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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 39-46, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003623

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficiência das técnicas de vibrocompressão e hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico de forma isolada e a associação das duas técnicas (hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico + vibrocompressão), na quantidade de secreção aspirada e na alteração de parâmetros hemodinâmicos e pulmonares. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado com pacientes críticos em ventilação mecânica, realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário. Os pacientes foram randomizados para receber uma das técnicas de higiene brônquica por 10 minutos (vibrocompressão, ou hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico, ou hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico + vibrocompressão). Após, foram novamente randomizados para receber inicialmente a técnica (previamente randomizada) ou apenas a aspiração isolada. Foram analisados o peso de secreção aspirada (em gramas), dados de mecânica ventilatória e cardiopulmonares, antes e após a aplicação das técnicas. A frequência de reintubação traqueal, o tempo de ventilação mecânica e a mortalidade, também foram avaliados. Resultados: Foram incluídos 93 pacientes (29 vibrocompressão, 32 hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico e 32 hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico + vibrocompressão) em ventilação mecânica por mais de 24 horas. O grupo hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico + vibrocompressão foi o único que apresentou aumento significativo da secreção aspirada, quando comparado a aspiração isolada 0,7g (0,1 - 2,5g) versus 0,2g (0,0 - 0,6g), com valor de p = 0,006. Conclusão: Quando comparada à aspiração isolada, a associação das técnicas hiperinsuflação com ventilador mecânico + vibrocompressão foi mais eficiente na quantidade de secreção aspirada.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of vibrocompression and hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator techniques alone and in combination (hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression) on the amount of aspirated secretion and the change in hemodynamic and pulmonary parameters. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation conducted in the intensive care unit of a university hospital. The patients were randomly allocated to receive one of the bronchial hygiene techniques for 10 minutes (vibrocompression or hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator or hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression). Afterwards, the patients were again randomly allocated to receive either the previous randomly allocated technique or only tracheal aspiration. The weight of aspirated secretions (in grams), ventilatory mechanics and cardiopulmonary data before and after the application of the techniques were analyzed. The tracheal reintubation frequency and time and mortality on mechanical ventilation were also evaluated. Results: A total of 93 patients (29 vibrocompression, 32 hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator and 32 hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression) on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were included. The hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression group was the only one that presented a significant increase in aspirated secretions compared to tracheal aspiration alone [0.7g (0.1 - 2.5g) versus 0.2g (0.0 - 0.6g), p value = 0.006]. Conclusion: Compared to tracheal aspiration alone, the combination of hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression techniques was most efficient for increasing the amount of aspirated secretions.

2.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 31(1): 39-46, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of vibrocompression and hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator techniques alone and in combination (hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression) on the amount of aspirated secretion and the change in hemodynamic and pulmonary parameters. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial with critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation conducted in the intensive care unit of a university hospital. The patients were randomly allocated to receive one of the bronchial hygiene techniques for 10 minutes (vibrocompression or hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator or hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression). Afterwards, the patients were again randomly allocated to receive either the previous randomly allocated technique or only tracheal aspiration. The weight of aspirated secretions (in grams), ventilatory mechanics and cardiopulmonary data before and after the application of the techniques were analyzed. The tracheal reintubation frequency and time and mortality on mechanical ventilation were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients (29 vibrocompression, 32 hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator and 32 hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression) on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were included. The hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression group was the only one that presented a significant increase in aspirated secretions compared to tracheal aspiration alone [0.7g (0.1 - 2.5g) versus 0.2g (0.0 - 0.6g), p value = 0.006]. CONCLUSION: Compared to tracheal aspiration alone, the combination of hyperinflation with mechanical ventilator + vibrocompression techniques was most efficient for increasing the amount of aspirated secretions.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Sucção/métodos , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 33-38, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of peripheral and respiratory muscle strength tests in diagnosing critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM), compared with an electrophysiological examination. METHODS: Fifty septic patients who required mechanical ventilation for at least five days, and without a previous history of muscle weakness, were included. Peripheral muscle strength was assessed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) score, handgrip strength by dynamometry, and respiratory muscle strength with maximum respiratory pressures. Diagnosis of CIPNM was either confirmed or rejected by an electrophysiological examination. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the cut-off values with the best sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) of the studied variables in the presence or absence of CIPNM. RESULTS: Patients with CIPNM were older, more critical (APACHE IV/SAPS 3), had a longer hospitalization, required mechanical ventilation for longer, and had a higher rate of intensive care unit readmission. Cutoff values identified CIPNM patients using MRC scores, dynamometry according to sex, maximal expiratory and inspiratory pressures, as well as being confirmed by the electrophysiological examination, with good sensitivity and specificity: < 40 (SN: 0.893; SP: 0.955); < 7 kg (SN: 1; SP: 0.909) for men, < 4 kg (SN: 0.882; SP: 1) for women; < 34 cmH2O (SN: 0.808; SP: 0.909) and > -40 cmH2O (SN: 0.846; SP: 0.909), respectively. CONCLUSION: The MRC score, dynamometry or maximum respiratory pressures can be used to identify patients with CIPNM at the intensive care bedside assessment. The healthcare professional can choose any of the methods studied to evaluate the patient, based on his experience and the resource available.

