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1.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the selenium (Se) behavior when used as an endodontic dressing in teeth with pulp necrosis. Additionally, its effects was also compared with the calcium hydroxide (C.H.), which is used globally as a root canal dressing, and the combination of the C.H. with Se (C.H. + Se). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 60 patients requiring endodontic treatment who were divided into groups, i.e., without intracanal medication (empty) and with medications as follows: selenium (Se), calcium hydroxide (C.H.), and calcium hydroxide + selenium (C.H. + Se) (n = 15). After the coronary opening, three absorbent paper points were placed in the RCS and maintained for 2 min for microbial evaluation. Following the cleaning and shaping procedures, new paper points were introduced into the root canal system, passing passively through the root apex (2 mm) into the periapical tissues for 2 min, for immune evaluation. The collections were performed again 15 days later. Real-time PCR quantified the expression of the prokaryotic 16S ribosomal RNA. The 16S mRNA was evaluated before the cleaning and shaping procedures and 15 days later in the groups treated with or without medication. RESULTS: A significant reduction in the microbial load was observed only in the groups that received endodontic dressing (p < 0.05). The cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-17A, IL-10, IL-6 and MCP-1, were also quantified by real-time PCR. There was an increase in the gene expression level of the cytokines (T15) TNF-α and IL-10 in the C.H. group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The IFN-γ mRNA expression was reduced in the groups treated with the medications (Se, C.H., and C.H. + Se). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicate that in the case of treatment over multiple sessions, the use of root canal dressing is essential to avoid the root canal system (RCS) microbial recolonization. Selenium potentiated the effects of calcium hydroxide inducing an anti-inflammatory response in periapical tissues. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Se is a mineral essential for the formation of the amino acid selenocysteine, which is directly involved in the maintenance of the immune response. Selenium has been widely used in the medical field in the treatment of cancer, as an activator of bone metabolism, and as a stimulator of the immune system. In this study, it was shown that the incorporation of Se, whether as intracanal medication alone or in conjunction with other medications, may potentiate periapical tissue repair after RCS cleaning and shaping procedures.

3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect(s) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclast-dependent bone resorption events and the influence of Ca2+ and Al3+ on the osteoclastogenesis inhibition by MTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of osteoclast precursors, RAW 264.7 (RAW) cell line or bone marrow cells (obtained from BALB/c mice and stimulated with recombinant (r) macrophage colony stimulation factor (M-CSF), were stimulated with or without recombinant (r) activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL), in the presence or absence of MTA for 6 to 8 days. White Angelus MTA and Bios MTA (Angelus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) were prepared and inserted into capillary tubes (direct contact surface = 0.50 mm2 and 0.01 mm2). Influence of MTA on these types of osteoclast precursors was measured by the number of differentiated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (RAW and bone marrow cells), TRAP enzyme activity (RAW cells), cathepsin K gene expression (RAW cells), and resorptive pit formation (RAW cells) by mature osteoclasts. Besides, RAW cells were also stimulated with Ca2+ and Al3+ to evaluate the influence of these ions on MTA anti-osteoclastogenic potential. RESULTS: In bone marrow and RAW cells, the number of TRAP-positive mature osteoclast cells induced by rRANKL was significantly inhibited by the presence of MTA compared with control rRANKL stimulation without MTA (p < 0.05), along with the reduction of TRAP enzyme activity (p < 0.05) and the low expression of cathepsin K gene (p < 0.05). In contrast, to control mature osteoclasts, the resorption area on dentin was significantly decreased for mature osteoclasts incubated with MTA (p < 0.05). rRANKL-stimulated RAW cells treated with Ca2+ and Al3+ decreased the number of osteoclasts cells. Besides, the aluminum oxide was the dominant suppressor of the osteoclastogenesis process. CONCLUSIONS: MTA significantly suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity and, therefore, appears able to suppress bone resorption events in periapical lesions. This process might be related to Ca2+ and Al3+ activities. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: MTA is an important worldwidely acknowleged biomaterial. The knowledge about its molecular activities on osteoclasts might contribute to improving the understanding of its clinical efficacy.

