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1.
Environ Int ; 152: 106503, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756430

RESUMO

The losses of honey bee colonies and declines of other insect pollinators have been associated with negative effects of pesticides. Honey bees as well as other pollinators are nectar and pollen foragers and thus are exposed to an extensive range of phytochemicals. Understanding the synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of plant secondary metabolites and pesticides in honey bees may help to protect honey bee colonies against agrochemicals. In this study, we used untargeted metabolomics to investigate the impact of dietary phytochemical composition on the residual concentration of three pesticides: imidacloprid, tau-fluvalinate and tebuconazole in exposed honey bees. Honey bees were given different diets based on pollen or nectar from four plants: Reseda odorata, Borago officinalis, Phacelia tanacetifolia, and Trifolium repens for two days. Thereafter, they were orally exposed to 10 ng/bee imidacloprid or contact-exposed to 0.9 µg/bee tau-fluvalinate or 5 µg/bee tebuconazole. After 1 h of oral exposure or 24 h of contact exposure, the honey bees were anaesthetised with CO2, sacrificed by freezing, extracted with a validated QuEChERS method, and residual pesticide concentrations were determined by LC-QTRAP-MS/MS. The phytochemical composition in the given diets were profiled with an UHPLC-Q Exactive-MS/MS. The results revealed that the dietary phytochemical composition has a noteworthy influence on the concentration of residual pesticides in honey bees. The correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated that flavonoids have a reducing effect on the residual concentration of imidacloprid and tau-fluvalinate in honey bees. The results also highlighted that exposure to imidacloprid impaired the metabolism of sugars in honey bees. Exploiting flavonoid-rich plants may protect honey bees against pesticides and hold promise as forage plants in future beekeeping.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 627-637, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416324

RESUMO

The honey bee pollen/nectar diet is rich in bioactive phytochemicals and recent studies have demonstrated the potential of phytochemicals to influence honey bee disease resistance. To unravel the role of dietary phytochemicals in honey bee health it is essential to understand phytochemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism but presently limited knowledge exists. With this study we aim to build a knowledge foundation. For 5 days, we continuously fed honey bees on eight individual phytochemicals and measured the concentrations in whole and dissected bees by HPLC-MS/MS. Ample phytochemical metabolization was observed, and only 6-30% of the consumed quantities were recovered. Clear differences in metabolization rates were evident, with atropine, aucubin, and triptolide displaying significantly slower metabolism. Phytochemical gut uptake was also demonstrated, and oral bioavailability was 4-31%, with the highest percentages observed for amygdalin, triptolide, and aucubin. We conclude that differences in the chemical properties and structure impact phytochemical uptake and metabolism.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Abelhas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127848, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771708

RESUMO

Honey bees are important pollinators and are subject to numerous stressors, such as changing floral resources, parasites, and agrochemical exposure. Pesticide exposure has been linked to the decline in the global honey bee population. We have limited knowledge of the metabolic pathways and synergistic effects of xenobiotics in bees. Quercetin is one of the most abundant phytochemicals in plants and is therefore abundant in the honey bee diet. Quercetin can upregulate the detoxification system in honey bees; however, it is still unknown to what extent quercetin ingestion can reduce the content of absorbed pesticides. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary quercetin on the contents of three pesticides in honey bees: imidacloprid (insecticide), tebuconazole (fungicide), and tau-fluvalinate (insecticide and acaricide). Bees were divided into two main groups and fed either quercetin-sucrose paste or only sucrose for 72 h. Thereafter, they were orally exposed to ∼10 ng/bee imidacloprid or contact-exposed to ∼0.9 µg/bee tau-fluvalinate or ∼5.2 µg/bee tebuconazole. After 1 h of oral exposure or 24 h of contact exposure, the bees were anaesthetised with CO2, sacrificed by freezing, and extracted with a validated QuEChERS method. Subsequently, the concentrations of the three pesticides and quercetin in the bees were determined with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer coupled to an HPLC system. No significant effect on the concentration of tebuconazole or tau-fluvalinate was observed in bees fed quercetin. Intake of quercetin led to a reduction in the concentration of imidacloprid in honey bees. Quercetin-rich plants may be exploited in future beekeeping.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Quercetina , Acaricidas , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Dieta , Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilos , Nitrocompostos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Piretrinas , Xenobióticos
4.
Meat Sci ; : 108333, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067082

RESUMO

Increasing demands are being placed on meat producers to verify more about their product with regards to safety, quality and authenticity. There are many methods that can detect aspects of these parameters in meat, yet most are too slow to keep up with the demands of modern meat processing plants and supply chains. A new technology, Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS), has the potential to bridge the gap between advanced laboratory measurements and technology that can screen for quality, safety and authenticity parameters in a single measurement. Analysis with REIMS generates a detailed mass spectral fingerprint representative of a meat sample without the need for sample processing. REIMS has successfully been used to detect species fraud, detect use of hormones in meat animals, monitor meat processing and to detect off flavours such as boar taint. The aim of this review is to summarize these and other applications to highlight the potential of REIMS for meat analysis. Sampling methods and important considerations for data analysis are discussed as well as limitations of the technology and remaining challenges for practical adoption.

5.
Plant Sci ; 291: 110336, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928684

RESUMO

Wheat grain nitrogen content displays large variations within different pearling fractions of grains because of radial gradients in the protein content. We identified how spatiotemporal mechanisms regulate this. The protein gradients emerged clearly at 19 days after anthesis, with the highest N content in aleurone and seed coat, followed by outer endosperm, whereas the lowest was in middle and inner endosperm. Laser microdissection, qRT-PCR and LC-MS were used to dissect tissue from aleurone, outer endosperm, middle endosperm, inner endosperm and transfer cells, measure gene expression and levels of free and protein-bound amino acids, respectively. The results showed that different FAA transportation pathways worked in parallel during grain filling stage while the grain protein gradient did not follow spatial expression of storage proteins. Additionally, two nitrogen (N) topdressing timings were conducted, either at the emergence of top third leaf (standard timing) or top first leaf (delayed timing), finding that delayed N topdressing enhanced both amino acids supply and protein synthesis capacity. The results provide insight into protein synthesis and amino acid transport pathways in endosperm and suggest targets for the enhancement of specialty pearled wheat with higher quality.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Endosperma/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Triticum/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
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