4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 33-38, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-983871

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of peripheral and respiratory muscle strength tests in diagnosing critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM), compared with an electrophysiological examination. Methods: Fifty septic patients who required mechanical ventilation for at least five days, and without a previous history of muscle weakness, were included. Peripheral muscle strength was assessed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) score, handgrip strength by dynamometry, and respiratory muscle strength with maximum respiratory pressures. Diagnosis of CIPNM was either confirmed or rejected by an electrophysiological examination. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the cut-off values with the best sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) of the studied variables in the presence or absence of CIPNM. Results: Patients with CIPNM were older, more critical (APACHE IV/SAPS 3), had a longer hospitalization, required mechanical ventilation for longer, and had a higher rate of intensive care unit readmission. Cutoff values identified CIPNM patients using MRC scores, dynamometry according to sex, maximal expiratory and inspiratory pressures, as well as being confirmed by the electrophysiological examination, with good sensitivity and specificity: < 40 (SN: 0.893; SP: 0.955); < 7 kg (SN: 1; SP: 0.909) for men, < 4 kg (SN: 0.882; SP: 1) for women; < 34 cmH2O (SN: 0.808; SP: 0.909) and > −40 cmH2O (SN: 0.846; SP: 0.909), respectively. Conclusion: The MRC score, dynamometry or maximum respiratory pressures can be used to identify patients with CIPNM at the intensive care bedside assessment. The healthcare professional can choose any of the methods studied to evaluate the patient, based on his experience and the resource available.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a sensibilidade (SN) e especificidade (SP) dos testes de força muscular periférica e respiratória no diagnóstico da Polineuromiopatia do Doente Crítico (PNDC) em comparação com o estudo eletrofisiológico. Métodos: Foram incluídos 50 pacientes sépticos, em ventilação mecânica (VM) durante pelo menos cinco dias e sem história prévia de fraqueza muscular. A força muscular foi avaliada utilizando o escore Medical Research Council (MRC), a força de preensão palmar e as pressões respiratórias máximas. O diagnóstico de PNDC foi confirmado ou excluído pelo estudo eletrofisiológico. A análise da curva ROC foi realizada para determinar os valores de corte com a melhor SN e SP. Resultados: Os pacientes com PNDC eram mais velhos, mais graves, tiveram hospitalização mais longa, necessitaram de VM por mais tempo e apresentaram maior taxa de readmissão na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Os valores de corte identificaram os pacientes com PNDC usando o MRC, a dinamometria de acordo com o sexo, as pressões expiratórias e inspiratórias máximas, também confirmado pelo estudo eletrofisiológico, com boa sensibilidade e especificidade: < 40 (SN: 0.893; SP: 0.955), < 7 kg (SN: 1; SP: 0,909) para homens, < 4 kg (SN: 0,882; SP: 1) para mulheres, <34 cmH2O (SN: 0,808; SP: 0,909) e > −40 cmH2O (SN: 0,846; SP: 0,909), respectivamente. Conclusão: Tanto o MRC, a dinamometria quanto as pressões respiratórias máximas podem ser usadas para identificar pacientes com PNDC na avaliação à beira do leito, podendo o profissional de saúde escolher qualquer um dos métodos baseado em sua experiência e no recurso disponível.