4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the mRNA expression levels of cytokines interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin IL-1ß, IL-10, and the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1, CCL4, and CXCR4 in the periapical interstitial fluid from root canal infections before and after bacterial load reduction in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case group was composed of 10 patients undergoing HSCT, and our control group included 10 healthy patients. Clinical samples were taken from teeth with pulp necrosis. Three paper points were placed in the RCS and maintained for 2 min for microbial evaluation before cleaning and shaping procedures. After cleaning and drying the canal, three paper points were introduced into the root canal, passing passively through the root apex (2 mm) into the periapical tissues for 1 min. Samples were collected immediately after root canal cleaning and 7 days later (restrained root canal bacterial load) to characterize gene expression using real-time PCR. RESULTS: The results showed significantly reduction in the microbial load on day 7. An increased expression level of TNF-α and IFN-γ on day 7 in control and case groups was observed (p < 0.05). The mRNA levels of IL-1ß and IL-10 in the pre-HSCT group increased in the samples from day 7 (p < 0.05). The chemokine CCL-2/MCP-1 was not detected in pre-HSCT group. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 levels increased in samples obtained from the day 7 in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals undergoing HSTC presented similar cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression compared with healthy individuals. However, it was observed the total absence of mRNA MCP-1/CCL2 expression in those individuals undergoing HSCT. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patients undergoing HSCT are at higher risk of infection. No study has analysed the periapical immune responses to root canal infections in HSCT individuals.

5.
Elife ; 92020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701055

RESUMO

Chronic ethanol consumption is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, with higher risks to develop pulmonary infections, including Aspergillus infections. Mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility to infections are poorly understood. Chronic ethanol consumption induced increased mortality rates, higher Aspergillus fumigatus burden and reduced neutrophil recruitment into the airways. Intravital microscopy showed decrease in leukocyte adhesion and rolling after ethanol consumption. Moreover, downregulated neutrophil activation and increased levels of serum CXCL1 in ethanol-fed mice induced internalization of CXCR2 receptor in circulating neutrophils. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils from ethanol-fed mice showed lower fungal clearance and defective reactive oxygen species production. Taken together, results showed that ethanol affects activation, recruitment, phagocytosis and killing functions of neutrophils, causing susceptibility to pulmonary A. fumigatus infection. This study establishes a new paradigm in innate immune response in chronic ethanol consumers.

6.
J Neuroimmunol ; 346: 577292, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580070

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests a role for brain-gut-microbiota axis in affective disorders including major depression and bipolar disorder (BD). Herein, we aim to explore, by employing germ-free (GF) mice, the effect of the indigenous microbiota in the development of mania-like behavior. Conventional and GF mice were evaluated for the hyperlocomotion induced by the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 (15 mg/Kg), a validated model for mania-like behavior. Inflammatory mediators and neurotrophic factors were quantified in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Mice lacking indigenous microbiota were less susceptible to the mania-like behavior induced by GBR12909. This effect was associated with decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, along with increased concentrations of anti- inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and of neurotrophins (BDNF and NGF). We provided the first evidence that gut-microbiota-brain axis participates in the development of mania-like behavior in rodents, possibly through neuroimmunepathways.

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(5): 752-768.e7, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298657

RESUMO

The impact of T helper (Th) 1 versus Th2 immunity on intracellular infections is attributed to classical versus alternative activation of macrophages leading to resistance or susceptibility. However, observations in multiple infectious settings demonstrate deficiencies in mediators of Th1-Th2 immunity, which have paradoxical or no impact. We report that prior to influencing activation, Th1/Th2 immunity first controls the size of the permissive host cell reservoir. During early Leishmania infection of the skin, IFN-γ- or STAT6-mediated changes in phagocyte activation were counteracted by changes in IFN-γ-mediated recruitment of permissive CCR2+ monocytes. Monocytes were required for early parasite expansion and acquired an alternatively activated phenotype despite the Th1 dermal environment required for their recruitment. Surprisingly, STAT6 did not enhance intracellular parasite proliferation, but rather modulated the size and permissiveness of the monocytic host cell reservoir via regulation of IFN-γ and IL-10. These observations expand our understanding of the Th1-Th2 paradigm during infection.

