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1.
Food Chem ; 349: 129151, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545602

RESUMO

The quantification of α-Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) in beans has been increasingly approached through different methodologies. However, reported GOS contents revealed up to 8-times disparity, which cannot be only attributed to the bean cultivar and underlines the need of using validated analytical methodologies. This study aimed to optimize and validate the extraction of the most abundant GOS found in beans, namely raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, and comparatively assess their determination by High-Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography/Pulsed Amperometric Detector (HPAEC/PAD) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Hot sonication followed by shaking with 70% ethanol resulted in excellent GOS extraction efficiencies (92.54-107.94%). GC/MS determination was more reliable than HPAEC/PAD, with limits of quantification of 4.48-224.31 mg/kg and intra/inter-day repeatabilities <10%. The analysis of six bean varieties proved the feasibility of the GC/MS methodology, displaying total GOS contents from 1453.07 ±â€¯169.31 to 2814.34 ±â€¯95.28 mg/100 g. Stachyose was significantly (p < 0.05) the main GOS in all samples.

2.
Meat Sci ; 171: 108271, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827804

RESUMO

Ruminant meats contain ester and ether-linked phosphatidylcholines-(PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines-(PE) enriched with ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids-(PUFA) essential for human health and nutrition. Oxidative degradation of these lipids during grilling compromises meat quality and safety. The effect of marinades containing unfiltered session ales, herbs and spices on these lipids in grilled beef and moose meat was investigated in current study. Marination preserved (P < 0.05) ester and ether linked PUFA-enriched PC and PE in moose, and PUFA-enriched ether PC and diacyl PE in beef against oxidative degradation. Furthermore, India ale-based marinated meats retained higher (P < 0.05) PUFA-enriched lysophosphatidylcholines-(LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamines-(LPE) compared to Wheat ale-based marinated meats. The preserved PUFA-enriched lipids were positively correlated with phenolics, oxygenated terpenes, and antioxidants present in the marinades, and negatively correlated to oxidation status. These findings appear to suggest that unfiltered beer-based marination could be a useful precooking technique to increase dietary access and consumption of essential fatty acids while preserving grilled meat nutritional quality and safety.

3.
Data Brief ; 33: 106324, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015257

RESUMO

This article presents the associated data set in the research article entitled "Assessing beer-based marinades effects on ether and ester linked phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in grilled beef and moose meat" published in Meat Science [1], demonstrating the use of unfiltered beer-based marinades in improving the nutritional quality of grilled ruminant meat by suppressing the degradation of health-promoting ester and ether-linked PC and PE the most predominant glycerophospholipids (GPL) in meat. High throughput lipidomics analysis was conducted using high-resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS/MS-MS) to profile the meat lipids following marination and grilling. The marinades were composed of a combination of unfiltered beers, fruits, herbs and spices. The data presented show the retention levels of ether as well as ester linked PC and PE molecular species; Pearson's correlations for the associations between antioxidants, phenolics, volatile oxygenated terpenes, oxidation status and preserved phospholipid species in the marinated grilled meats. There are many studies demonstrating cooking effects on fatty acid composition of meat phospholipids in the literature. However, information on how marination and grilling affects intact ether and ester linked PC and PE composition in grilled ruminant meats is limited. As such, this dataset provides useful information on the preservation of ruminant meat ester and ether-linked glycerophospholipid composition following marination with unfiltered beer-based marinades and meat preparation via grilling. Specifically, this data demonstrate the preservation of ether and ester linked PC and PE enriched with essential ω3 and ω6 fatty acids from degradation during grilling. For additional insights see [1] DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108271.

