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1.
Environ Res ; 180: 108841, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that particulate matter (PM) gamma activity (gamma radiation associated with PM) is associated with systemic effects. OBJECTIVE: Examine short-term relationships between ambient and indoor exposures to PM gamma activities with systemic inflammation and endothelial activation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: In 85 COPD patients from Eastern Massachusetts, USA from 2012 to 2014, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured seasonally up to four times. We used US EPA RadNet data measuring ambient gamma radiation attached to PM adjusted for background radiation, and estimated in-home gamma radiation exposures using the ratio of in-home-to-ambient sulfur in PM2.5. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used to determine associations between moving averages of PM gamma activities through the week before phlebotomy with these biomarkers. We explored ambient and indoor PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and NO2 as confounders. RESULTS: Ambient and indoor PM gamma activities measured as energy spectra classes 3 through 9 were positively associated with CRP and IL-6. For example, averaged from phlebotomy day through previous 6 days, each IQR increase in indoor PM gamma activity for each spectra class, was associated with an CRP increase ranging from 7.45% (95%CI: 2.77, 12.4) to 13.4% (95%CI: 5.82, 21.4) and for ambient exposures were associated with an increase of 8.75% (95%CI: -0.57, 18.95) to 14.8% (95%CI: 4.5, 26.0). Indoor exposures were associated with IL-6 increase of 3.56% (95%CI: 0.31, 6.91) to 6.46% (95%CI:1.33, 11.85) and ambient exposures were associated with an increase of 0.03% (95%CI: -6.37, 6.87) to 3.50% (95%CI: -3.15, 10.61). There were no positive associations with sVCAM-1. Sensitivity analyses using two-pollutant models showed similar effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that short-term exposures to environmental PM gamma radiation activities were associated with systemic inflammation in COPD patients.

2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104630, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450336

RESUMO

Graphene is a two-dimensional material with unique structure and excellent properties. After first being successfully prepared in 2004, it rapidly became a research hotspot in the fields of materials, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Currently, there are many methods for preparing graphene, such as ball milling method, chemical oxidation-reduction, chemical vapor deposition, and liquid-phase exfoliation. Among these methods, liquid-phase exfoliation is the most important preparation method. In this paper, ultrasound-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation is systematically studied. The output power and frequency of the ultrasonic crusher used in the experiment are 100 W and 20 kHz, respectively. Results show that ultrasonic waves can affect the size and thickness distribution of graphene sheets; ultrasound-assisted deoxycholic acid sodium aqueous solution has a good exfoliation effect. In addition, the effects of the 3 liquid-phase systems on preparing graphene are studied, including organic solvent system, aqueous surfactant system, and ionic liquids system; the improvement efforts for ultrasound-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation method are discussed including the exploration of new solvents and optimization of exfoliation process. The application of auxiliary agent-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation method is also discussed.

3.
Environ Res ; 175: 221-227, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether environmental gamma radiation measured in US cities has detectable adverse health effects. We assessed whether short-term exposure to gamma radiation emitted from ambient air particles [gamma particle activity (PRγ)] is associated with reduced pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the inhalation of gamma radiation emitted from ambient air particles may be associated with reduced pulmonary function in individuals with COPD. METHODS: In 125 patients with COPD from Eastern Massachusetts who had up to 4 seasonal one-week assessments of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and sulfur followed by spirometry. The US EPA continuously monitors ambient gamma (γ) radiation including γ released from radionuclides attached to particulate matter that is recorded as 9 γ-energy spectra classes (i = 3-9) in counts per minute (CPMγ) in the Boston area (USA). We analyzed the associations between ambient and indoor PRγi (up to one week) and pre and post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and with forced vital capacity (FVC) using mixed-effects regression models. We estimated indoor PRγi using the ratio of the indoor-to-outdoor sulfur in PM2.5 as a proxy for infiltration of ambient radionuclide-associated particles. RESULTS: Overall, exposures to ambient and indoor PRγi were associated with a similar decrease in pre- and post-BD FEV1 and FVC. For example, ambient PRγ3 exposure averaged from the day of pulmonary function testing through the previous 3 days [IQR of 55.1 counts per minute (CPMγ)] was associated with a decrease in pre-BD FEV1 of 21.0 ml (95%CI: -38.5 to -3.0 ml; p < 0.01) and pre-BD FVC of 27.5 ml [95% confidence interval (CI): -50.7 to -5.0 ml; p < 0.01] with similar effects adjusting for indoor and outdoor BC and PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our results show that short-term ambient and indoor exposures to environmental gamma radiation associated with particulate matter are associated with reduced pre- and post-BD pulmonary function in patients with COPD.