8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008379, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160269

RESUMO

Chagas Disease (CD) is one of the leading causes of heart failure and sudden death in Latin America. Treatments with antioxidants have provided promising alternatives to ameliorate CD. However, the specific roles of major reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources, including NADPH-oxidase 2 (NOX2), mitochondrial-derived ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the progression or resolution of CD are yet to be elucidated. We used C57BL/6 (WT) and a gp91PHOX knockout mice (PHOX-/-), lacking functional NOX2, to investigate the effects of ablation of NOX2-derived ROS production on the outcome of acute chagasic cardiomyopathy. Infected PHOX-/- cardiomyocytes displayed an overall pro-arrhythmic phenotype, notably with higher arrhythmia incidence on ECG that was followed by higher number of early afterdepolarizations (EAD) and 2.5-fold increase in action potential (AP) duration alternans, compared to AP from infected WT mice. Furthermore, infected PHOX-/- cardiomyocytes display increased diastolic [Ca2+], aberrant Ca2+ transient and reduced Ca2+ transient amplitude. Cardiomyocyte contraction is reduced in infected WT and PHOX-/- mice, to a similar extent. Nevertheless, only infected PHOX-/- isolated cardiomyocytes displayed significant increase in non-triggered extra contractions (appearing in ~75% of cells). Electro-mechanical remodeling of infected PHOX-/-cardiomyocytes is associated with increase in NO and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Notably, EADs, AP duration alternans and in vivo arrhythmias were reverted by pre-incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Overall our data show for the first time that lack of NOX2-derived ROS promoted a pro-arrhythmic phenotype in the heart, in which the crosstalk between ROS and NO could play an important role in regulating cardiomyocyte electro-mechanical function during acute CD. Future studies designed to evaluate the potential role of NOX2-derived ROS in the chronic phase of CD could open new and more specific therapeutic strategies to treat CD and prevent deaths due to heart complications.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo
9.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(10): 3691-3697, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the gene expression of the cytokines IL-9, TNF-α, IL-1, INF-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 and the chemokines CCL-2/MCP-1 and CCR-6 in the periapical fluid of human root canal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty samples were collected immediately and 7 days after the cleaning and shaping procedures (after reducing the intracanal microbial load) in an attempt to characterize the expression of these genes. The endogenous expression levels of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Shapiro-Wilk and the Wilcoxon tests analyzed data. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of the IL-9, INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-10 markers on day 7 were observed compared with day 0 (p < 0.05). However, IL-17A and the chemokines CCL-2/MCP-1 and CCR-6 did not show a significant difference in mRNA expression when comparing both timepoints (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical variation of the periapical immune status after endodontic therapy suggests that the cytokine and chemokine-mediated pro-inflammatory response appears to be modulated in an IL-10/IL-9-dependent manner. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Few studies have investigated the role of Th9 cells in periapical lesions. IL-9 presents exciting plasticity, performing immunosuppressive actions, and it is also capable of changing their phenotype in the presence of IL-17. Hence, it is relevant to investigate its role in the context of the known mediators involved the periapical immune process.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Quimiocinas , Citocinas , Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0006596, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923234

RESUMO

An association between increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and obesity has been described as a result of impaired immunity in obese individuals. It is not clear whether a similar linkage can be drawn between obesity and parasitic diseases. To evaluate the effect of obesity in the immune response to cutaneous Leishmania major infection, we studied the ability of C57BL/6 mice fed a hypercaloric diet (HSB) to control leishmaniasis. Mice with diet-induced obesity presented thicker lesions with higher parasite burden and a more intense inflammatory infiltrate in the infected ear after infection with L. major. There was no difference between control and obese mice in IFN-gamma or IL-4 production by auricular draining lymph node cells, but obese mice produced higher levels of IgG1 and IL-17. Peritoneal macrophages from obese mice were less efficient to kill L. major when infected in vitro than macrophages from control mice. In vitro stimulation of macrophages with IL-17 decreased their capacity to kill the parasite. Moreover, macrophages from obese mice presented higher arginase activity. To confirm the role of IL-17 in the context of obesity and infection, we studied lesion development in obese IL-17R-/- mice infected with L. major and found no difference in skin lesions and the leukocyte accumulation in the draining lymph node is redcuced in knockout mice compared between obese and lean animals. Our results indicate that diet-induced obesity impairs resistance to L. major in C57BL/6 mice and that IL-17 is involved in lesion development.


