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1.
Paediatr Drugs ; 21(4): 283-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pharmaceutical grade formulation of cannabidiol (CBD) has been approved for the treatment of Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; however, this formulation is not yet available to patients outside the USA. In addition, CBD is thought to have broad anti-seizure properties that may be beneficial for other types of intractable epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of artisanal medical CBD oil in patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) at the tertiary epilepsy center of Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome, Italy. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, open-label study. Patients aged from 1 to 18 years with DEE and seizures refractory to appropriate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and other alternative treatments (i.e., vagal nerve stimulator and ketogenic diet) were included. Crystalline extract CBD powder (98-99% pure) in an oil artisanal formulation was added to the baseline AED regimen at a dosage of 2-5 mg/kg/day divided for twice-daily administration, then up-titrated until intolerance or a maximum dosage of 25 mg/kg/day was reached. Patients were treated for at least 6 months. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD treatment were assessed through the evaluation of seizure frequency and reports of adverse effects. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in this study (41.4% male). The mean duration of exposure to artisanal CBD was 11.2 months [range 6-25 months; standard deviation (SD) ± 4.4 months]. Mean age at study enrollment was 9.3 years (range 1.9-16.3 years; SD ± 4.7 years). Eleven out of 29 patients (37.9%) had a ≥ 50% improvement in seizure frequency; one patient became seizure free. None of the patients reported worsening seizure frequency; however, 18 patients (62.1%) experienced no beneficial effect regarding seizure frequency. Adverse effects were reported in seven patients (24.14%), most commonly somnolence, decreased appetite and diarrhea. Adverse events were mild and transient, and no dose modification of CBD or other AEDs was required. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CBD may have beneficial effects in patients with DEE and an acceptable safety profile. Placebo-controlled randomized trials should be conducted to formally assess the safety and efficacy of CBD in patients with DEE.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Epilepsy Behav ; 96: 219-223, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174070

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) due to SCN8A gene variants is characterized by drug-resistant early onset epilepsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Different seizure types have been reported, and a sequence of autonomic manifestations such as brady-/tachycardia, irregular breathing, and cyanosis. Nevertheless, an exhaustive video-polygraphic documentation is still lacking. In this study, we reviewed the ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of five patients with SCN8A-DEE followed-up at the Neuroscience Department at Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome. We identified generalized tonic seizure as the major seizure type at epilepsy onset. Seizure severity could vary from subtle to marked clinical manifestations, depending from the extent and groups of muscles involved and association with autonomic modifications. We found autonomic signs in 80% of seizures in our cases, and we were able to identify a stereotyped sequence of ictal events for most of seizures. Autonomic signs occurred in rapid sequence: flushing of the face, sometimes associated with sialorrhea, bradycardia, and hypopnea appeared within the first 1-2 s. Tachycardia, polypnea, perioral cyanosis, and pallor occurred later in the course of the seizure. Generalized tonic seizures are rarely described in other genetic epileptic conditions of early infancy because of ion channel mutations, such as in DEE due to KCNQ2 or SCN2A gene mutations, where seizures are most frequently reported as focal to bilateral tonic. Therefore, generalized symmetric tonic seizures with autonomic signs can be considered a clinical hallmark for diagnosis of SCN8A-related DEE and relevant for therapeutic implications.

3.
4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1631-1636, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136090

