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1.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909634

RESUMO

Objectives. The normal aortic diameter (AD) varies with gender, age and body surface area (BSA). The aortic size index (ASI) is defined as the AD divided by BSA. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if ASI is a predictor of development AAA, and to compare the predictive impact of ASI to that of the absolute AD. Design. Population-based prospective study including 4161 individuals (53.2% women) from the Tromsø study with two valid ultrasound measurements of the AD and no AAA at baseline (Tromsø 4, 1994). The primary outcome was AAA (AD ≥30 mm) in Tromsø 5 (2001). A secondary outcome was aortic growth of >5 mm over 7 years. Estimates of relative risk were calculated in logistic regression models. The main exposure variable was ASI. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hypertension. Results. In total, 124 incident AAAs (20% among women) were detected. In adjusted analyses, both ASI and AD were strong predictors of AAA, with similar results for men and women. Both ASI and AD were also significant predictors of aortic growth >5 mm. In comparison, AD was superior to ASI as a predictor of both endpoints. Conclusions. ASI was a significant predictor of both AAA development and aortic growth of >5 mm for both men and women, but not a better predictor of either outcomes compared to the AD. The role of ASI compared to the AD as a predictor of AAA development seems to be limited.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977641

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is the gold standard to measure cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). For resource-intensive evaluation, equations estimating CRF (eCRF) may be used. The purpose was to investigate if an eCRF equation from a healthy population is useful in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if necessary, develop new equations for eCRF in this group. METHODS: VO2peak results from 93 persons with RA were compared to eCRF calculated by an established equation for healthy individuals including age, sex, physical activity (PA index), resting heart rate (RHR) and waist circumference. Because of deviation from the observed VO2peak, new equations for eCRF in persons with RA were developed from regression analysis of variables associated with observed VO2peak. RESULTS: The established equation over-estimated CRF (R=0.48, RMSE=7.07). The new RA equation more accurately estimated CRF (R=0.81, RMSE=4.44) (female=0, male=1; never smoked=0, ever smoked=1): eCRF = 77.961 + (sex × 28.791) - (age × 0.358) - (age × sex interaction × 0.326) - (body mass index (BMI) × 0.700) - (RHR ×0.125) - (smoking × 1.854) + (PA index × 0.211) - (patient global RA assessment × 0.071). Alternative new RA equation (R=0.79, RMSE=4.63): eCRF = 77.851 + (sex × 25.460) - (age × 0.381) - (age × sex interaction × 0.254) - (BMI × 0.743) - (RHR × 0.115) - (smoking × 2.154) + (PA index × 0.209). CONCLUSIONS: The new RA equations better predicted CRF in individuals with RA, preventing overestimation in low-fit persons. The new equation should be preferred when estimating CRF in individuals with RA. The alternative equation, without patient global assessment, is useful for individuals with RA in population-based studies.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17695, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776403

RESUMO

C-reactive protein, neopterin and lactoferrin are biomarkers of atherosclerotic disease. We aimed to assess changes in these biomarkers after conservative and surgical weight loss interventions in individuals with morbid obesity, to evaluate associations between biomarker changes and changes in body mass index and HbA1c, and to study associations between changes in the biomarkers. C-reactive protein, neopterin and lactoferrin were measured before and after conservative weight loss intervention and bariatric surgery. Data were analysed with mixed models. 137 individuals (mean age 43 years) were included. Body mass index decreased from 42.1 kg/m2 to 38.9 kg/m2 after the conservative intervention, and further to 30.5 kg/m2 after bariatric surgery. All biomarkers decreased after the conservative weight loss intervention. C-reactive protein and lactoferrin continued to decrease following bariatric surgery whereas neopterin remained stable. After adjustments for change in body mass index and HbA1c, all biomarkers decreased significantly after the conservative weight loss intervention, whereas none changed after bariatric surgery. There were no consistent correlations between changes in C-reactive protein, neopterin and lactoferrin. In conclusion, biomarkers of atherosclerosis decreased after weight loss interventions but had different trajectories. Neopterin, a marker related to atherosclerotic plaque stability, decreased after conservative weight loss but not following bariatric surgery.