5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

6.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) is a widely recommended nutrition risk indicator. Two cut-offs have been proposed for intensive care unit (ICU) patients to classify nutrition risk: ≥3-<5, at risk and ≥5, high risk. To date, no study has directly compared these cut-offs. The aim of this study is to compare the NRS-2002 ICU nutrition risk cut-offs as predictors of clinical outcomes including infections, ICU and hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation (MVd), weaning failure, tracheotomy for prolonged MVd, and chronic critical illness (CCI). METHODS: Adult patients were screened and stratified according to NRS-2002 ICU criteria. Clinical, epidemiologic, and nutrition data were extracted from medical records. Statistical analysis for independent samples and Poisson regression were performed. RESULTS: A total of 185 patients were screened: 1 (0.54%) no risk; 96 (51.89%) at risk, and 88 (47.56%) high risk. High-risk patients were older, had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (62.0 ± 14.1 vs 53.0 ± 12.9, respectively; P < .001) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (6.9 ± 3.7 vs 5.1 ± 3.1, respectively; P < .001), and developed more infections (42 [47.8%] vs 27 [28.1%]; P = .010). No differences were found for ICU and hospital LOS, MVd days, weaning failure, tracheotomy, and CCI. ICU and hospital mortality were higher in high-risk patients. The high-risk cut-off was predictor of ICU mortality (relative risk 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-4.14; P = .032). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the NRS-2002 high-risk cut-off is associated with worse clinical outcomes and is a predictor for ICU mortality.

7.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 56(4): 594-601, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009967

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) or the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) are recommended in practice guidelines for pain assessment in critically ill adults unable to self-report. However, their use in another language requires cultural adaptation and validation testing. OBJECTIVES: Cross-cultural adaptation of the CPOT and BPS English versions into Brazilian Portuguese, and their validation by comparing behavioral scores during rest, standardized nociceptive stimulation by pressure algometry (SNSPA), and turning were completed. In addition, we explored clinical variables that could predict the CPOT and BPS scores. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 168 medical-surgical critically ill adults unable to self-report in the intensive care unit. Two nurses were trained to use the CPOT and BPS Brazilian Portuguese versions at the following assessments: 1) baseline at rest, 2) after SNSPA with a pressure of 14 kgf/cm2, 3) during turning, and 4) 15 minutes after turning. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability of nurses' CPOT and BPS scores was supported by high weighted kappa >0.7. Discriminative validation was supported with higher CPOT and BPS scores during SNSPA or turning in comparison to baseline (P < 0.001). The Glasgow Coma Scale score was the only variable that predicted CPOT and BPS scores with explained variance of 44.5% and 55.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of the Brazilian CPOT and BPS versions showed good reliability and validity in critically ill adults unable to self-report. A standardized procedure, the SNSPA, was used for the first time in the validation process of these tools and helped us improve the validation process.

8.
Aust Crit Care ; 31(5): 284-290, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The phase angle (PA), derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), has been interpreted as a cell membrane integrity indicator, while handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a prognostic indicator in certain clinical situations, such as in cardiac, oncologic patients with renal disease, hemodialysis patients, HIV-positive patients, and liver disease patients. In addition to prognostic scores, body changes due to surgical procedures indicate the importance of measuring muscle function and cell integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of PA and HGS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and associate these factors with clinical outcomes and prognosis. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 50 consecutively recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) undergoing cardiac surgery. Measures PA and HGS were at three set points: preoperative, at hospital discharge and three months postoperative. The following data were collected: time of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), ischemia, mechanical ventilation (MV), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS after surgery; the EuroSCORE was also calculated. RESULTS: A decrease in PA was observed between the preoperative and the two postoperative stages (p<0.001). There was a reduction in HGS between the preoperative and hospital discharge assessments (p<0.001) and a recovery three months postoperative (p<0.001). The MV and EuroSCORE were inversely associated with PA and HGS in all three assessments. The PA was correlated with EuroSCORE in the first assessment (p=0.007) and in the second and third assessments (p<0.001), as well as with MV in all three assessments (p<0.001). The HGS was correlated with EuroSCORE and MV in the first and second assessments (p<0.001) and in the third assessment (p=0.010 and p=0.018, respectively). CONCLUSION: PA and HGS appear to be related to MV time, ICU LOS and hospital LOS after surgery in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