Assuntos
Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Obesidade , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Orelha/parasitologia , Feminino , Interferon gama , Interleucina-17 , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Linfonodos/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fatores de Risco
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800862

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the periradicular responses in endodontic infections among members of two populations: an urban Brazilian population and a non-mixed indigenous population. Samples were collected immediately and 7 days after the cleaning and shaping procedures (after reducing the intracanal microbial load) in an attempt to characterize the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-9, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, IL-10, and the chemokines CXCR4, CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and CCR6. The endogenous cytokine and chemokine expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR. Only the urban population showed a significant increase in TNF-α, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR4, and CCR6 expression following the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. The IFN-γ levels were increased at the 2nd collection (p < 0.05) in the indigenous population. In turn, a significant increase in IL-10 and IL-17 expression (p < 0.05) was observed after the cleaning and shaping procedures (2nd collection) in both populations. No significant differences in the IL-1ß, IL-9, and CCL4 expression levels were observed between the 1st and 2nd collections in both populations. The results demonstrate a cytokine and chemokine expression profile that is specific to each analyzed population. However, immune modulation mediated by IL-10 began on the 7th day after the beginning of the endodontic treatment in both populations.


Assuntos
Necrose da Polpa Dentária/genética , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/imunologia , Periodontite Periapical/genética , Periodontite Periapical/imunologia , Brasil , Citocinas/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico , Índios Sul-Americanos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Valores de Referência , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana
12.
Cell Biol Int ; 43(5): 466-475, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761659

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by NADPH oxidase (NOX), an enzyme that reduces oxygen by using NADPH as a substrate. Apocynin (APO) is a catechol that is used as a NOX inhibitor, and N-acetyl-cysteine ​​(NAC) can reduce intracellular ROS levels. In this work, the effect of APO and NAC on osteoclast formation were evaluated. APO and NAC significantly decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and the osteoclast area. We analyzed bone-marrow derived monocyte-macrophages (BMMs) that differentiated into osteoclasts after RANKL stimulation. Stimulation was associated with either APO or NAC treatment and osteoclastogenesis marker expression, including NFATc1, MMP-9, and DC-STAMP, was evaluated. APO decreased the intracellular calcium concentration by calcium channels other than ITPR1 and TPC2. On the other hand, APO reduced Tnfrsf11a (RANK) expression and did not alter Fam102a (EEIG1) expression. Therefore, our results demonstrate that APO inhibits osteoclastogenesis by the RANK-RANKL-related signaling pathways, decreases osteoclast markers, and reduces intracellular calcium concentration.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetofenonas/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
13.
Parasitology ; : 1-12, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588899

RESUMO

Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is one species that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The incidence of infections with this parasite is probably underestimated and few studies exist on this species, despite its epidemiological importance. In particular, there are no studies concerning L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis and no technique for obtaining metacyclic promastigotes for this species is presently available. Here, we have studied L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis in axenic culture, describing the main changes that occur during this process, namely, in morphology and size, sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis, surface carbohydrates and infectivity to macrophages. We have shown that metacyclogenesis in L. guyanensis promastigotes is basically complete on the 4th day of culture, as determined by decreased body size, increased flagellum length, resistance to complement-mediated lysis and infectivity. We have also found that only a fraction of the parasites is agglutinated by Bauhinia purpurea lectin. The non-agglutinated parasites, which also peaked on the 4th day of culture, had all morphological traits typical of the metacyclic stage. This is the first report describing metacyclogenesis in L. guyanensis axenic promastigotes and a simple and efficient method for the purification of metacyclic forms. Furthermore, a model of human macrophage infection with L. guyanensis was established.

