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1.
Genes Immun ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591503

RESUMO

The transcription factor STAT5 is critical for peripheral NK-cell survival, proliferation, and cytotoxic function. STAT5 refers to two highly related proteins, STAT5A and STAT5B. In this study, we verified the importance of STAT5A isoform for NK cells. We characterized an incidental chemically induced W484G mutation in the Stat5a gene and found that this mutation was associated with a reduction of STAT5A protein expression. Closer examination of NK-cell subsets from Stat5a mutant mice showed marked reductions in NK-cell number and maturation. IL-15 treatment of Stat5a mutant NK cells exhibited defective induction of both STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways and reduced expression of granzyme B and IFN-γ. Finally, we observed that Stat5a mutant mice revealed more tumor growth upon injection of RMA-S tumor cell line. Overall, our results demonstrate that the W484G mutation in the linker domain of STAT5A is sufficient to compromise STAT5A function in NK-cell homeostasis, responsiveness, and tumoricidal function.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409060

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects females, resulting in severe cognitive and physical disabilities, and is one of the most prevalent causes of intellectual disability in females. More than fifty years after the first publication on Rett syndrome, and almost two decades since the first report linking RTT to the MECP2 gene, the research community's effort is focused on obtaining a better understanding of the genetics and the complex biology of RTT and Rett-like phenotypes without MECP2 mutations. Herein, we review the current molecular genetic studies, which investigate the genetic causes of RTT or Rett-like phenotypes which overlap with other genetic disorders and document the swift evolution of the techniques and methodologies employed. This review also underlines the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the Rett syndrome spectrum and provides an overview of the RTT-related genes described to date, many of which are involved in epigenetic gene regulation, neurotransmitter action or RNA transcription/translation. Finally, it discusses the importance of including both phenotypic and genetic diagnosis to provide proper genetic counselling from a patient's perspective and the appropriate treatment.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11983, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427717

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurological disorder usually caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. Since the MECP2 gene is located on the X chromosome, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) could play a role in the wide range of phenotypic variation of RTT patients; however, classical methylation-based protocols to evaluate XCI could not determine whether the preferentially inactivated X chromosome carried the mutant or the wild-type allele. Therefore, we developed an allele-specific methylation-based assay to evaluate methylation at the loci of several recurrent MECP2 mutations. We analyzed the XCI patterns in the blood of 174 RTT patients, but we did not find a clear correlation between XCI and the clinical presentation. We also compared XCI in blood and brain cortex samples of two patients and found differences between XCI patterns in these tissues. However, RTT mainly being a neurological disease complicates the establishment of a correlation between the XCI in blood and the clinical presentation of the patients. Furthermore, we analyzed MECP2 transcript levels and found differences from the expected levels according to XCI. Many factors other than XCI could affect the RTT phenotype, which in combination could influence the clinical presentation of RTT patients to a greater extent than slight variations in the XCI pattern.

4.
Thorax ; 74(9): 835-842, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278172

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recently a frequent exacerbator phenotype has been described in bronchiectasis, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important in host defence against microbes but can be proinflammatory in chronic lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine pulmonary and systemic levels of AMP and their relationship with disease severity and future risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis. METHODS: A total of 135 adults with bronchiectasis were prospectively enrolled at three European centres. Levels of cathelicidin LL-37, lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in serum and sputum were determined at baseline by ELISA. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We examined the ability of sputum AMP to predict future exacerbation risk. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: AMP levels were higher in sputum than in serum, suggesting local AMP release. Patients with more severe disease at baseline had dysregulation of airway AMP. Higher LL-37 and lower SLPI levels were associated with Bronchiectasis Severity Index, lower FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Low SLPI levels were also associated with the exacerbation frequency at baseline. During follow-up, higher LL-37 and lower SLPI levels were associated with a shorter time to the next exacerbation, whereas LL-37 alone predicted exacerbation frequency over the next 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with bronchiectasis showed dysregulated sputum AMP levels, characterised by elevated LL-37 and reduced SLPI levels in the frequent exacerbator phenotype. Elevated LL-37 and reduced SLPI levels are associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and can predict future risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis.