9.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 29(2): 131-141, 2017 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct and implement an instrument (checklist) to improve safety when performing the prone maneuver. METHODS: This was an applied, qualitative and descriptive study. The instrument was developed based on a broad review of the literature pertaining to the construction of a care protocol using the main electronic databases (MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane). RESULTS: We describe the construction of a patient safety tool with numerous modifications and adaptations based on the observations of the multidisciplinary team regarding its use in daily practice. CONCLUSION: The use of the checklist when performing the prone maneuver increased the safety and reliability of the procedure. The team's understanding of the tool's importance to patient safety and training in its use are necessary for its success.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Ventral , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Posicionamento do Paciente/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
JAMA ; 318(14): 1335-1345, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973363

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if lung recruitment associated with PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance decreases 28-day mortality of patients with moderate to severe ARDS compared with a conventional low-PEEP strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 120 intensive care units (ICUs) from 9 countries from November 17, 2011, through April 25, 2017, enrolling adults with moderate to severe ARDS. Interventions: An experimental strategy with a lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance (n = 501; experimental group) or a control strategy of low PEEP (n = 509). All patients received volume-assist control mode until weaning. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality until 28 days. Secondary outcomes were length of ICU and hospital stay; ventilator-free days through day 28; pneumothorax requiring drainage within 7 days; barotrauma within 7 days; and ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month mortality. Results: A total of 1010 patients (37.5% female; mean [SD] age, 50.9 [17.4] years) were enrolled and followed up. At 28 days, 277 of 501 patients (55.3%) in the experimental group and 251 of 509 patients (49.3%) in the control group had died (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.42; P = .041). Compared with the control group, the experimental group strategy increased 6-month mortality (65.3% vs 59.9%; HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.38; P = .04), decreased the number of mean ventilator-free days (5.3 vs 6.4; difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1; P = .03), increased the risk of pneumothorax requiring drainage (3.2% vs 1.2%; difference, 2.0%; 95% CI, 0.0% to 4.0%; P = .03), and the risk of barotrauma (5.6% vs 1.6%; difference, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 6.5%; P = .001). There were no significant differences in the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, a strategy with lung recruitment and titrated PEEP compared with low PEEP increased 28-day all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the routine use of lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration in these patients. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Falha de Tratamento
12.
J Crit Care ; 41: 296-302, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797619

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of a weaning protocol is related to better patient prognosis. However, new approaches may take several years to become the standard of care in daily practice. We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to implement a protocol to wean patients from mechanical ventilation (MV) and to evaluate the weaning success rate as well as practitioner adherence to the protocol. METHODS: We investigated all consecutive MV-dependent subjects admitted to a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) for >24h over 7years. The multifaceted strategy consisted of continuing education of attending physicians and ICU staff and regular feedback regarding patient outcomes. The study was conducted in three phases: protocol development, protocol and multifaceted strategy implementation, and protocol monitoring. Data regarding weaning outcomes and physician adherence to the weaning protocol were collected during all phases. RESULTS: We enrolled 2469 subjects over 7years, with 1,943 subjects (78.7%) experiencing weaning success. Physician adherence to the protocol increased during the years of protocol and multifaceted strategy implementation (from 38% to 86%, p<0.01) and decreased in the protocol monitoring phase (from 73.9% to 50.0%, p<0.01). However, during the study years, the weaning success of all subjects increased (from 73.1% to 85.4%, p<0.001). When the weaning protocol was evaluated step-by-step, we found high adherence for noninvasive ventilation use (95%) and weaning predictor measurement (91%) and lower adherence for control of fluid balance (57%) and daily interruption of sedation (24%). Weaning success was higher in patients who had undergone the weaning protocol compared to those who had undergone weaning based in clinical practice (85.6% vs. 67.7%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted strategy consisting of continuing education and regular feedback can increase physician adherence to a weaning protocol for mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Estado Terminal , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(2): 131-141, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899505

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Construir e implementar um instrumento (checklist) para melhoria do cuidado na manobra prona. Métodos: Estudo aplicativo, qualitativo e descritivo. O instrumento foi desenvolvido a partir de ampla revisão da literatura, para construção de um protocolo de atendimento assistencial, utilizando as principais bases eletrônicas (MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane). Resultados: Descrevemos a construção de uma ferramenta de segurança do paciente com suas inúmeras modificações e adaptações, a partir das observações da equipe multidisciplinar com seu uso na prática diária. Conclusão: A aplicação do checklist na manobra de prona acrescentou confiabilidade e segurança ao procedimento. O entendimento da importância da ferramenta na segurança do paciente, por parte da equipe, e sua capacitação são necessários para seu sucesso.