4.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688648

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate baseline, exercise testing, and exercise training-mediated predictors of change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) from baseline to 12-week follow-up (ΔVO2peak) in a post-hoc analysis from the SMARTEX Heart Failure trial. METHODS: We studied 215 patients with heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35%, and NYHA class II-III, who were randomized to either supervised high intensity interval training (HIIT) with exercise target intensity 90-95% of peak heart rate (HRpeak), supervised moderate continuous training (MCT) with target intensity 60-70% of HRpeak, or who received a recommendation of regular exercise on their own (RRE). Predictors of ΔVO2peak were assessed in two models; A logistic regression model comparing highest and lowest tertile (baseline parameters) and a multivariate linear regression model (test/training/clinical parameters). RESULTS: The change in VO2peak in response to the interventions (ΔVO2peak) varied substantially, from -8.50 to +11.30 mL·kg·min. Baseline NYHA (class II gave higher odds vs III, odds ratio (OR) 7.1 (2.0, 24.9), p=0.002), LVEF OR per % 1.1 (1.0, 1.2), p = 0.005), age (OR per 10 years 0.5 (0.3, 0.8)), p=0.003) were associated with ΔVO2peak.In the multivariate linear regression, 34% of the variability in [INCREMENT]VO2peak was explained by the increase in exercise training workload, [INCREMENT]HRpeak between baseline and 12-wk post-testing, age, and ever having smoked. CONCLUSION: Exercise training response (ΔVO2peak) correlated negatively with age, LVEF and NYHA class. The ability to increase workload during the training period, and increased ΔHRpeak between baseline and the 12-week test were associated with a positive outcome.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012535, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642357

RESUMO

Background Depression is associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the evidence is scarce regarding depression and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The aim was to determine whether individuals with depressive symptoms have increased risk of AAA. Methods and Results This population-based prospective study included 59 136 participants (52.4% women) aged 50 to 106 years from the HUNT (Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study). Symptoms of depression were assessed using the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). During a median follow-up of 13 years, there were 742 incident cases of AAA (201 women). A total of 6401 individuals (12.3%) reported depressive symptoms (defined as HADS depression scale [HADS-D]) ≥8) (52.5% women). The annual incidence rate of AAA was 1.0 per 1000 individuals. At all ages, the estimated proportion of individuals diagnosed with AAA was higher among those with depressive symptoms (log-rank test, P<0.001). People with HADS-D ≥8 were older than those with HADS-D<8 (median 57.8 versus 52.3 years, P<0.001) and a statistically significantly higher proportion of them (P<0.001) were smokers, overweight or obese, and reported a history of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. In a Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusted for these factors, individuals with depressive symptoms had a ≈30% higher risk of AAA than those without (hazard ratio, 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61, P=0.007). Conclusions This study shows that individuals with depressive symptoms have significantly higher risk of incident AAA, after adjustments for established risk factors.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(12): 3309-3319, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate important clinical and operative variables associated with increases in cardiac troponin T (cTnT) as indicators of myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 626 patients undergoing isolated CABG from April 2008 through April 2010 with a validation cohort (n = 686) from 2015-2017. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Perioperative variables were registered prospectively. The extent of diffuse coronary atherosclerosis and significant stenoses were assessed with preoperative coronary angiography. Mixed model analysis was used to construct a statistical model explaining the course of cTnT concentrations. The model was adjusted for preoperative and intraoperative/postoperative myocardial infarction (MI) for independent assessment of additional variables. Clinical factors associated with increased cTnT concentrations during and after CABG were longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (p < 0.001), higher preoperative creatinine (p < 0.001), New York Heart Association functional classification IV (p = 0.006), reduced LVEF (p = 0.034), higher preoperative C-reactive protein (p = 0.049), and intraoperative/postoperative MI (p < 0.001). Factors associated with decreasing cTnT concentrations during CABG were higher BSA (p < 0.001) and a recent preoperative MI (p < 0.001). The extent of diffuse coronary atherosclerosis and significant stenoses were not associated with changes in cTnT (p = 0.35). Results were similar in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association classification, kidney function, inflammation status, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, body surface area, and preoperative MI were associated with the cTnT rise-and-fall pattern related to myocardial injury after CABG. Information regarding these variables may be valuable when using cTnT in the diagnostic workup of postoperative MI.