14.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e120, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517429

RESUMO

The present study aims to evaluate the longitudinal effects of induced experimental infections in gnotoxenic animals on the expression of inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in periradicular tissues. The null hypothesis tested was that Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum had no effect on CCR5, CCL5, CXCL10, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR2 and CCR1 expression. Two groups of five animals (n = 5) aged between 8 and 12 weeks were used in this study. The animals were anaesthetized, and coronary access was performed in the first molar on the right and left sides. Microorganisms were inoculated into the left molar, and the right molar was sealed without contamination to function as a control. Animals were sacrificed 7 and 14 days after infection, and periapical tissues were collected. The cytokine mRNA expression levels were assessed using real-time PCR. The chemokine mRNA expression levels demonstrated that the experimental infection was capable of inducing increased chemokine expression on day 7 compared to that on day 14, except for CCR5 and CCL5, which showed no changes. The gnotoxenic animal model proved to be effective and allowed evaluation of the immune response against a known infection. Additionally, this study demonstrates that gene expression of chemokines and their receptors against the experimental infection preferentially prevailed during the initial phase of induction of the periradicular alteration (i.e., on day 7 post-infection).


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/análise , Cavidade Pulpar/imunologia , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/imunologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/imunologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/análise , Animais , Quimiocinas/genética , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Doenças Periapicais/imunologia , Doenças Periapicais/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Quimiocinas/genética , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e103, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328900

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of cytokines in response to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plus selenium in germ-free mice with experimental furcal perforation. The first left maxillary molar was opened, and the furcal area was perforated and treated with post-MTA-Se (experimental group). The same surgical intervention was performed for the maxillary right first molar, which was treated with MTA (control group). Fifteen mice were sacrificed 7, 14, and 21 days after furcal perforation, and periapical tissue samples were collected. The mRNA expression levels of the cytokines TGF-ß, TNF-α, IFN-γ, HPRT, IL-10, IL-4, RANK, RANKL, IL-1, and IL-17 were assessed by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the experimental group, at 21-days post-MTA-Se sealing, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were upregulated compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05). Futher assessment revealed basal mRNA expression levels of IL-1α, IFN-γ, RANK, RANKL, IL-17A, IL-4, and TGF-ß, over long experimental times, in both the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MTA+Se sealing favoured increased expression of IL-10 and TNF-α at later time points (day 21).


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Citocinas/análise , Cavidade Pulpar/lesões , Defeitos da Furca/tratamento farmacológico , Óxidos/farmacologia , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Silicatos/farmacologia , Animais , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/imunologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Defeitos da Furca/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Molar/lesões , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e19, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538481

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological profile of oral health of Sateré-Mawé indigenous people living in Barreirinha, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, and the Tikuna indigenous people living in the urban area of Manaus (AM), in addition to characterizing the need for endodontic treatment between the two ethnic groups. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study, of whom 98 were Tikuna and 40 were Sateré-Mawé; they were distributed in age groups ranging from seven to 75 years. A very high prevalence of caries was observed in both ethnic groups. For the Sateré-Mawé in the 7-12 age group, the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index presented a mean value of 3.17. Comparing the DMFT index and the need for endodontic treatment in each of the ethnicities, these variables were found to be correlated, because as the DMFT index increases, the chances of needing endodontic treatment increase. The Sateré-Mawé presented a higher prevalence of need for endodontic treatment compared to the Tikuna. The association of comorbidities and the need for endodontic treatment were demonstrated only in the Tikuna, and there was only a correlation of this necessity with the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in one case. The need to expand access to oral health in these communities is emphasized, taking into account geographical access and technological, environmental, linguistic, and cultural barriers.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrition ; 50: 1-7, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known cytokine that triggers insulin resistance during obesity development. On the other hand, it is also known that TNF induces a fat mass loss during acute diseases. However, whether TNF has a protective and physiological role to control adipose tissue expansion during obesity still needs to be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ablation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) alters fat mass and insulin resistance induced by a highly refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet. METHODS: Male C57 BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and TNFR1 knockout (TNFR1-/-) mice were fed with chow or with the HC diet for 16 wk. RESULTS: TNFR1-/- mice gained more body weight than the WT groups independent of the diet composition. TNFR1-/- mice fed with the chow diet showed higher adiposity, accompanied by higher serum leptin levels. However, these mice showed lower non-esterified fatty acid levels. Furthermore, TNFR1-/- mice had suppressed TNF, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels in adipose tissue compared with WT mice. TNFR1-/- mice fed with the HC diet were protected from increased adiposity and glucose intolerance induced by the HC diet and exhibited lower serum resistin levels. CONCLUSIONS: TNF signaling appears to have a paradoxical role on metabolism. Ablation of TNFR1 leads to a reduction of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue that is accompanied by higher adiposity in mice fed with chow diet. However, when these mice are given the HC diet, the loss of TNFR1 improves insulin sensitivity and protects mice against additional fat mass.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Resistina/sangue
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e19, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889466