4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127384, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615384

RESUMO

Dairy polar lipids (PL) seem to exhibit antiplatelet effects. However, it is not known what molecular species may be responsible. In this study, we confirmed using C30 reversed-phase (C30RP) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (HRAM-MS/MS) that fermentation of yoghurts from ovine milk using specific starter cultures altered the PL composition. These lipid alterations occurred concomitant with increased antithrombotic properties of the yoghurts PL fractions against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Specifically, elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their molecular species were observed following yoghurt fermentation. Furthermore, PC(18:0/18:1), PE(18:1/18:2), SM(d18:0/22:0) and several other molecular species were significantly inversely correlated with the inhibition of PAF and thrombin. These molecular species were abundant in the most bioactive yoghurts fermented by S. thermophilus and L. acidophilus, which suggest that fermentation by these microorganisms increases the antithrombotic properties of ovine milk PL.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/análise , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trombina/farmacologia
5.
MethodsX ; 7: 100835, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195148

RESUMO

Multivariate statistics is a tool for examining the relationship of multiple variables simultaneously. Principal component analysis (PCA) is an unsupervised multivariate analysis technique that simplifies the complexity of data by transforming them in a few dimensions showing their trends and correlations. Interests in XLSTAT as statistical software program of choice for routine multivariate statistics has been growing due in part to its compatibility with Microsoft Excel data format. As a case of study, multivariate analysis is used to study the effects of unfiltered beer-based marination on the volatile terpenes and thiols, and sensory attributes of grilled ruminant meats. PCA was conducted to determine the correlations between the abundances of volatile terpenes and thiols and sensory attribute scores in marinated grilled meats, as well as to analyze if there was any clustering based on the type of meat and marination treatments employed.•XLSTAT PCA output successfully reduced the number of variables into 2 components that explained 90.47% of the total variation of the data set.•PCA clustered marinated and unmarinated meats based on the presence and abundances of volatile terpenes, thiols and consumer sensory attribute scores.•PCA could be applied to explore relationships between volatile compounds and sensory attributes in different food systems.

6.
Food Chem ; 302: 125326, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416003

RESUMO

Ruminant meat is considered an excellent source of proteins, dietary fatty acids and essential minerals. Grilling is a popular cooking method; however, the high temperatures employ could modify the grilled meat quality and safety. In this study, the effects of novel beer-based marinades infused with herbs and spices on the quality, safety, and sensory perception of grilled beef and moose meat is examined. Unmarinated meat showed high content of volatile lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction products compared to the marinated samples, which contained higher number and abundance of terpenes and sulfur based compounds. Strong relationships between Maillard products and heterocyclic amines formation, as well as between volatile terpenes and the lipophilic antioxidant activity, were observed in the grilled meats. The findings suggest the unfiltered beer-based marinades were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction compounds formation, while improving the nutritional quality, safety and sensory preference of grilled ruminant meats.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Culinária/métodos , Carne , Ruminantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminas/análise , Aminas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Heterocíclicos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Vermelha , Especiarias , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
MethodsX ; 6: 2686-2697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799138

RESUMO

Cooking techniques such as grilling confer several benefits to meat during food preparation including improved palatability, digestibility, preservation, and safety, as well as enhancing the sensory characteristics and net nutritional gain. However, grilling can lead to the formation of harmful compounds such heterocyclic amines (HCAs). HCAs are potent carcinogenic and mutagenic nitrogen containing compounds produced during certain cooking conditions of protein rich foods. Dietary intake of HCAs is associated with increased risk factors for cancers in humans. As such, there is overwhelming interest in identifying improved methods for rapid and accurate determination of heterocyclic amines in food matrices that is sensitive and avoids exhaustive sample preparation steps. Herein, we describe an approach that involves first extracting HCAs by pressurized accelerated solvent extractor using methanol as solvent, followed by addition of internal standard and quantification of HCAs by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRAMS). This method is fast, accurate, reproducible and does not require exhaustive sample pre-treatments prior to UHPLC-HRAMS analysis compared to existing/traditional methods for HCA analysis. •The method is automated, fast and uses tunable pressurized liquid extractor to selectively extract HCAs•Method does not require exhaustive cleanup and preconcentration steps prior to UHPLC/HRAMS analysis of HCAs•Validation showed method to be accurate, precise, and useful for routine multi-sample HCA analyses.