5.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(9): 1516-1531, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285585

RESUMO

Salmonella presents a global public health concern. Central to Salmonella pathogenicity is an ability to subvert host defences through strategically targeting host proteins implicated in restricting infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the host-pathogen interactions governing Salmonella infection, we performed an in vivo genome-wide mutagenesis screen to uncover key host defence proteins. This revealed an uncharacterized role of CYRI (FAM49B) in conferring host resistance to Salmonella infection. We show that CYRI binds to the small GTPase RAC1 through a conserved domain present in CYFIP proteins, which are known RAC1 effectors that stimulate actin polymerization. However, unlike CYFIP proteins, CYRI negatively regulates RAC1 signalling, thereby attenuating processes such as macropinocytosis, phagocytosis and cell migration. This enables CYRI to counteract Salmonella at various stages of infection, including bacterial entry into non-phagocytic and phagocytic cells as well as phagocyte-mediated bacterial dissemination. Intriguingly, to dampen its effects, the bacterial effector SopE, a RAC1 activator, selectively targets CYRI following infection. Together, this outlines an intricate host-pathogen signalling interplay that is crucial for determining bacterial fate. Notably, our study also outlines a role for CYRI in restricting infection mediated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes. This provides evidence implicating CYRI cellular functions in host defence beyond Salmonella infection.

6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e793, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a developmental disorder with an early onset and X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. It is first recognized in infancy and is seen almost always in girls, but it may be seen in boys on rare occasions. Typical RTT is caused by de novo mutations of the gene MECP2 (OMIM*300005), and atypical forms of RTT can be caused by mutations of the CDKL5 (OMIM*300203) and FOXG1 (OMIM*164874) genes. METHODS: Approximately 5% of the mutations detected in MECP2 are large rearrangements that range from exons to the entire gene. Here, we have characterized the deletions detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the gene MECP2 of 21 RTT patients. Breakpoints were delineated by DNA-qPCR until the amplification of the deleted allele by long-PCR was possible. RESULTS: This methodology enabled us to characterize deletions ranging from 1,235 bp to 85 kb, confirming the partial or total deletion of the MECP2 gene in all these patients. Additionally, our cases support the evidence claiming that most of these breakpoints occur in some restricted regions of the MECP2 gene. CONCLUSION: These molecular data together with the clinical information enable us to propose a genotype-phenotype correlation, which is essential for providing genetic counseling.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 53(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil elastase activity in sputum can identify patients at high risk of airway infection and exacerbations in bronchiectasis. Application of this biomarker in clinical practice is limited, because no point-of-care test is available. We tested whether a novel semi-quantitative lateral flow device (neutrophil elastase airway test stick - NEATstik®) can stratify bronchiectasis patients according to severity, airway infection and exacerbation risk. METHODS: Sputum samples from 124 patients with stable bronchiectasis enrolled in the UK and Spain were tested using the NEATstik®, which scores neutrophil elastase concentration from 0 (<8 µg·mL-1 elastase activity) to 10 (maximum detectable neutrophil elastase activity). High neutrophil elastase activity was regarded as a NEATstik® grade >6. Severity of disease, airway infection from sputum culture and exacerbations over the 12 months were recorded. An independent validation was conducted in 50 patients from Milan, Italy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients had a median age of 69 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 69%. High neutrophil elastase activity was associated with worse bronchiectasis severity using the bronchiectasis severity index (p=0.0007) and FEV1 (p=0.02). A high NEATstik® grade was associated with a significant increase in exacerbation frequency, incident rate ratio 2.75 (95% CI 1.63-4.64, p<0.001). The median time to next exacerbation for patients with a NEATstik® grade >6 was 103 days compared to 278 days. The hazard ratio was 2.59 (95% CI 1.71-3.94, p<0.001). Results were confirmed in the independent validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: A novel lateral flow device provides assessment of neutrophil elastase activity from sputum in minutes and identifies patients at increasing risk of airway infection and future exacerbations.

8.
J Exp Med ; 216(8): 1809-1827, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142589

RESUMO

CMVs efficiently target MHC I molecules to avoid recognition by cytotoxic T cells. However, the lack of MHC I on the cell surface renders the infected cell susceptible to NK cell killing upon missing self recognition. To counter this, mouse CMV (MCMV) rescues some MHC I molecules to engage inhibitory Ly49 receptors. Here we identify a new viral protein, MATp1, that is essential for MHC I surface rescue. Rescued altered-self MHC I molecules show increased affinity to inhibitory Ly49 receptors, resulting in inhibition of NK cells despite substantially reduced MHC I surface levels. This enables the virus to evade recognition by licensed NK cells. During evolution, this novel viral immune evasion mechanism could have prompted the development of activating NK cell receptors that are specific for MATp1-modified altered-self MHC I molecules. Our study solves a long-standing conundrum of how MCMV avoids recognition by NK cells, unravels a fundamental new viral immune evasion mechanism, and demonstrates how this forced the evolution of virus-specific activating MHC I-restricted Ly49 receptors.