RESUMO

POGZ (# 614787) encodes a multidomain nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and its defective function has been recently associated with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder, known as White-Sutton syndrome (# 616364). While originally epileptic seizures were unreported, it seems that epilepsy represents a recurrent feature in affected subjects. Few data, however, are available on electroclinical features of POGZ-related epilepsy. We report a 5-year-old girl with a de novo inactivating POGZ mutation with a complex neurological phenotype characterized by hypotonia, severe developmental delay, and paroxysmal epileptic and nonepileptic events. Comparing this patient with the previously reported nine cases exhibiting epilepsy as associated feature, we detected that epilepsy onset is mostly during infancy (1-4 years of age), with both focal and generalized seizures. EEGs reveal that epileptic abnormalities mainly are localized in the frontal regions, and seizure control might be reached with one or multiple antiepileptic drugs. Besides dysmorphic features and other comorbidities (microcephaly, intellectual disability, absent speech, sensorineural hearing loss, and autistic spectrum disorder) major brain MR features include cortical and cerebellar atrophy, delayed myelination, and brainstem hypoplasia. Although the small number of patients reported, we were able to delineate primary electroclinical epileptic phenotype related to POGZ mutations. This would be crucial for an early identification and management of the condition.

5.
Cephalalgia ; 39(10): 1236-1240, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine are a group of disorders affecting patients with migraine or with an increased risk of presenting it, and likely represent an early life expression of migraine. Cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal torticollis are well characterized and represent a frequent cause of request for specialist consultations. The aim of this study is to longitudinally assess the rate of headache in patients presenting with cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal torticollis during infancy, and to define the main clinical features of the disorder. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to the parents of all our pediatric patients with previous diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and/or benign paroxysmal torticollis according to ICHD-3; questions were focused on the main clinical features of the disorder as well as the prognosis, with particular emphasis on the development of headache. RESULTS: For the final analysis we considered 82 patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome and 33 with benign paroxysmal torticollis. Seventy-nine percent of patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome presented with headache during the follow-up, with a mean age at onset of 6 years; 67% of patients with benign paroxysmal torticollis suffered from headache during the follow-up, with a mean age at onset of 5 years. DISCUSSION: Cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal torticollis are associated with a very high risk of developing headache, mostly migraine, later in life. In both groups of patients, the vast majority presented with different episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine at different ages, thus suggesting an age-dependent evolution of migraine-like symptoms before the onset of clear migrainous headache.

7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 93: 22-28, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30780077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and outcome of hemispherotomy in children and adolescents with hemispheric refractory epilepsy in an Italian cohort of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course and outcome of 92 patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent hemispherotomy in three Italian epilepsy centers between 2006 and 2016. Three different approaches for hemispherotomy were used: parasagittal, modified parasagittal, and lateral. RESULTS: Mean age at epilepsy onset was 1.8 ±â€¯2.51 years, and mean duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was 7.4 ±â€¯5.6 years. Mean age at surgery was 9.2 ±â€¯8.0 years. After a mean follow-up of 2.81 ±â€¯2.4 years, 66 of 90 patients (two lost from follow-up, 73.3%) were seizure-free (Engel class I). The etiology of epilepsy was related to acquired lesions (encephalomalacia or gliosis) in 44 patients (47.8%), congenital malformations (cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaly, other cortical malformations) in 38 (41.3%), and progressive conditions (Rasmussen or Sturge-Weber syndrome) in 10 patients (10.9%). Regarding seizure outcome, we could not identify statistically significant differences between vertical and lateral approaches (p = 0.154). Seizure outcome was not statistically different in patients with congenital vs acquired or progressive etiologies (p = 0.43). Acute postoperative seizures (APOS) correlated with poor outcome (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, presurgical focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.86-15.20, p = 0.048) independently predicted seizure recurrence. Twenty-one patients (22.8%) exhibited postoperative complications, with no unexpected and persistent neurological deficit. More than 50% of the patients completely tapered drugs. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm hemispherotomy to be a safe and effective procedure in patients with drug resistant epilepsies due to hemispheric lesions. Presurgical focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures are the strongest predictor of seizure recurrence after surgery, independently from the type of hemispherotomy.