7.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000912, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168415

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer from more cardiovascular disease (CVD), and develop cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier age than the general population. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important predictor of cardiovascular health. There are few data regarding CRF of RA patients, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) by the gold standard method; cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We compared CRF in RA patients to those from a healthy population, and investigated if risk factors for CVD and RA-specific variables including subjective and objective disease activity measures were associated with CRF in RA patients. Methods: VO2peak tests of RA patients (n=93) were compared to those of an age-matched and gender-matched healthy population (n=4631) from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Predictors of VO2peak were found using Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression, followed by standardised multiple linear regression. Results: Women with RA ≥40 years and men with RA aged 40-49 years or 60-69 years had up to 20% lower CRF than the healthy population in the same age groups. By relative importance, body mass index (standardised coefficient=-0.25, p<0.001), physical activity level (coefficient=0.21, p<0.001), patient global assessment (PGA; coefficient=-0.14, p=0.006), systolic blood pressure (coefficient=-0.12, p=0.016), resting heart rate (coefficient=-0.11, p=0.032) and smoking (coefficient=-0.10, p=0.046) were significant predictors of CRF (R2=0.82, gender-adjusted and age-adjusted). Conclusion: CRF in RA patients was lower than in a healthy population. CRF was associated with common risk factors for CVD and the PGA score. Focusing on fitness in RA patients may improve cardiovascular health.

8.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(5): 1436-1445.e2, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The delayed development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in women compared with men might be secondary to a protective effect from endogenous estrogens. The role of postmenopausal hormone therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of female sex hormones compared with other risk factors associated with AAA through a long-term study of a large female cohort. METHODS: The present prospective cohort study included 20,024 postmenopausal women from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. A total of 201 cases of AAA were identified during a median follow-up period of 18 years (295,554 person-years; 1995-2014). The data were recorded from questionnaires, physical measurements, medical records, blood sample test results, and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The effect of risk factors was evaluated in a multiple Cox regression analysis. Multiple imputation was performed for missing data (n = 50 data sets). The serum estradiol concentrations in women with and without incidental AAAs were compared. The median interval from blood sample collection to the AAA diagnosis was 7 years. RESULTS: Current smokers had >10-fold increased risk of incident AAA during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR], 10.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4-16.1). Positive associations were found for hypertension (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0) and coronary heart disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.2). The HR associated with the current use of postmenopausal hormone therapy was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.6-1.5). No substantial difference in estradiol concentrations was found between women with and without AAA (P = .075). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of female sex hormones on the risk of incident AAAs in women, as evaluated by the serum concentrations of estradiol and the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, is clinically less important than the strong associations found with smoking, hypertension, and coronary heart disease.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(5): 803-810, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether C-reactive protein (CRP, a general marker of inflammation), neopterin (activated macrophages), lactoferrin (activated neutrophils), and endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation [FMD]) are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak]), sex, body mass index (BMI), and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in a healthy adult population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional association study based on the population-based HUNT3 Fitness Study performed from May 15, 2007, through June 23, 2008. Seven hundred forty self-reported healthy respondents (327 women) identified as having the MetSyn were age- and sex-matched with 692 controls (307 women) from the same cohort. Associations between the inflammatory biomarkers and VO2peak, FMD, and the MetSyn were analyzed by multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: The CRP level was negatively associated with VO2peak (P<.001), positively associated with the MetSyn (with a stronger effect in men) (P<.001) and BMI (with a stronger effect in women) (P<.01), but not with FMD (P=.34). Lactoferrin was positively associated with the MetSyn (P<.001), but neither neopterin nor lactoferrin were associated with VO2peak or FMD. CONCLUSION: The CRP level was strongly associated with VO2peak and the MetSyn, but not with FMD. The associations among inflammation, VO2peak, and the MetSyn were strongly influenced by sex and BMI. These data support that low cardiorespiratory fitness should be considered an etiologic factor contributing to systemic inflammation and that reducing body weight and improving VO2peak are methods that may positively affect CRP levels.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactoferrina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neopterina/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The genetic component of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) development is ~90%. Of the known heritability, ~20% is explained by HLA-B27, and 113 identified AS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) account for ~7.4%. The objectives were to construct a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using currently known genome-wide susceptibility SNP, and to evaluate its predictive ability for AS in the Norwegian population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). METHODS: AS cases (n = 164) and controls (n = 49,032) were from the second (1995-1997) and third (2006-2008) waves of the HUNT study, to which the entire adult population of the northern region of Trøndelag was invited. A wGRS based on 110 SNP weighted by published OR for AS was constructed, representing each person's carriage of all risk variants. Logistic regression models including the wGRS alone or in combination with HLA-B27 carrier state and other adjustment variables (sex, age, smoking, body mass index, and hypertension) were developed. Discrimination among models was compared using area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The wGRS was associated with AS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), but showed low discrimination (AUC 0.62, 95% CI 0.58-0.67). HLA-B27 was significantly associated with AS (OR 50, 95% CI 32-81), showing high discrimination (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.90). Combining the wGRS and HLA-B27 improved prediction (AUC 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.92; p < 0.001 vs wGRS alone, p < 0.01 vs HLA-B27 alone). Further inclusion of adjustment variables gave a small improvement (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Prediction in a population-based setting based on all currently known AS susceptibility SNP was better than HLA-B27 carrier state alone, although the improvement was small and of uncertain clinical value.

