-NDA) standards for child development at 2 years by reporting the cognitive, language, motor and behaviour outcomes in optimally healthy and nourished children in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study, the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. SETTING: Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 1181 children prospectively recruited from early fetal life according to the prescriptive WHO approach, and confirmed to be at low risk of adverse perinatal and postnatal outcomes. PRIMARY MEASURES: Scaled INTER-NDA domain scores for cognition, language, fine and gross motor skills and behaviour; vision outcomes measured on the Cardiff tests; attentional problems and emotional reactivity measured on the respective subscales of the preschool Child Behaviour Checklist; and the age of acquisition of the WHO gross motor milestones. RESULTS: Scaled INTER-NDA domain scores are presented as centiles, which were constructed according to the prescriptive WHO approach and excluded children born preterm and those with significant postnatal/neurological morbidity. For all domains, except negative behaviour, higher scores reflect better outcomes and the threshold for normality was defined as ≥10th centile. For the INTER-NDA's cognitive, fine motor, gross motor, language and positive behaviour domains these are ≥38.5, ≥25.7, ≥51.7, ≥17.8 and ≥51.4, respectively. The threshold for normality for the INTER-NDA's negative behaviour domain is ≤50.0, that is, ≤90th centile. At 22-30 months of age, the cohort overlapped with the WHO motor milestone centiles, showed low postnatal morbidity (<10%), and vision outcomes, attentional problems and emotional reactivity scores within the respective normative ranges. CONCLUSIONS: From this large, healthy and well-nourished, international cohort, we have constructed, using the WHO prescriptive methodology, international INTER-NDA standards for child development at 2 years of age. Standards, rather than references, are recommended for population-level screening and the identification of children at risk of adverse outcomes.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal and child health requires appropriate indicators for assessing coverage and equity. In 2008, the composite coverage index (CCI)-a weighted average of eight indicators reflecting family planning, antenatal and delivery care, immunizations and management of childhood illnesses-was proposed. In 2017, the CCI formula was revised to update the family planning and diarrhea management indicators. We explored the implications of adding new indicators to the CCI. METHODS: We analysed nationally representative surveys to investigate how addition of early breastfeeding initiation (EIBF), tetanus toxoid during pregnancy and post-natal care for babies affected CCI levels and the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to compare different formulations, and the slope index of inequalities [SII] and concentration index [CIX] to assess absolute and relative inequalities, respectively. RESULTS: 47 national surveys since 2010 had data on the eight variables needed for the original and revised formulations, and on EIBF, tetanus vaccine and postnatal care, related to newborn care. The original CCI showed the highest average value (65.5%), which fell to 56.9% when all 11 indicators were included. Correlation coefficients between pairs of all formulations ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. When analysed separately, 10 indicators showed higher coverage with increasing wealth; the exception was EIBF (SII = -2.1; CIX = -0.5). Inequalities decreased when other indicators were added, especially EIBF-the SII fell from 24.8 pp. to 19.2 pp.; CIX from 7.6 to 6.1. The number of countries with data from two or more surveys since 2010 was 30 for the original and revised formulations and 15 when all the 11 indicators were included. CONCLUSIONS: Given the growing importance of newborn mortality, it would be desirable to include relevant coverage indicators in the CCI, but this would lead a reduction in data availability, and an underestimation of coverage inequalities. We propose that the 2017 version of the revised CCI should continue to be used.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/economia , Saúde Materna/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/economia , Criança , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia
16.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 55, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include specific targets for family planning (SDG 3.7) and birth attendance (SDG 3.1.2), and require analyses disaggregated by age and other dimensions of inequality (SDG 17.18). We aimed to describe coverage with demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (DFPSm) and institutional delivery in low- and middle-income countries across the reproductive age spectrum. We attempted to identify a typology of patterns of coverage by age and compare their distribution according to geographic regions, World Bank income groups and intervention coverage levels. METHODS: We used Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. For DFPSm, we considered the woman's age at the time of the survey, whereas for institutional delivery we considered the woman's age at birth of the child. Both age variables were categorized into seven groups of 5 year-intervals, 15-19 up to 45-49. Five distinct patterns were identified: (a) increasing coverage with age; (b) similar coverage in all age groups; (c) U-shaped; (d) inverse U-shaped; and (e) declining coverage with age. The frequency of the five patterns was examined according to UNICEF regions, World Bank income groups, and coverage at national level of the given indicator. RESULTS: We analyzed 91 countries. For DFPSm, the most frequent age patterns were inverse U-shaped (53%, 47 countries) and increasing coverage with age (41%, 36 countries). Inverse-U shaped patterns for DFPSm was the commonest pattern among lower-middle income countries, while low- and upper middle-income countries showed a more balanced distribution between increasing with age and U-shaped patterns. In the first and second tertiles of national coverage of DFPSm, inverse U-shaped was observed in more than half of countries. For institutional delivery, declining coverage with age was the prevailing pattern (44%, 39 countries), followed by similar coverage across age groups (39%, 35 countries). Most (79%) upper-middle income countries showed no variation by age group while most low-income countries showed declining coverage with age (71%). CONCLUSION: Large inequalities in DFPSm and institutional delivery were identified by age, varying from one intervention to the other. Policy and programmatic approaches must be tailored to national patterns, and in most cases older women and adolescents will require special attention due to lower coverage and because they are at higher risk for maternal mortality and other poor obstetrical outcomes.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 187-194, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth faltering in the first 1000 d is associated with lower human capital among adults. The existence of a second window of opportunity for nutritional interventions during adolescence has been postulated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to verify the associations between growth from birth to 18 y and intelligence and schooling in a cohort. METHODS: A total of 5249 hospital-born infants in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled during 1993. Follow-up visits to random subsamples took place at 6, 12, and 48 mo and to the full cohort at 11, 15, and 18 y. Weight and length/height were collected in all visits. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was applied at age 18 y, and primary school completion was recorded. Conditional length/height and conditional BMI were calculated and expressed as z scores according to the WHO Growth Standards. These express the difference between observed and expected size at a given age based on a regression that includes earlier anthropometric measures. Analyses were adjusted for income, parental education, maternal skin color and smoking, and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: In the adjusted analyses, participants with conditional length ≥1 z score at 1 y had mean intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18 y 4.50 points (95% CI: 1.08, 7.92) higher than those with conditional length ≤-1 at 1 y. For height-for-age at 4 y, this difference was equal to 3.70 (95% CI: 0.49, 6.90) IQ points. There were no associations between conditional height at 11, 15, or 18 y and IQ. For the same previously mentioned comparison, the prevalence ratio for less than primary schooling was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.80) for conditional height at 1 y. There were no consistent associations with conditional BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that adolescent growth is not associated with intelligence and schooling, and are consistent with the literature on the associations between intelligence and schooling and early linear growth.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Inteligência , Adolescente , Estatura , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 53, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of child stunting is falling in Latin America, socioeconomic inequalities persist. However, there is limited evidence on ethnic disparities. We aimed to describe ethnic inequalities of stunting and feeding practices in thirteen Latin American countries using recent nationally representative surveys. METHODS: We analyzed national surveys carried out since 2006. Based on self-reported ethnicity, skin color or language, children were classified into three categories: indigenous/ afrodescendant/reference group (European or mixed ancestry). Stunting was defined as height (length)-for-age < - 2 standard deviations relative to WHO standards. Family wealth was assessed through household asset indices. We compared mean length/height-for-age and prevalence of stunting among the three ethnic groups. RESULTS: Thirteen surveys had information on indigenous and seven on afrodescendants. In all countries, the average length/height-for-age was significantly lower for indigenous, and in eleven countries there were significant differences in the prevalence of stunting: the pooled crude stunting prevalence ratio between indigenous and the reference group was 1.97 (95% CI 1.89; 2.05); after adjustment for wealth and place of residence, prevalence remained higher among indigenous (PR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.28; 1.39) in eight countries. Indigenous aged 6-23 months were more likely to be breastfed, but with poor complementary feeding, particularly in terms of dietary diversity. Afrodescendants showed few differences in height, and in two countries tended to be taller compared to the reference group. CONCLUSIONS: In all Latin American countries studied, indigenous tended to be shorter and afrodescendants presented few differences with relation to the reference group. In order to reach the SDG's challenge of leaving no one behind, indigenous need to be prioritized.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(1): e002229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133180