9.
Seizure ; 63: 17-25, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391662

RESUMO

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epileptic encephalopathy with a prevalence of 1-2% of all patients with epilepsy. It is characterized by multiple pharmaco-resistant seizure types, including tonic, atypical absences and tonic or atonic drop attacks, and the presence of electroencephalographic abnormalities, such as slow-spike waves and paroxysmal fast rhythms. Intellectual disability, behavioural and psychiatric disorders are common comorbidities; these disturbances have a multi-factorial pathogenesis. The selection of the most appropriate drug must be tailored to each patient and guided by the prevalent seizure type. In this paper available pharmacological options are discussed and for each pharmacological agent, current evidence of efficacy and tolerability is provided. Valproic acid represents one of the first-line options in the treatment of LGS. Anyway, other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be considered and added: lamotrigine, rufinamide, topiramate, clobazam can be efficacious. The use of felbamate must be carefully evaluated because of its adverse events. Perampanel, zonisamide, levetiracetam and fenfluramine have shown to be useful in the treatment of selected patients; nevertheless, the lack of RCTs does not allow to recommend their use in a systematic way. Recently, cannabidiol has provided high evidence of efficacy against LGS seizures; however, these data must be confirmed by long-term extensive studies and by trials comparing different AEDs, one to each other.

10.
Epilepsia ; 59(12): 2260-2271, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PCDH19-related epilepsy is an epileptic syndrome with infantile onset, characterized by clustered and fever-induced seizures, often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autistic features. The aim of this study was to analyze a large cohort of patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy and better define the epileptic phenotype, genotype-phenotype correlations, and related outcome-predicting factors. METHODS: We retrospectively collected genetic, clinical, and electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 61 patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy followed at 15 epilepsy centers. All consecutively performed EEGs were analyzed, totaling 551. We considered as outcome measures the development of ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and seizure persistence. The analyzed variables were the following: gender, age at onset, age at study, genetic variant, fever sensitivity, seizure type, cluster occurrence, status epilepticus, EEG abnormalities, and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the age at which seizures might decrease in frequency. RESULTS: At last follow-up (median = 12 years, range = 1.9-42.1 years), 48 patients (78.7%) had annual seizures/clusters, 13 patients (21.3%) had monthly to weekly seizures, and 12 patients (19.7%) were seizure-free for ≥2 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant decrease of seizure frequency after the age of 10.5 years (sensitivity = 81.0%, specificity = 70.0%). Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had ID and behavioral disturbances. ASD was present in 31 patients. An earlier age at epilepsy onset emerged as the only predictive factor for ID (P = 0.047) and ASD (P = 0.014). Conversely, age at onset was not a predictive factor for seizure outcome (P = 0.124). SIGNIFICANCE: We found that earlier age at epilepsy onset is related to a significant risk for ID and ASD. Furthermore, long-term follow-up showed that after the age of 10 years, seizures decrease in frequency and cognitive and behavioral disturbances remain the primary clinical problems.

11.
Front Neurol ; 9: 819, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356916

RESUMO

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by intracranial pressure >28 cmH2O in the absence of identifiable causes. Aim of this paper is to describe the clinical phenotype of pediatric IIH and to analyze the applicability of ICHD-3 criteria in comparison to the ICHD-2. We conducted a retrospective analysis of full clinical data of pediatric patients diagnosed with IIH between January 2007 and June 2018. Diagnostic evaluation included neuroimaging (all patients) and ultrasound-based optic nerve sheath diameter measurement (9 patients). Diagnosis of IIH was verified according to both ICHD-2 and ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to IIH, to verify the degree of concordance. We identified 41 subjects with suspected IIH; 14 were excluded due a diagnosis of secondary IH or lack of data. We therefore selected 27 subjects (age 4-15 years, mean 11). All patients presented with headache and bilateral papilloedema. Headache was daily in 22% cases, with diffuse gravative pain in 41%. In 4%, pain was exacerbated by cough, stress or tension. The most common presentation symptoms, in addition to headache, were blurred vision or diplopia (70%), vomiting (33%), and dizziness (15%). Twenty patients (74%) were obese. In 6 patients (22%) neuroimaging showed empty sella. Optic nerve sheath distension was detected in 6 out of 9 patients. Regarding the applicability of the ICHD-2 criteria, 18/27 (71%) patients have criterion A; 24/27 (89%) criterion B; 27/27 (100%) criterion C; 27/27 (100%) criterion D. When the ICHD-3 criteria were used, 27/27 (100%) fitted criterion A; 24/27 (89%) criterion B; 27/27 (100%) criterion C; and 27/27 (100%) criterion D. Our study suggests that, as compared with the ICHD-2, the new ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to IIH are better satisfied by pediatric patients with IIH. This is mainly due to the fact that qualitative headache characteristics are no longer considered in ICHD-3. Although the risk of under-rating the symptom of headache in IIH should not be disregarded, in pediatric population headache characteristics are usually less defined than in adults and obtaining a precise description of them is often very difficult.