11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(1): 57-66, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465296

RESUMO

Observational studies have shown consistent associations between higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and favorable serum lipids. We sought to investigate if such associations were causal. A Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted on a population-based cohort comprising 56,435 adults in Norway. A weighted 25(OH)D allele score was generated based on vitamin D-increasing alleles of rs2282679, rs12785878 and rs10741657. Linear regression analyses of serum lipid levels on the allele score were performed to assess the presence of causal associations of serum 25(OH)D with the lipids. To quantify the causal effects, the inverse-variance weighted method was used for calculating MR estimates based on summarized data of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The MR estimate with 95% confidence interval (CI) represents percentage difference in the lipid level per genetically determined 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D. The 25(OH)D allele score demonstrated a clear association with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p = 0.007) but no association with total or non-HDL cholesterol or triglycerides (p ≥ 0.27). The MR estimate showed 2.52% (95% CI 0.79-4.25%) increase in HDL cholesterol per genetically determined 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D, which was stronger than the corresponding estimate of 1.83% (95% CI 0.85-2.81%) from the observational analysis. The MR estimates for total cholesterol (0.60%, 95% CI - 0.73 to 1.94%), non-HDL cholesterol (0.04%, 95% CI - 1.79 to 1.88%) and triglycerides (- 2.74%, 95% CI - 6.16 to 0.67%) showed no associations. MR analysis of data from a population-based cohort suggested a causal and positive association between serum 25(OH)D and HDL cholesterol.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/genética , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(6): 957-962, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) comprises 7 heterogeneous categories of chronic childhood arthritides. Approximately 5% of children with JIA have rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive arthritis, which phenotypically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to compare and contrast the genetics of RF-positive polyarticular JIA with those of RA and selected other JIA categories, to more fully understand the pathophysiologic relationships of inflammatory arthropathies. METHODS: Patients with RF-positive polyarticular JIA (n = 340) and controls (n = 14,412) were genotyped using the Immunochip array. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were tested for association using a logistic regression model adjusting for admixture proportions. We calculated weighted genetic risk scores (wGRS) of reported RA and JIA risk loci, and we compared the ability of these wGRS to predict RF-positive polyarticular JIA. RESULTS: As expected, the HLA region was strongly associated with RF-positive polyarticular JIA (P = 5.51 × 10-31 ). Nineteen of 44 RA risk loci and 6 of 27 oligoarticular/RF-negative polyarticular JIA risk loci were associated with RF-positive polyarticular JIA (P < 0.05). The RA wGRS predicted RF-positive polyarticular JIA (area under the curve [AUC] 0.71) better than did the oligoarticular/RF-negative polyarticular JIA wGRS (AUC 0.59). The genetic profile of patients with RF-positive polyarticular JIA was more similar to that of RA patients with age at onset 16-29 years than to that of RA patients with age at onset ≥70 years. CONCLUSION: RF-positive polyarticular JIA is genetically more similar to adult RA than to the most common JIA categories and thus appears to be a childhood-onset presentation of autoantibody-positive RA. These findings suggest common disease mechanisms, which could lead to novel therapeutic targets and shared treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Autoanticorpos/genética , Perfil Genético , Fator Reumatoide/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia
13.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 53(5): 1068-1074, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare long-term mortality in patients undergoing primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting who received ≥1 units of red blood cells (RBCs) or no RBCs. We hypothesized that a possible difference in long-term mortality was due to preoperative morbidity and/or postoperative morbidity. METHODS: This prospective cohort study, part of the Cardiac Surgery Outcome Study (CaSOS) at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, included patients operated on from 2000 through 2014 (n = 4014) and excluded those with large intra- or postoperative blood loss or 30-day mortality. Observed mortality from 30 days to 15 years postoperatively was compared between patients who received RBC transfusion and those who