RESUMO

Introduction: Wealth-related inequalities in reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health have been widely studied by dividing the population into quintiles. We present a comprehensive analysis of wealth inequalities for the composite coverage index (CCI) using national health surveys carried out since 2010, using wealth deciles and absolute income estimates as stratification variables, and show how these new approaches expand on traditional equity analyses. Methods: 83 low-income and middle-income countries were studied. The CCI is a combined measure of coverage with eight key reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions. It was disaggregated by wealth deciles for visual inspection of inequalities, and the slope index of inequality (SII) was estimated. The correlation between coverage in the extreme deciles and SII was assessed. Finally, we used multilevel models to examine how the CCI varies according to the estimated absolute income for each wealth quintile in the surveys. Results: The analyses of coverage by wealth deciles and by absolute income show that inequality is mostly driven by coverage among the poor, which is much more variable than coverage among the rich across countries. Regardless of national coverage, in 61 of the countries, the wealthiest decile achieved 70% or higher CCI coverage. Well-performing countries were particularly effective in achieving high coverage among the poor. In contrast, underperforming countries failed to reach the poorest, despite reaching the better-off. Conclusion: There are huge inequalities between the richest and the poorest women and children in most countries. These inequalities are strongly driven by low coverage among the poorest given the wealthiest groups achieve high coverage irrespective of where they live, overcoming any barriers that are an impediment to others. Countries that 'punched above their weight' in coverage, given their level of absolute wealth, were those that best managed to reach their poorest women and children.

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