12.
Neurology ; 91(12): e1112-e1124, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the electroclinical features of SCN8A infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE13, OMIM #614558). METHODS: Twenty-two patients, aged 19 months to 22 years, underwent electroclinical assessment. RESULTS: Sixteen of 22 patients had mildly delayed development since birth. Drug-resistant epilepsy started at a median age of 4 months, followed by developmental slowing, pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs (22/22), movement disorders (12/22), cortical blindness (17/22), sialorrhea, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms (15/22), worsening during early childhood and plateauing at age 5 to 9 years. Death occurred in 4 children, following extreme neurologic deterioration, at 22 months to 5.5 years. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus recurred in 14 of 22 patients. The most effective antiepileptic drugs were oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines. EEG showed background deterioration, epileptiform abnormalities with a temporo-occipital predominance, and posterior delta/beta activity correlating with visual impairment. Video-EEG documented focal seizures (FS) (22/22), spasm-like episodes (8/22), cortical myoclonus (8/22), and myoclonic absences (1/22). FS typically clustered and were prolonged (<20 minutes) with (1) cyanosis, hypomotor, and vegetative semiology, sometimes unnoticed, followed by (2) tonic-vibratory and (3) (hemi)-clonic manifestations ± evolution to a bilateral tonic-clonic seizure. FS had posterior-temporal/occipital onset, slowly spreading and sometimes migrating between hemispheres. Brain MRI showed progressive parenchymal atrophy and restriction of the optic radiations. CONCLUSIONS: SCN8A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy has strikingly consistent electroclinical features, suggesting a global progressive brain dysfunction primarily affecting the temporo-occipital regions. Both uncontrolled epilepsy and developmental compromise contribute to the profound impairment (increasing risk of death) during early childhood, but stabilization occurs in late childhood.

13.
Seizure ; 57: 8-10, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529558

RESUMO

CHD2 gene has been described in association with different types of childhood myoclonic epilepsy and is emerging as a gene involved in photosensitivity alone or combined with epilepsy. Recent studies suggest that CHD2 could be responsible for a proper phenotype characterized by infantile-onset generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity and in particular with self-induced seizures. We report the case of a child with CHD2 mutation and mild developmental impairment that since the age of 3 years started with myoclonic seizures apparently well responding to antiepileptic drugs and that subsequently developed intractable self-induced seizures. Through an accurate Video-EEG polygraphic analysis, we demonstrated that seizures are related to an abnormal increase of epileptiform activity after eye-closure or loss of fixation as observed in the Fixation-Off Sensitivity (FOS) phenomenon. In conclusion our study adds relevant features of the CHD2-epilepsy phenotype and confirms that CHD2 mutations produce a distinctive form of myoclonic epilepsy with visual-sensitive seizures.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epilepsia Mioclônica Juvenil/genética , Epilepsia Mioclônica Juvenil/fisiopatologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Epilepsia Mioclônica Juvenil/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Mioclônica Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Fenótipo , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual
14.
Cerebellum ; 17(4): 489-493, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397530