ABSTRACT Objective: To construct and implement an instrument (checklist) to improve safety when performing the prone maneuver. Methods: This was an applied, qualitative and descriptive study. The instrument was developed based on a broad review of the literature pertaining to the construction of a care protocol using the main electronic databases (MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane). Results: We describe the construction of a patient safety tool with numerous modifications and adaptations based on the observations of the multidisciplinary team regarding its use in daily practice. Conclusion: The use of the checklist when performing the prone maneuver increased the safety and reliability of the procedure. The team's understanding of the tool's importance to patient safety and training in its use are necessary for its success.

14.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 29(1): 14-22, 2017 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444068

RESUMO

Objective:: To evaluate the effects of bag-valve breathing maneuvers combined with standard manual chest compression techniques on safety, hemodynamics and oxygenation in stable septic shock patients. Design:: A parallel, assessor-blinded, randomized trial of two groups. A computer-generated list of random numbers was prepared by an independent researcher to allocate treatments. Setting:: The Intensive Care Unit at Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Participants:: Fifty-two subjects were assessed for eligibility, and 32 were included. All included subjects (n = 32) received the allocated intervention (n = 19 for the Experimental Group and n = 13 for the Control Group). Intervention:: Twenty minutes of bag-valve breathing maneuvers combined with manual chest compression techniques (Experimental Group) or chest compression, as routinely used at our intensive care unit (Control Group). Follow-up was performed immediately after and at 30 minutes after the intervention. Main outcome measure:: Mean artery pressure. Results:: All included subjects completed the trial (N = 32). We found no relevant effects on mean artery pressure (p = 0.17), heart rate (p = 0.50) or mean pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.89) after adjusting for subject age and weight. Both groups were identical regarding oxygen consumption after the data adjustment (p = 0.84). Peripheral oxygen saturation tended to increase over time in both groups (p = 0.05), and there was no significant association between cardiac output and venous oxygen saturation (p = 0.813). No clinical deterioration was observed. Conclusion:: A single session of bag-valve breathing maneuvers combined with manual chest compression is hemodynamically safe for stable septic-shocked subjects over the short-term.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Séptico/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 29(1): 87-95, 2017 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444077

RESUMO

The technological advancements that allow support for organ dysfunction have led to an increase in survival rates for the most critically ill patients. Some of these patients survive the initial acute critical condition but continue to suffer from organ dysfunction and remain in an inflammatory state for long periods of time. This group of critically ill patients has been described since the 1980s and has had different diagnostic criteria over the years. These patients are known to have lengthy hospital stays, undergo significant alterations in muscle and bone metabolism, show immunodeficiency, consume substantial health resources, have reduced functional and cognitive capacity after discharge, create a sizable workload for caregivers, and present high long-term mortality rates. The aim of this review is to report on the most current evidence in terms of the definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of persistent critical illness.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Humanos , Inflamação/mortalidade , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Internação , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(1): 14-22, jan.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-844287