8.
Data Brief ; 27: 104801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799349

RESUMO

Objective of this data isn brief article is to present the associated data set regarding the revised article entitled "Unfiltered beer based marinades reduced exposure to carcinogens and suppressed conjugated fatty acid oxidation in grilled meats" recommended for publication in Food Control [1]. Grill food safety and quality is a major concern globally. Here in we present data demonstrating the use of novel unfiltered beer based marinades in improving the nutritional quality and safety of grilled ruminant meat. Grilling can lead to the formation of harmful compounds and modify the functional lipids in meats via oxidation, thereby affecting the nutritional quality and safety of the finished product. Lipid oxidation is a deteriorative process involving the degradation of lipid double bonds and the formation of new compounds. Some of these compounds can result in reduced meat quality and off-flavours affecting the sensory, nutritional quality and safety of grilled meat. Unfiltered beers, herbs and spices are known to be excellent sources of antioxidants and polyphenols which can suppress oxidation of functional lipids in grilled meat. Novel unfiltered beer based marinades were developed and used to marinate ruminant meat (beef and moose) prior to grilling. The effect of marination on the fatty acid profile, including saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, of grilled meat was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In this data in brief article, we include 3 tables containing the fatty acid composition of unmarinated and marinated grilled ruminant meats (beef and moose), a figure showing the percent distribution of grilled meat fatty acid classes, and 2 figures on Pearson's correlation for the associations between phenolic contents, oxidation status and total conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) content. To the best of our knowledge, there is a paucity of information in the literature on the fatty acid composition of wild Cervid meat following preparation by grilling. Grill food safety and nutritional quality is of significant interest to researchers and consumers in the scientific and general food science communities. This article provides data on the fatty composition of grilled moose meat and could be of value to fill the paucity of information currently available in the scientific community on the observed fatty acid composition of grill moose meat. Furthermore, the article presents data on the effects of beer based marinade formulations on the quality of the fatty acid composition of grilled ruminant meats (beef and moose). The growing awareness of the benefits of dietary fatty acids in enhancing personal and population health by reducing the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders means that consumers demand meat products with improved fatty acid composition [2,3]. Cervids such as moose (Alces alces) are popular as superior sources of low-fat lean meat with balanced omega 6:3 essential fatty acids compared to traditional farm raised or domesticated meat animals due to the forage they consume as a normal part of their diet [2,4,5]. Furthermore, session ale beers is currently a global phenomenon derived from unique combinations of grains, hops, fruits and herbs to produce low alcohol by volume beers with unique flavors popular among consumers. Two unfiltered session beers were used as base ingredients to produce two novel marinades infused with unique combination of antioxidant rich herbs and spices as a suitable system for the production of grilled foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory characteristics. Whilst there are a limited number of studies in the literature that have used unfiltered beers to evaluate the effects of these beers on suppression of lipid oxidation in grilled meat, none to the best of our knowledge has evaluated the effect of antioxidant rich unfiltered beer based marinades on fatty acid composition of grilled meat systems [6] [7]. As such, this data set presents the concept of using craft beers (specifically session ales) infused with unique combination of herbs and spices to produce unfiltered beer base marinades with enhanced ability to improve grill food sensory attributes and quality, and demonstrates that novel formulations of popular unfiltered India session ale and wheat ale based marinades infused with unique combinations of herbs and spices could be used to marinate beef and moose meats prior to grilling to preserve meat lipids including anticarcinogenic linoleic acid and essential ω3 and ω6 fatty acids.

9.
Data Brief ; 27: 104622, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656845

RESUMO

The objective of this data in brief article is to present the associated data set regarding the published paper Novel unfiltered beer-based marinades to improve the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory perception of grilled ruminant meats in Food Chemistry [1]. Grilling is a popular cooking method; however, the high temperatures required can modify grilled meat quality and safety. In this data set, we include 5 tables containing the volatile composition of unmarinated and marinated grilled ruminant meat (beef and moose). Novel unfiltered beer-based marinades infused with herbs and spices were used for meat marination, and the volatiles present in the meat following grilling extracted by solid phase microextraction and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The volatile profile includes alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, alkylfurans, nitrogenated compounds, terpenes (mono-, sesqui- and oxygenated terpenes), sulfur derivatives, benzene derivatives, and phenol derivatives. This dataset provides valuable information on meat volatile composition useful to understand certain aspects of the quality and safety of grilled meat following preparation with unfiltered beer-based marinades. For more insight please see [1].