RESUMO

ATP1A3 mutations are related to a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, including several defined syndromes as rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS), together with many other intermediate phenotypes. Ataxia is always more increasingly reported, either as accessory or prominent sign, in ATP1A3-related conditions, being thus considered as a peculiar feature of this spectrum. Here, we report three cases of childhood rapid-onset ataxia due to two different ATP1A3 variants. Interestingly, two patients (mother and son) showed a variant c.2266C>T (p.R756C), while the third carried the c.2452G>A (p.E818K) variant, commonly described in association with CAPOS syndrome. Our report contributes to extent the phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3 mutations, remarking childhood rapid-onset ataxia as an additional clinical presentation of ATP1A3-related conditions. Finally, we discussed this phenomenology in the light of translational evidence from a RDP animal model.

15.
Brain Dev ; 40(5): 433-438, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disease caused by mutations in ATP1A3 gene codifying for alpha3 subunit of Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Repeated and transient attacks of hemiplegia, usually affecting one side of the body or the other, or both sides of the body at once, are the core features of AHC. Monocular nystagmus, other abnormalities in ocular movements, dystonic posturing and epilepsy are commonly associated to AHC. However, the spectrum of ATP1A3 related diseases is still expanding and new phenotypes have been reported. CASE REPORT: Here, we described a patient who developed a severe early onset drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathy and months later, he presented episodes of hemiplegic attacks and monocular nystagmus. Thus, AHC was hypothesized and a novel mutation in ATP1A3 gene was found. Interestingly, ketogenic diet (KD) was started and both epileptic seizures and classical AHC paroxysmal episodes stopped. Long-term follow-up shows a global improvement of neurological development. CONCLUSIONS: Our case reinforces the role of KD as a novel therapeutic option for ATP1A3-related conditions. However, proper dedicated confirmatory trials on KD are necessary.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Hemiplegia/dietoterapia , Espasmos Infantis/dietoterapia , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Generalizada/dietoterapia , Hemiplegia/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Espasmos Infantis/genética
16.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(1): 56-63, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Characterize the real-world management of and outcomes for children with epilepsy receiving rescue medication for prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) in the community. METHODS: PERFECT-3 (Practices in Emergency and Rescue medication For Epilepsy managed with Community-administered Therapy 3) was a European, retrospective observational study. Eligible patients were non-institutionalized children with epilepsy aged 3-16 years who had experienced ≥1 PACS in the past year and had ≥1 currently prescribed PACS rescue medication. Investigators provided clinical assessments and parents/guardians completed questionnaires. Statistical tests were post hoc; p values are descriptive. RESULTS: At enrollment (N = 286), most patients had prescriptions for diazepam (69.2%) and/or midazolam (55.9%); some had two (26.6%) or three (2.4%) prescribed rescue medications. Most patients experienced PACS despite regular anti-epilepsy medication. According to parents, the average duration of their child's seizures without rescue medication was <5 min in 35.7% of patients, 5-<20 min in 42.6%, and ≥20 min in 21.7% (n = 258); with rescue medication seizure duration was <5 min in 69.4% of patients, 5-<20 min in 25.6%, and ≥20 min in 5.0%. Rescue medication use was significantly associated with average seizures lasting <5 min (χ2 = 58.8; p < 0.0001). At the time of their most recent PACS, 58.5-67.8% of children reportedly received rescue medication within 5 min of seizure onset, and 85.4-94.1% within 10 min. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first real-world data that rescue medications administered in the community reduce the duration of PACS in children with epilepsy. Study limitations including potential recall bias are acknowledged.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Headache ; 58(3): 438-442, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is benign and self-limited, with neurologic deficits including sensory disturbance of one body side, aphasia, nausea/vomiting, weakness, decreased vision, homonymous hemianopsia, photophobia. Acute confusional state can rarely occur. Papilledema and intracranial hypertension have also been described. It is a rare entity mainly affecting adults; however, it has been sporadically described in children and adolescents. MAIN FINDINGS: In this clinical observational study, we describe a clinical series of three consecutive pediatric patients being diagnosed with HaNDL after presenting with altered consciousness, papilledema, and increased intracranial pressure. They all recovered without relapses. CONCLUSION: Presentation during childhood and adolescence is rare; the majority of pediatric cases presented with altered consciousness, which is infrequent in HaNDL. This may suggest that in childhood this symptom might be more common than in adults. All three patients presented with increased intracranial pressure and papilledema, thus suggesting that these aspects should be investigated in all patients presenting with this clinical pattern. Finally, all our patients began to suffer from migraine. This feature, together with the benign course of the disease, could favor the hypothesis of a migrainous pathophysiology of this syndrome, although this remains a speculative.