9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 2473164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944545

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with the polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes and the production of autoantibodies that cause immune complex-related inflammation. Immunological factors derived from platelets modulate B cell function in SLE disease. However, platelets do not only modify the immune system by soluble factors. The binding of platelets to lymphocytes can modulate immune response. Thus, we speculate that the binding of platelets to lymphocytes in SLE patients may play a role in abnormal B lymphocyte response and the pathogenesis of SLE. We observed that levels of lymphocytes with bound platelets were higher in SLE patients than in healthy donors (HD). In SLE patients, the percentage of B lymphocytes with bound platelets positively correlated with plasmatic levels of IgG, IgA, IL-10, and soluble CD40L and negatively correlated with IgM levels, though not in HD. Preswitched memory B lymphocytes were the subpopulation with more bound platelets. Lymphocytes with bound platelets from both HD and SLE patients had major levels of CD86 and BAFFR and a greater production of IL-10 than lymphocytes without bound platelets. However, only B lymphocytes with bound platelets from SLE patients had increased levels of IgG and IgA on their surface. SLE patients with a suggestive renal manifestation had the highest levels of B and T lymphocytes with bound platelets. These results suggest that the binding of platelets to lymphocytes plays a role in SLE disease and that controlling this binding may be a promising therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Adulto , Ligante de CD40/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2996, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816121

RESUMO

The presence of leukocyte subpopulations in malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can have a different impact on tumor cell proliferation and vascular leakiness, their analysis can help to understand the metastatic microenvironment. We analyzed the relationship between the leukocyte subpopulation counts per ml of pleural fluid and the tumor cell count, molecular phenotype of lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), time from cancer diagnosis and previous oncologic therapy. We also evaluated the leukocyte composition of MPEs as a biomarker of prognosis. We determined CD4+ T, CD8+ T and CD20+ B cells, monocytes and neutrophils per ml in pleural effusions of 22 LAC and 10 heart failure (HF) patients by flow cytometry. Tumor cells were identified by morphology and CD326 expression. IFNγ, IL-10 and IL-17, and chemokines were determined by ELISAs and migratory response to pleural fluids by transwell assays. MPEs from LAC patients had more CD8+ T lymphocytes and a tendency to more CD4+ T and CD20+ B lymphocytes than HF-related fluids. However, no correlation was found between lymphocytes and tumor cells. In those MPEs which were detected >1 month from LAC diagnosis, there was a negative correlation between pleural tumor cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. CXCL10 was responsible for the attraction of CD20+ B, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes in malignant fluids. Concentrations of IL-17 were higher in MPEs than in HF-related effusions. Survival after MPE diagnosis correlated positively with CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, but negatively with neutrophils and IL-17 levels. In conclusion, lymphocyte enrichment in MPEs from LAC patients is mostly due to local migration and increases patient survival.