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de manobras de hiperinsuflação manual combinadas com pressão expiratória positiva associadas com técnicas padrão de compressão manual do tórax, com relação à segurança, à hemodinâmica e à oxigenação em pacientes com choque séptico estável. Delineamento: Este foi um estudo com dois grupos paralelos, randomizado e com avaliador cego. Um pesquisador independente preparou uma lista de randomização gerada por computador para alocação dos tratamentos. Local: Unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Participantes: Foram avaliados 52 indivíduos quanto à elegibilidade e, destes, 32 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Todos os indivíduos incluídos (n = 32) receberam a intervenção alocada (n = 19 para o Grupo Experimental e n = 13 para o Grupo Controle). Intervenção: Vinte minutos de manobras de hiperinsuflação manual combinadas com pressão expiratória positiva associadas com técnicas padrão de compressão manual do tórax (Grupo Experimental) ou compressão do tórax, conforme o uso rotineiro de nossa unidade de terapia intensiva (Grupo Controle). Foi realizado seguimento imediatamente após e 30 minutos após a intervenção. Principal métrica de desfecho: Pressão arterial média. Resultados: Todos os indivíduos inscritos concluíram o estudo (n = 32). Não identificamos efeitos relevantes na pressão arterial média (p = 0,17), frequência cardíaca (p = 0,50) ou pressão média da artéria pulmonar (p = 0,89) após ajuste quanto à idade e ao peso do participante. Após ajuste dos dados, ambos os grupos foram idênticos com relação ao consumo de oxigênio (p = 0,84). A saturação periférica de oxigênio tendeu a aumentar com o tempo em ambos os grupos (p = 0,05), e não ocorreu associação significante entre o débito cardíaco e a saturação venosa de oxigênio (p = 0,813). Não se observou deterioração clínica. Conclusão: Uma única sessão de manobras de hiperinsuflação manual combinadas com pressão expiratória positiva associadas com técnicas padrão de compressão manual do tórax é hemodinamicamente segura em curto prazo para pacientes com choque séptico estável.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of bag-valve breathing maneuvers combined with standard manual chest compression techniques on safety, hemodynamics and oxygenation in stable septic shock patients. Design: A parallel, assessor-blinded, randomized trial of two groups. A computer-generated list of random numbers was prepared by an independent researcher to allocate treatments. Setting: The Intensive Care Unit at Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Participants: Fifty-two subjects were assessed for eligibility, and 32 were included. All included subjects (n = 32) received the allocated intervention (n = 19 for the Experimental Group and n = 13 for the Control Group). Intervention: Twenty minutes of bag-valve breathing maneuvers combined with manual chest compression techniques (Experimental Group) or chest compression, as routinely used at our intensive care unit (Control Group). Follow-up was performed immediately after and at 30 minutes after the intervention. Main outcome measure: Mean artery pressure. Results: All included subjects completed the trial (N = 32). We found no relevant effects on mean artery pressure (p = 0.17), heart rate (p = 0.50) or mean pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.89) after adjusting for subject age and weight. Both groups were identical regarding oxygen consumption after the data adjustment (p = 0.84). Peripheral oxygen saturation tended to increase over time in both groups (p = 0.05), and there was no significant association between cardiac output and venous oxygen saturation (p = 0.813). No clinical deterioration was observed. Conclusion: A single session of bag-valve breathing maneuvers combined with manual chest compression is hemodynamically safe for stable septic-shocked subjects over the short-term.

17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(1): 87-95, jan.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-844289

RESUMO

RESUMO Os avanços tecnológicos que permitem dar suporte às disfunções de órgãos levaram a um aumento nas taxas de sobrevivência para a maioria dos pacientes críticos. Alguns destes pacientes sobrevivem à condição crítica inicial, porém continuam a sofrer com disfunções de órgãos e permanecem em estado inflamatório por longos períodos. Este grupo de pacientes críticos foi descrito desde os anos 1980 e teve diferentes critérios diagnósticos ao longo dos anos. Sabe-se que estes pacientes têm longas permanências no hospital, sofrem importantes alterações do metabolismo muscular e ósseo, apresentam imunodeficiência, consomem quantias substanciais de recursos de saúde, têm reduzida capacidade funcional e cognitiva após a alta, demandam uma considerável carga de trabalho para seus cuidadores, e apresentam elevadas taxas de mortalidade em longo prazo. O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar as evidências atuais, em termos de definição, fisiopatologia, manifestações clínicas, tratamento e prognóstico da doença crítica persistente.


ABSTRACT The technological advancements that allow support for organ dysfunction have led to an increase in survival rates for the most critically ill patients. Some of these patients survive the initial acute critical condition but continue to suffer from organ dysfunction and remain in an inflammatory state for long periods of time. This group of critically ill patients has been described since the 1980s and has had different diagnostic criteria over the years. These patients are known to have lengthy hospital stays, undergo significant alterations in muscle and bone metabolism, show immunodeficiency, consume substantial health resources, have reduced functional and cognitive capacity after discharge, create a sizable workload for caregivers, and present high long-term mortality rates. The aim of this review is to report on the most current evidence in terms of the definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of persistent critical illness.