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5048, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911033

RESUMO

Lipids are important biomolecules in all biological systems and serve numerous essential cellular functions. The global analysis of complex lipids is very challenging due to the extreme diversity in lipid structures. Variation in linkages and positions of fatty acyl chain(s) on the lipid backbone, functional group modification, occurrence of the molecular species as isomers or isobars are among some of the greatest challenges to resolve in lipidomics. In this work, we describe a routine analytical approach combining two liquid chromatography platforms: hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and C30 reversed-phase chromatography (C30RP) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) as complementary high throughput platforms to analyze complex lipid mixtures. Vascular plants (kale leaves and corn roots), rat brain and soil microbes were used as proxies to evaluate the efficiency of the enhanced approach to resolve traditional, as well as, modified lipids during routine lipidomics analysis. We report for the first time, the observation of a modified class of acylphosphatidylglycerol (acylPG) in corn roots by HILIC, and further resolution of the isomers using C30RP chromatography. We also used this approach to demonstrate the presence of high levels of N-monomethyl phosphatidylethanolamine (MMPE) in soil microbes, as well as to determine the regioisomers of lysophospholipids in kale leaves. Additionally, neutral lipids were demonstrated using C30RP chromatography in positive ion mode to resolve triacylglycerol isomers in rat brain. The work presented here demonstrates how the enhanced approach can more routinely permit novel biomarker discovery, or lipid metabolism in a wide range of biological samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos de Membrana/análise , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634564

RESUMO

Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), diglycerides (DG) and monoacetyldiglycerides (MAcDG) are gaining interest as functional lipids in pharmaceuticals and functional food formulations for managing and treating metabolic or inflammatory diseases. Herein, we investigated whether the antler and/or meat of two Cervids (moose and caribou) are novel sources of FAHFA, DG and MAcDG. We observed FAHFA present in moose and caribou composed mainly of polyunsaturated families, and that the esterification occurred frequently at the C5-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, most noticeably arachidonic acid 5-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (ARA-5-HERA). Moose antler, caribou and moose meat also contained significant levels of both 1,2-DG and 1,3-DG lipids. The 1,3-DG molecular species consisted mainly of 16:0/18:1, 18:0/16:0, and 18:0/18:1. On the other hand, major 1,2-DG species consisted of DG 18:0/18:0, 16:0/16:0 and 18:1/18:1 molecular species with higher levels in the antler compared to the meat. The molecular species composition of MAcDG was very simple and consisted of 14:2/18:2/2:0, 16:0/18:2/2:0, 16:0/18:1/2:0 and 18:0/18:1/2:0 with the first species 14:2/18:2/2:0 predominating in the tip of moose antlers. Increasing access to and knowledge of the presence of these functional lipids in foods will enhance their intake in the diet with potential implications in improving personal and population health.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Cervos , Diglicerídeos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ácidos Graxos , Alimento Funcional
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14771, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282974