did not. Cox regression analysis was performed with unadjusted models, adjusting for pre- and intraoperative covariates, and with further adjustment for postoperative complications. Sensitivity analyses were performed with propensity score matching or including 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for long-term mortality was 2.10 (1.81-2.43; P < 0.01) for transfused patients. After adjusting for pre- and intraoperative variables, the HR was 1.26 (1.04-1.53; P = 0.02). With further adjustment for postoperative complications, RBC transfusion was no longer significant and the HR was 1.19 (0.98-1.44; P = 0.08). These results were supported by the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated that most of the association between RBC transfusion and long-term mortality following primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting was due to confounders, especially from postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 15(6): 512-518, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we examined the effect of sample storage on the reproducibility of several inflammatory biomarkers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), high-sensitivity interleukin-6 (hsIL6), and high-sensitivity tumor necrosis factor alpha (hsTNFα). In addition, we assessed inter- and intra-assay variability between collaborating biobanks. METHODS: In total, 240 fasting plasma samples were obtained from the LifeLines biobank. Samples had been stored for less than 2 or more than 4 years at -80°C. Measurements were performed at three different laboratories. hsCRP was measured by immunonephelometry and ELISA, hsIL6, and hsTNFα samples were measured with ELISAs from two different manufacturers. For confirmation, similar analyses were performed on samples obtained from a subpopulation of 80 obese individuals. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the results. RESULTS: We observed good stability of samples stored at -80°C. hsCRP measured on the day of blood draw was similar to levels measured after more than 4 years of storage. There were small interlaboratory differences with the R&D ELISAs for hsIL6 and hsTNFα. We found a linear correlation between the Bender Medsystems ELISA and the R&D ELISA for hsIL6, with significantly higher levels measured with the R&D ELISA. Over 90% of hsTNFα samples measured with the IBL ELISA were below the detection limit of 0.13 ng/L, rendering this assay unsuitable for large-scale analysis. Similar results were found in the confirmation study. CONCLUSION: In summary, plasma hsCRP showed good stability in samples stored for either less than 2 years or more than 4 years at -80°C. Both the R&D and Bender Medsystems for hsIL6 measurement yielded similar results. The IBL hsTNFα assay is not suited for use in biobanking samples. Assays for the measurement of inflammatory biomarker assays should be rigorously tested before large sample sets are measured.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Obesidade/imunologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
15.
J Rheumatol ; 44(8): 1134-1141, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-reported diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis are not accurate. The primary study aim was to ascertain self-reported diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the Norwegian population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) using hospital case files. The secondary aim was to provide updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence of RA and AS. METHODS: All inhabitants ≥ 20 years old from the county of Nord-Trøndelag were invited. Data from 70,805 unique participants from HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) were included. For participants who self-reported RA or AS, case files from all 3 hospitals in the catchment area were evaluated using standardized diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Of 2703 self-reported cases of RA, 19.1% were verified in hospital files. Of 1064 self-reported cases of AS, 15.8% were verified. Of 259 cases self-reporting both RA and AS, 8.1% had RA and 5.4% had AS. Overall, a self-report of 1 or both diagnoses could not be verified in 82.1%, including 22.8% with insufficient information or no case file. The prevalence of RA was 768 (95% CI 705-835) per 100,000. The incidence of RA from HUNT2 to HUNT3 was 0.48 (0.41-0.56) per 1000 per year. The prevalence of AS was 264 (228-305) per 100,000. The incidence of AS from HUNT2 to HUNT3 was 0.19 (0.15-0.24) per 1000 per year. CONCLUSION: Self-reported diagnoses of RA and AS are often false-positive. The prevalence and incidence of RA were comparable to reports from similar populations. The incidence of AS was higher than previously reported in a mixed population from Norway.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Autorrelato , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43045, 2017 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216633