RESUMO

Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological profile of oral health of Sateré-Mawé indigenous people living in Barreirinha, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, and the Tikuna indigenous people living in the urban area of Manaus (AM), in addition to characterizing the need for endodontic treatment between the two ethnic groups. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study, of whom 98 were Tikuna and 40 were Sateré-Mawé; they were distributed in age groups ranging from seven to 75 years. A very high prevalence of caries was observed in both ethnic groups. For the Sateré-Mawé in the 7-12 age group, the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index presented a mean value of 3.17. Comparing the DMFT index and the need for endodontic treatment in each of the ethnicities, these variables were found to be correlated, because as the DMFT index increases, the chances of needing endodontic treatment increase. The Sateré-Mawé presented a higher prevalence of need for endodontic treatment compared to the Tikuna. The association of comorbidities and the need for endodontic treatment were demonstrated only in the Tikuna, and there was only a correlation of this necessity with the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in one case. The need to expand access to oral health in these communities is emphasized, taking into account geographical access and technological, environmental, linguistic, and cultural barriers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Índice CPO , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/etnologia , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e120, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-974436

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the longitudinal effects of induced experimental infections in gnotoxenic animals on the expression of inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in periradicular tissues. The null hypothesis tested was that Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum had no effect on CCR5, CCL5, CXCL10, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR2 and CCR1 expression. Two groups of five animals (n = 5) aged between 8 and 12 weeks were used in this study. The animals were anaesthetized, and coronary access was performed in the first molar on the right and left sides. Microorganisms were inoculated into the left molar, and the right molar was sealed without contamination to function as a control. Animals were sacrificed 7 and 14 days after infection, and periapical tissues were collected. The cytokine mRNA expression levels were assessed using real-time PCR. The chemokine mRNA expression levels demonstrated that the experimental infection was capable of inducing increased chemokine expression on day 7 compared to that on day 14, except for CCR5 and CCL5, which showed no changes. The gnotoxenic animal model proved to be effective and allowed evaluation of the immune response against a known infection. Additionally, this study demonstrates that gene expression of chemokines and their receptors against the experimental infection preferentially prevailed during the initial phase of induction of the periradicular alteration (i.e., on day 7 post-infection).

20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e103, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-974462

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of cytokines in response to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plus selenium in germ-free mice with experimental furcal perforation. The first left maxillary molar was opened, and the furcal area was perforated and treated with post-MTA-Se (experimental group). The same surgical intervention was performed for the maxillary right first molar, which was treated with MTA (control group). Fifteen mice were sacrificed 7, 14, and 21 days after furcal perforation, and periapical tissue samples were collected. The mRNA expression levels of the cytokines TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, HPRT, IL-10, IL-4, RANK, RANKL, IL-1, and IL-17 were assessed by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the experimental group, at 21-days post-MTA-Se sealing, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were upregulated compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05). Futher assessment revealed basal mRNA expression levels of IL-1α, IFN-γ, RANK, RANKL, IL-17A, IL-4, and TGF-β, over long experimental times, in both the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MTA+Se sealing favoured increased expression of IL-10 and TNF-α at later time points (day 21).

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