18.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(1): 19-29, ene.-feb. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-161137

RESUMO

Introduction: Although guidelines emphasize that the provision of enteral nutrition (EN) should be as close as the patient’s needs, prospective studies question this strategy. Objective: To compare the effect of two EN strategies (underfeeding versus full-feeding) on ICU and overall mortality (hospital mortality or 60-day mortality) and length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), infectious complications, and gastrointestinal tolerance in ICU patients. Methods: Random effects meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Our search covered MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and CENTRAL databases until May 2015. Underfeeding was assigned into two different groups according to the level of energy intake achieved (moderate feeding 46-72% and trophic feeding 16-25%) for subgroup analysis. Results: Five RCTs were included among the 904 studies retrieved (n = 2,432 patients). No difference was found in overall mortality when all fi ve studies were combined. In the subgroup analysis, moderate feeding (three studies) showed lower mortality compared with full-feeding (RR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; I2 0% p =0.59 for heterogeneity). No differences were found for ICU mortality, ICU and hospital LOS, duration of MV, and infectious complications. Underfeeding showed lower occurrence of GI signs and symptoms except for aspiration and abdominal distention (no difference was found). Conclusions: This meta-analysis found no differences in ICU and overall mortality, ICU and hospital LOS, duration of MV, and infectious complications between underfeeding and full-feeding. The subgroup analysis showed lower overall mortality among patients receiving moderate underfeeding. This result should be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of the small number of studies analyzed and their methodology (AU)


Introducción: a pesar de las directrices que hacen hincapié en que la cantidad de la Nutrición Enteral (NE) administrada debe estar próxima a las necesidades del paciente, los estudios prospectivos cuestionan esta estrategia. Objetivo: comparar el efecto de dos estrategias de NE (subalimentación vs. alimentación completa) sobre la mortalidad en la UCI y general (mortalidad hospitalaria o la mortalidad en 60 días), el tiempo de internación en la UCI y en el hospital, duración de la ventilación mecánica (VM), complicaciones infecciosas y la tolerancia gastrointestinal en pacientes críticos. Métodos: metaanálisis de efectos aleatorios de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA). Nuestra búsqueda se basa en MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS y CENTRAL hasta mayo de 2015. La subalimentación fue asignada a dos grupos diferentes de acuerdo con el nivel de consumo de energía (alimentación moderada 46-72% y la alimentación trófica 16-25%) para el análisis de subgrupos. Resultados: se incluyeron cinco ECA entre los 904 estudios que se encontraron en la búsqueda (n = 2.432 pacientes). No se encontraron diferencias en la mortalidad general cuando se combinaron los cinco estudios. En el análisis de subgrupos, la alimentación moderada (tres estudios) mostró una mortalidad más baja en comparación con la alimentación completa (RR 0,82; IC 95% 0,68-0,98; I2 0% p = 0,59 para la heterogeneidad). No se encontraron diferencias de mortalidad en la UCI ni en el tiempo de internación hospitalaria, la duración de la VM y las complicaciones infecciosas. La subalimentación mostró menor aparición de signos y síntomas gastrointestinales, excepto para aspiración y distensión abdominal (no se encontró ninguna diferencia). Conclusiones: este metaanálisis no encontró diferencias significativas de mortalidad, duración de la estancia, duración de VM ni complicaciones infecciosas en la UCI o hospitalización total entre los grupos de subalimentación y alimentación completa. El análisis de subgrupos mostró menor mortalidad global entre los pacientes que recibieron la subalimentación moderada. Este resultado debe interpretarse con cautela debido a las limitaciones del pequeño número de estudios analizados y su metodología (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Nutrição Enteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Fisioter. pesqui ; 23(3): 278-283, jul.-set. 2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-828814