RESUMO

Diets high in vegetable consumption is highly correlated with reduced risk of developing common lifestyle related diseases. We investigated the effects of three natural growth media amendments [potassium humate, dry vermicast, volcanic minerals or Promix alone (Control)] in enhancing the accumulation of functional lipids in greenhouse grown kale. Functional lipids (n9, n6, n3 fatty acids, diglycerides, galactolipids and phytosterols) were assessed using either gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS). The results showed volcanic minerals and dry vermicast were the most successful in enhancing the accumulation of functional lipids in kale. For example, dry vermicast enhanced the accumulation of total C18:1n9 and C16:3n3 fatty acids, while total C18:2n6 fatty acid accumulation was enhanced by volcanic minerals. In conclusion, natural growing medium amendments are remarkably effective in modulating the accumulation of functional lipids in kale grown under controlled-environment conditions. This could be a useful strategy for functional foods production in control environment production systems. Increase access to kale with enhanced functional lipids could aid in increase consumption of these health promotive compounds in the diet with potential implications in population health.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Minerais/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diglicerídeos/biossíntese , Diglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ambiente Controlado , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Galactolipídeos/biossíntese , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Fitosteróis/biossíntese , Fitosteróis/metabolismo
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(3): 967-976, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fish shelf-life extension is a topic of great interest. In this study the behaviour of salted and unsalted farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets during storage was analysed through the evolution of their volatile metabolites. Farmed and wild sea bass fillets were brine-salted for 15 or 75 min, or dry-salted, vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C for up to 1 month, and their headspaces were studied by Solid Phase Micro extraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). RESULTS: At the same storage time, unsalted wild fillets contained, in general, a higher number and abundance of volatile compounds coming from microbiological or endogenous enzymatic activity than unsalted farmed ones. The more intense the salting, the lower the number and abundance of microbiological spoilage metabolites, especially in wild samples. The appearance of oxidation metabolites only in dry-salted wild samples evidences that this kind of salting provokes a certain oxidation in these samples. CONCLUSIONS: The better performance of farmed than wild fillets suggests that salted farmed fillets, vacuum-packed and stored under refrigeration conditions, could be a successful alternative to diversify the presence of sea bass in the market. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Bass/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Pesqueiros , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Refrigeração , Sais/efeitos adversos , Sais/química , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espanha , Vácuo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Volatilização
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 96(4): 1181-93, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25851130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). RESULTS: Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites, most of them being in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulfur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol, this latter compound presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both types of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than the wild counterparts; however, these latter, in general, contain a high number and abundance of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non-oxidative activity than the former. CONCLUSIONS: Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been found. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful in understanding certain aspects of the quality and safety of raw and processed sea bass.


Assuntos
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/química , Alimentos Marinhos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Aquicultura , Benzenossulfonatos , Peixes/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 94(7): 1340-8, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24834498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lipids of 16 farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) samples were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The spectroscopic parameters which would be useful when distinguishing between both fish origins were analysed. RESULTS: It was shown, for the first time, that the frequency and the ratio between the absorbance of certain bands are efficient and reliable authentication tools for the origin of sea bass. Furthermore, relationships between infrared data and fish lipids composition referring to the molar percentage or concentration of certain acyl groups were also studied. It was proved that some infrared spectroscopic data (the frequency of certain bands or the ratio of the absorbance of others), are very closely related to the composition of sea bass lipids. It was shown for the first time that certain infrared spectroscopic data could predict, with a certain degree of approximation, the molar percentage, or concentration, of omega-3, docosahexaenoic (DHA) and di-unsaturated omega-6 (linoleic) in sea bass lipids. CONCLUSION: The consistency of the results confirms the usefulness of FTIR spectroscopy to detect frauds regarding sea bass origin, and to provide important compositional data about sea bass lipids from the nutritional and technological point of view.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aquicultura , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Bass/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Eficiência Organizacional , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional/economia , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Linoleico/biossíntese , Músculo Esquelético/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Estações do Ano , Espanha , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 135(3): 1583-91, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22953897

RESUMO

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to study the lipids of farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). This technique provided a great deal of detailed information on sea bass lipids composition and, once the spectra signals have been assigned, the simple observation of the spectra enables one to distinguish cultured from wild fish. This distinction is possible due to the presence in the former of high proportions of diunsaturated acyl groups, mainly linoleic. Furthermore, new approaches for quantitative characterization of sea bass lipids were developed. For the same season wild sea bass lipids contain not only higher molar percentages of omega-3 and of docosahexaenoic (DHA), but also higher concentrations of phosphatidylcholine and of cholesterol than farmed ones. However, in general, the absolute content of DHA and of eicosapentaenoic plus arachidonic (EPA+ARA) acyl groups as well as of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, were reasonably higher in farmed than in wild sea bass fillets, due to the higher total lipid content of the former. The presence of omega-1 acyl groups in all farmed samples and in some of the wild specimens was shown. As far as we know, this is the first time that omega-1 acyl groups have been identified and quantified in fish lipids by (1)H NMR.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Pesqueiros/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
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