4.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 55: 273-278, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712850

RESUMO

The application of ultrasonic technology in the treatment of organic pollutants in water has attracted more and more attention in recent years. Compared with conventional treatment, ultrasonic treatment is more efficient and time saving. Ultrasonic technology is effective for the degradation of many refractory organic pollutants. In this paper, the principle, influencing factors and various methods of ultrasonic degradation of organic pollutants are studied in view of ultrasonic treatment alone, ultrasound treatment methods combined with biocatalysts, chemical oxidation and adsorption techniques, respectively. In addition, the problems existing in the treatment of organic pollutants in water by ultrasonic technology are analyzed and the development direction is put forward.

5.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1210-1216, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decay products of radioactive materials may attach to ambient fine particles and form radioactive aerosol. Internal ionizing radiation source from inhaled radioactive aerosol may contribute to the fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-inflammation pathway. However, few studies in humans have examined the associations. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between particle radioactivity and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. METHODS: We included 3996 participants who were not current smokers and lived within 50 km from our central air pollution monitoring station. We estimated regional mean gross beta radioactivity from monitors in the northeastern U.S. as a surrogate for ambient radioactive particles, and calculated the 1- to 28-day moving averages. We used linear regression models for fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase which were measured once, and linear mixed effect models for 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), P-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 that were measured up to twice, adjusting for demographics, individual- and area-level socioeconomic positions, time, meteorology, and PM2.5. We also examined whether the associations differed by median age, sex, diabetes status, PM2.5 levels, and black carbon levels. RESULTS: The mean age was 54 years and 54% were women. An interquartile range (3 × 10-3 pCi/m3) higher beta radioactivity level at the 7-day moving average was associated with 5.09% (95% CI: 0.92, 9.43), 2.65% (1.10, 4.22), and 4.71% (95% CI: 3.01, 6.44) higher levels of interleukin-6, MCP-1, and P-selectin, but with 7.01% (95% CI: -11.64, -2.15) and 2.70% (95% CI: -3.97, -1.42) lower levels of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α and ICAM-1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Regional mean particle radioactivity was positively associated with interleukin-6, MCP-1, and P-selectin, but negatively with ICAM-1 and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α among our study participants.

7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(3 Supl 1): 1-104, 2017 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044300
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3,supl.1): 1-104, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887936
9.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 10(5): 413-9, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27039160

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between dental infections and systemic diseases in the Indigenous population of Brazil. A representative sample of 225 Indigenous (≥19 years) was assessed. The T-test and bivariate and logistic models were used to assess the associations of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity with dental caries and destructive periodontal disease. After adjustments for covariates, dental caries were associated with hypertension (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.66; P = .04). Individuals with destructive periodontal disease had a higher systolic blood pressure (124 ± 20.34 mm Hg) than those without destructive periodontal disease (117.52 ± 16.54 mm Hg; P = .01). In conclusion, dental infections were found to be associated with hypertension in the present population. Thus, patients diagnosed with hypertension should be referred for dental evaluation and vice versa.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Periodontol ; 82(5): 683-8, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21054230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study evaluates the association of severe periodontitis with pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT), and clinical, metabolic, and atherogenic inflammatory markers in 79 subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hFH). All subjects were free of previous vascular disease manifestations. METHODS: The body mass index (in kilograms per square meter), plasma lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein, and white blood cell counts were evaluated. After full-mouth periodontal examinations, patients were categorized into the severe periodontitis group (SPG) or non-severe periodontitis group (NSPG). RESULTS: The SPG showed significantly higher values of cholesterol-year scores, triglycerides, glucose, PWV, IMT, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P ≤0.05) than the NSPG. After adjustment for traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, only the association between severe periodontitis and DBP (odds ratio: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 8.5; P = 0.03) was confirmed. CONCLUSION: In individuals with hFH, severe periodontitis was associated with a higher DBP, which suggests that severe periodontitis, itself, may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk profile in this population.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Periodontite/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perda do Osso Alveolar/classificação , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bolsa Periodontal/classificação , Projetos Piloto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Média/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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