11.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 14, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme exercise may alter the innate immune system. Glycans are involved in several biological processes including immune system regulation. However, limited data regarding the impact of glycan supplementation on immunological parameters after strenuous exercise are available. We aimed to determine the impact of a standardized polysaccharide-based multi-ingredient supplement, Advanced Ambrotose© complex powder (AA) on salivary secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and pro- and anti-inflammatory protein levels before and after a marathon in non-elite runners. METHODS: Forty-one male marathon runners who completed the 42.195 km of the 2016 Barcelona marathon were randomly assigned to two study groups. Of them, n = 20 (48%) received the AA supplement for 15 days prior the race (AA group) and n = 21 (52%) did not receive any AA supplement (non-AA group). Saliva and blood samples were collected the day before the marathon and two days after the end of the race. Salivary IgA, pro-inflammatory chemokines (Gro-alpha, Gro-beta, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory proteins (Angiogenin, ACRP, Siglec 5) were determined using commercially ELISA kits in saliva supernatant. Biochemical parameters, including C-reactive protein, cardiac biomarkers, and blood hemogram were also evaluated. RESULTS: Marathon runners who did not receive the AA supplement experienced a decrease of salivary sIgA and pro-inflammatory chemokines (Gro-alpha and Gro-beta) after the race, while runners with AA supplementation showed lower levels of anti-inflammatory chemokines (Angiogenin). Gro-alpha and Gro-beta salivary levels were lower before the race in the AA group and correlated with blood leukocytes and platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in salivary sIgA and inflammatory chemokines, especially Gro-alfa and Gro-beta, were observed in marathon runners supplemented with AA prior to the race. These findings suggested that AA may have a positive effect on immune response after a strenuous exercise.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Corrida , Adulto , Atletas , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva
12.
Respirology ; 24(8): 799-804, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The discovery of highly accurate pleural fluid (PF) biomarkers of malignancy remains elusive. We assessed the operating characteristics of the PF epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), claudin 4 (CL4) and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) as potential markers of epithelial malignancies. METHODS: The three markers were quantified by immunoassays in the supernatants (s) and cell lysates (cl) of 175 PF samples. The cut-off values with 100% specificity were selected for malignant-benign discrimination. An immunocytochemical staining index score for each marker was also evaluated on PF cell blocks. The resulting best biomarker was further validated in two independent populations of 73 and 48 patients with pleural effusions (PE). RESULTS: An EpCAM(cl) >98 pg/g total lysate protein yielded 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, negative likelihood ratio of 0.25 and area under the curve of 0.94 for labelling adenocarcinomatous effusions. Sensitivity reached 88% if EpCAM(cl) was combined with EpCAM immunostaining. One-third or more of the malignant effusions exhibiting a false-negative cytological fluid examination were correctly classified by EpCAM(cl) concentrations. Immunoassays for CL4 and HE4 were diagnostically useless. CONCLUSION: EpCAM(cl) is a new biomarker of adenocarcinomatous PE with meaningful discriminating properties.

13.
J Immunol ; 202(5): 1479-1493, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683700

RESUMO

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), caused by HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection, is an acute neuroinflammatory condition of the CNS and remains the most common type of sporadic viral encephalitis worldwide. Studies in humans have shown that susceptibility to HSE depends in part on the genetic make-up of the host, with deleterious mutations in the TLR3/type I IFN axis underlying some cases of childhood HSE. Using an in vivo chemical mutagenesis screen for HSV-1 susceptibility in mice, we identified a susceptible pedigree carrying a causal truncating mutation in the Rel gene (RelC307X ), encoding for the NF-κB transcription factor subunit c-Rel. Like Myd88-/- and Irf3-/- mice, RelC307X mice were susceptible to intranasal HSV-1 infection. Reciprocal bone marrow transfers into lethally irradiated hosts suggested that defects in both hematopoietic and CNS-resident cellular compartments contributed together to HSE susceptibility in RelC307X mice. Although the RelC307X mutation maintained cell-intrinsic antiviral control, it drove increased apoptotic cell death in infected fibroblasts. Moreover, reduced numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells, and dysregulated NK cell and CD4+ effector T cell responses in infected RelC307X animals, indicated that protective immunity was also compromised in these mice. In the CNS, moribund RelC307X mice failed to control HSV-1 viral replication in the brainstem and cerebellum, triggering cell death and elevated expression of Ccl2, Il6, and Mmp8 characteristic of HSE neuroinflammation and pathology. In summary, our work implicates c-Rel in both CNS-resident cell survival and lymphocyte responses to HSV-1 infection and as a novel cause of HSE disease susceptibility in mice.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Animais , Cercopithecus aethiops , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/virologia , Inflamação/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Vero
14.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206059, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462646

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Respiratory infections are common after strenuous exercise, when salivary immunity may be altered. We aim to investigate changes in salivary immunity after a marathon and its relationship with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in healthy non-elite marathon runners. METHODS: Forty seven healthy marathon runners (28 males and 19 females) who completed the 42.195 km of the 2016 Barcelona marathon were studied. Saliva and blood samples were collected the day before the marathon and two days after the end of the race. Salivary IgA, antimicrobial proteins (lactoferrin, lysozyme) and chemokines (Groα, Groß, MCP-1) were determined using ELISA kits in saliva supernatant. Blood biochemistry and haemogram were analyzed in all participants. The presence of LRTI was considered in those runners who reported infectious lower respiratory tract symptoms during a minimum of 3 consecutive days in the 2 weeks after the race. RESULTS: Eight participants (17%) presented a LRTI during the 2 weeks of follow-up. Higher lysozyme levels were detected after the race in runners with LRTI when compared with those without infection. A decrease in salivary lysozyme, Groα and Groß levels after the race were observed in those runners who did not develop a LRTI when compared to basal levels. Salivary Groα levels correlated with basophil blood counts, and salivary lysozyme levels correlated with leukocyte blood counts. CONCLUSIONS: LRTI are common after a marathon race in non-elite healthy runners. Changes in salivary antimicrobial proteins and chemokines are related to the presence of LRTI and correlate with systemic defense cells, which suggest an important role of salivary immunity in the development of LRTI in non-elite marathon runners.