RESUMO

The lectin complement pathway is suggested to play a role in atherogenesis. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated serine protease-3 (MASP-3) and MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) are molecules related to activation of the lectin complement pathway. We hypothesized that serum levels of these molecules may be associated with the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). In a Norwegian population-based cohort (HUNT2) where young to middle-aged relatively healthy Caucasians were followed up for a first-time MI from 1995-1997 through 2008, the 370 youngest MI patients were matched by age (range 29-62 years) and gender to 370 controls. After adjustments for traditional risk factors, the two highest tertiles of PTX3 and the highest tertiles of ficolin-2 and MASP-3 were associated with MI, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.65 (1.10-2.47) and 2.79 (1.83-4.24) for PTX3, 1.55 (1.04-2.30) for ficolin-2, and 0.63 (0.043-0.94) for MASP-3. Ficolin-1, ficolin-3 and MAP-1 were not associated with MI. In a multimarker analysis of all associated biomarkers, only PTX3 and MASP-3 remained significant. PTX-3 and MASP-3 enhanced prediction of MI compared to the traditional Framingham risk score alone (AUC increased from 0.64 to 0.68, p = 0.006). These results support the role of complement-dependent inflammation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Lectina de Ligação a Manose da Via do Complemento , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Lectinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Prognóstico
18.
Circulation ; 135(9): 839-849, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28082387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). METHODS: Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P=0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P=0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake (P=0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P=0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. CONCLUSIONS: HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00917046.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Remodelação Ventricular
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(3): 837-846, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a multimarker strategy combining preoperative biomarkers representing distinct pathophysiologic pathways enhances preoperative risk assessment of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CSA-AKI) and increases knowledge of underlying pathogenesis. DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. SETTING: Single-center tertiary referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 1,015 adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS: CSA-AKI was defined as≥50% increase in serum creatinine concentration, absolute increase≥26 µmol/L, or new requirement for dialysis. Preoperative and perioperative information until hospital discharge was recorded. Preoperative plasma levels of C-reactive protein, terminal complement complex, neopterin, lactoferrin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and cystatin C were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Biomarkers were selected based on causal hypotheses of underlying mechanisms and were related to inflammatory, hemodynamic, or renal signaling pathways. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred patients (9.9%) developed CSA-AKI. Higher baseline plasma concentrations of neopterin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were associated independently with CSA-AKI (p = 0.04 and p<0.001, respectively). Lower baseline plasma lactoferrin concentrations were observed in patients with CSA-AKI (p = 0.05). Compared with clinical risk assessment, addition of these biomarkers provided a slight, but significant, increment in predictive utility (area under the curve 0.81-0.83, likelihood ratio test p<0.001). A net of 12% of patients were reclassified correctly, and improved prediction was demonstrated, especially in patients with intermediate risk (56% correct reclassification). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative hemodynamic, renal, and immunologic function play central roles in the pathogenesis of CSA-AKI. These findings add evidence to the potential of a multimarker approach to improve preoperative prediction of CSA-AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163754, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19-1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79-0.84), p<0.001)). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The beneficial effect lasted shorter in younger patients, females and patients undergoing AVR or other procedures than isolated CABG. Thus, the study identified three groups that need increased attention for further improvement of outcomes.

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