RESUMO

RESUMO Pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI) e ventilados mecanicamente comumente apresentam disfunção muscular devido à inatividade física, à presença de processos inflamatórios e ao uso de agentes farmacológicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a utilização aguda do cicloergômetro em pacientes críticos ventilados mecanicamente internados em UTI. Trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado, no qual foram incluídos 25 pacientes em ventilação mecânica na UTI do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Foram coletadas, pré e pós-intervenção, variáveis hemodinâmicas e respiratórias, bem como foram avaliadas a troca gasosa, por meio da gasometria arterial, os níveis de lactato e proteína C reativa. O protocolo consistiu de diagonais do método de Facilitação Neuromuscular Proprioceptiva de membros superiores e inferiores e técnicas de higiene brônquica, quando necessário. Já no grupo intervenção foi realizado, além da fisioterapia descrita previamente, o cicloergômetro passivo. A análise foi realizada mediante o programa SPSS 18.0. Os dados contínuos foram expressos em média e desvio-padrão, e o nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Observou-se alteração estatisticamente significativa em relação à pressão de pico (pré: 25,1±5,9; pós: 21,0±2,7cmH2O; p=0,03) no grupo convencional e ao bicarbonato (pré: 23,5±4,3; pós: 20,6±3,0; p=0,002) no grupo intervenção. Concluiu-se que a utilização do cicloergômetro num protocolo de mobilização precoce não altera a mecânica respiratória, nem a hemodinâmica e não resulta em respostas fisiológicas agudas.


RESUMEN Los pacientes hospitalizados en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y ventilados mecánicamente en general presentan disfunción muscular debido a la falta de practicar actividad física, a la presencia de procesos inflamatorios y a la utilización de fármacos. En este estudio se comparó el uso agudo del cicloergómetro en pacientes críticos ventilados mecánicamente hospitalizados en UCI. Se trata de un estudio clínico aleatorio, en el cual se incluyeron 25 pacientes en ventilación mecánica en la UCI del Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Se recolectaron, pré y posintervención, las variables hemodinámicas y respiratorias, así como se evaluaron el cambio de gases, mediante la gasometría arterial, los niveles de lactato y la proteína C reactiva. El protocolo estaba formado de diagonales del método de Facilitación Neuromuscular Propioceptiva de los miembros superiores e inferiores y técnicas de higienización de los bronquios, cuando necesarios. En el grupo intervención se realizó, además de la fisioterapia descriptiva preestablecida, el cicloergómetro pasivo. Se realizó el análisis a través del programa SPSS 18.0. Los datos fueron expresados en promedio y desviación-estándar, y el nivel de significación fue de 5%. Se observó alteraciones significativas estadísticamente en relación a la presión máxima (pré: 25,1±5,9; pos: 21,0±2,7cmH2O; p=0,03) en el grupo convencional y al bicarbonato (pré: 23,5±4,3; pos: 20,6±3,0; p=0,002) en el grupo intervención. Se concluyó que el empleo del cicloergómetro en el protocolo de movilización precoz no altera la mecánica respiratoria, la hemodinámica y tampoco resulta en respuestas fisiológicas agudas.


ABSTRACT Mechanically ventilated patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) usually have muscle dysfunction due to physical inactivity, inflammatory processes, and to the use of pharmacological agents. The objective of this study was to compare the intense use of cycle ergometer in critical mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This is a randomized clinical trial with 25 mechanically ventilated ICU patients from Porto Alegre Teaching Hospital. We collected, pre- and post-intervention, hemodynamic and respiratory variables, and we also assessed the C-reactive protein, through the arterial blood gas test, and lactate levels and gas exchange. The protocol included upper and lower extremity diagonals from the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation method and bronchial hygiene exercises when necessary. In the intervention group, in addition of the abovementioned physiotherapy, the group underwent passive cycle ergometer exercises. The analysis was carried out using SPSS 18.0. We used mean and standard deviation to describe continuous data and adopted significance level of 5%. Statistically significant change was observed for peak pressure (pre=25.1±5.9 and post=21.0±2.7 cmH2O; p=0.03) in the conventional group and for bicarbonate (pre: 23.5±4.3 and post: 20.6±3.0; p=0.002) in the intervention group. We concluded thus that neither does cycle ergometer in a protocol for early mobilization alter hemodynamic and respiratory mechanics, nor does it result in acute physiological responses.

20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 62(3): 287-93, 2016 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310555

RESUMO

Last year, interest in prone positioning to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) resurfaced with the demonstration of a reduction in mortality by a large randomized clinical trial. Reports in the literature suggest that the incidence of adverse events is significantly reduced with a team trained and experienced in the process. The objective of this review is to revisit the current evidence in the literature, discuss and propose the construction of a protocol of care for these patients. A search was performed on the main electronic databases: Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane Library. Prone positioning is increasingly used in daily practice, with properly trained staff and a well established care protocol are essencial.


Assuntos
Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Ventral , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Posicionamento do Paciente/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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