15.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247652

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease characterized by periods of remission and flare-ups. It has been associated with a disturbed gastrointestinal barrier function, an increase in the transport of luminal contents into the tissue and lower immune tolerance. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy controls and 33 adult active flare-up CD patients. We classified patients as onset or relapse flare-up subjects, according to the days of disease evolution. Plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), and antibodies against bacterial lysates, Interferons (IFN) and IL6 were measured by ELISA in each group of patients. Results: Onset CD patients had higher plasma levels of LBP (57.32±38.86 vs 30.22±9.80 g/ml) and IFNα (1.25±0.23 vs 0.95±0.36 log10pg/ml) and lower levels of IgG and IgA antibodies against bacterial lysates than relapse CD patients. We also observed a subgroup of onset patients with the highest levels of LBP. In this subgroup, LBP correlated negatively with CRP. Onset and relapse CD patients had similar levels of FABP6 and FABP2, though LBP and FABP6 correlated positively only in relapse patients. In relapse patients, anti-E coli IgG antibodies correlated positively with systemic IL6 and IFNα levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that onset and relapse flare-ups in adult CD patients are related to different systemic immune-related bacterial events. Characterizing these differences may provide insights into the etiology of Crohn's disease and would help in the selection of appropriate therapies.

16.
Mamm Genome ; 29(7-8): 425-445, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167845

RESUMO

A majority of the world population is infected with herpes simplex viruses (HSV; human herpesvirus types 1 and 2). These viruses, perhaps best known for their manifestation in the genital or oral mucosa, can also cause herpes simplex encephalitis, a severe and often fatal disease of the central nervous system. Antiviral therapies for HSV are only partially effective since the virus can establish latent infections in neurons, and severe pathological sequelae in the brain are common. A better understanding of disease pathogenesis is required to develop new strategies against herpes simplex encephalitis, including the precise viral and host genetic determinants that promote virus invasion into the central nervous system and its associated immunopathology. Here we review the current understanding of herpes simplex encephalitis from the host genome perspective, which has been illuminated by groundbreaking work on rare herpes simplex encephalitis patients together with mechanistic insight from single-gene mouse models of disease. A complex picture has emerged, whereby innate type I interferon-mediated antiviral signaling is a central pathway to control viral replication, and the regulation of immunopathology and the balance between apoptosis and autophagy are critical to disease severity in the central nervous system. The lessons learned from mouse studies inform us on fundamental defense mechanisms at the interface of host-pathogen interactions within the central nervous system, as well as possible rationales for intervention against infections from severe neuropathogenic viruses.

17.
J Leukoc Biol ; 104(4): 833-841, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851144

RESUMO

Ascitic neutrophils from cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) exhibit an impaired oxidative burst that could facilitate bacterial infection. However, the influence of the cell-free ascitic fluid of these patients on neutrophil function has not been investigated. To analyze this influence, we determined the ascitic levels of cytokines, resistin, and lactoferrin and their association with neutrophil function, disease severity score, and SBP resolution. We analyzed NETosis induction by microscopy and oxidative burst by the flow cytometry of healthy neutrophils cultured in ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients with sterile ascites (SA) and with SBP before and after antibiotic treatment. Resistin, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ß, and lactoferrin levels were measured in ascitic fluids and supernatants of cultured neutrophils and PBMCs by ELISA. Upon stimulation, healthy neutrophils cultured in SBP ascitic fluid produced lower NETosis and oxidative burst than those cultured in SA. Ascitic resistin levels were negatively correlated with NETosis, oxidative burst, and ascitic glucose levels; and positively correlated with the model for end-stage liver disease score. After an E. coli or TNF-α stimulus, neutrophils were the major resistin producers. Resistin indirectly reduced the oxidative burst of neutrophils and directly reduced the inflammatory phenotype of monocytes and TNF-α production. Bacterial-induced resistin production can down-regulate the inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophil function in ascitic fluid. Consequently, this down-regulation may jeopardize the elimination of bacteria that translocate to ascitic fluid in patients with cirrhosis.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8446, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855523

RESUMO

Activation of the inflammasome pathway is crucial for effective intracellular host defense. The mitochondrial network plays an important role in inflammasome regulation but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial homeostasis to attenuation of inflammasome activation are not fully understood. Here, we report that the Parkinson's disease-associated mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2 restricts the activation of ASC-dependent NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, in a protease activity-dependent manner. Consistently, disruption of the protease activity of HtrA2 results in exacerbated NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome responses in macrophages ex vivo and systemically in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that the HtrA2 protease activity regulates autophagy and controls the magnitude and duration of inflammasome signaling by preventing prolonged accumulation of the inflammasome adaptor ASC. Our findings identify HtrA2 as a non-redundant mitochondrial quality control effector that keeps NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes in check.

19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 24(4): 818-828, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529212

RESUMO

Background: Circulating monocytes from active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients produced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNFα) and interleukin(IL)-6 after Toll-like receptors (TLR) stimulation. Since platelets (PLT) can bind to leukocytes, thereby decreasing inflammatory cytokine production, UC patients may exhibit different levels of monocyte-platelet complexes depending on disease activity. Methods: We compared among healthy donors, active (onset flare and relapse), and inactive UC patients the presence of circulating monocyte-platelet complexes (CD14+PLT+) and membrane CD162 expression by flow cytometry. Lipopolysaccharide- binding protein, TNFα, and IL-10 were compared by ELISA. Binding of CD14+PLT+ to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Results: Onset flare UC patients had the lowest levels of CD14+PLT+. Membrane CD162, crucial for the PLT binding, was downregulated only on monocytes from onset flare UC patients. Membrane CD162 expression on CD14+ cells inversely correlated with lipopolysaccharide binding protein levels. As an expected consequence, more CD14+PLT+ than CD14+PLT- from onset flare UC patients bound to activated HUVECs. TNFα tended to negatively correlate with CD14+PLT+ in relapse and inactive UC patients, whereas IL-10 positively correlated with CD14+PLT+ in all UC patients (r = -0.43, P = 0.1 and r = 0.61, P = 0.01, respectively). The anti-inflammatory role of PLT binding to monocytes was confirmed in cocultures of PLT and monocytes. These cocultures increased the percentage of CD14+PLT+ and IL-10 production, and decreased TNFα production. These anti-inflammatory effects were abolished when we blocked the binding of PLT with neutralizing anti-CD62P antibody. Conclusions: Decreased CD162 expression associated with endotoxemia reduced the binding of PLT to monocytes through membrane CD162-CD62P, favoring the inflammatory response of onset flare UC patients.

20.
World J Hepatol ; 10(1): 124-133, 2018 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399286

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the relationship between the presence of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms and bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with ascites. METHODS: We prospectively included consecutive patients with cirrhosis and ascites hospitalized during a 6-year period. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or any other immunodeficiency, patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (beyond Milan's criteria) or any other condition determining poor short-term prognosis, and patients with a permanent urinary catheter were excluded. The presence of D299G and/or T399I TLR4 polymorphisms was determined by sequencing and related to the incidence and probability of bacterial infections, other complications of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and mortality during follow-up. A multivariate analysis to identify predictive variables of mortality in the whole series was performed. RESULTS: We included 258 patients: 28 (10.8%) were carriers of D299G and/or T399I TLR4 polymorphisms (polymorphism group) and 230 patients were not (wild-type group). The probability of developing any bacterial infection at one-year follow-up was 78% in the polymorphism group and 69% in the wild-type group (P = 0.54). The one-year probability of presenting infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (51% vs 44%, P = 0.68), infections caused by gram-positive cocci (49% vs 40%, P = 0.53), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (29% vs 34%, respectively, P = 0.99) did not differ between the two groups. The one-year probability of transplant-free survival was 55% in the polymorphism group and 66% in the wild-type group (P = 0.15). Multivariate analysis confirmed that age, Child-Pugh score, active alcohol intake, previous hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma and serum creatinine were associated with a higher risk of death during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms D299G and/or T399I of TLR4 do not seem to play a relevant role in the predisposition of cirrhotic patients with ascites to bacterial infections.

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