18.
Cephalalgia ; 38(11): 1742-1747, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239213

RESUMO

Background In children and adolescents, the prevalence rate of migraine with aura is 1.6%. Few studies concerning migraine with aura features in paediatric population have been reported. Aim The aim of our study was to investigate clinical features of aura in a retrospective cohort of children with migraine with aura. Furthermore, we studied whether the International Classification of Headache Disorder (ICHD) 3 beta version criteria could efficiently detect migraine with aura in a paediatric population. Results We included 164 patients who experienced aura associated with headache (mean age 9.92 ± 2.64 years). When the ICHD-II criteria were used, a final diagnosis of migraine with typical aura was obtained in 15.3% of patients, probable migraine with typical aura in 13.4%, and typical aura with headache in 61.8%, while in in 9.5% of patients the diagnosis was undetermined. According to ICHD-3 beta, we diagnosed migraine with typical aura in 77.7% of patients, probable migraine with typical aura in 13.4%, and an undetermined diagnosis in 9.5% (less than two attacks). Conclusion Aura features did not depend on age and were similar to those of adults. However, the headache could be difficult to classify if headache duration was considered. In this view, the ICHD-3 beta offers the advantage of not considering headache features, including pain duration, for the diagnosis of migraine with typical aura, thus making this diagnosis easier in children and adolescents.

19.
Epilepsia ; 58 Suppl 3: 69-82, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675558

RESUMO

In this exciting era, we are coming closer and closer to bringing an anti-inflammatory therapy to the clinic for the purpose of seizure prevention, modification, and/or suppression. At present, it is unclear what this approach might entail, and what form it will take. Irrespective of the therapy that ultimately reaches the clinic, there will be some commonalities with regard to clinical trials. A number of animal models have now been used to identify inflammation as a major underlying mechanism of both chronic seizures and the epileptogenic process. These models have demonstrated that specific anti-inflammatory treatments can be effective at both suppressing chronic seizures and interfering with the process of epileptogenesis. Some of these have already been evaluated in early phase clinical trials. It can be expected that there will soon be more clinical trials of both "conventional, broad spectrum" anti-inflammatory agents and novel new approaches to utilizing specific anti-inflammatory therapies with drugs or other therapeutic interventions. A summary of some of those approaches appears below, as well as a discussion of the issues facing clinical trials in this new domain.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180470, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715490

RESUMO

Epilepsy is the most common comorbidity in patients with brain tumors. STUDY AIMS: To define characteristics of brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) patients and identify patterns of care. Nationwide, multicenter retrospective cohort study. Medical records of BTRE patients seen from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2011, followed for at least one month were examined. Information included age, sex, tumor type/treatments, epilepsy characteristics, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Time to modify first AED due to inefficacy and/or toxicity was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Enrolled were 808 patients (447 men, 361 women) from 26 epilepsy centers. Follow-up ranged 1 to 423 months (median 18 months). 732 patients underwent surgery, 483 chemotherapy (CT), 508 radiotherapy. All patients were treated with AEDs. Levetiracetam was the most common drug. 377 patients (46.7%) were still on first drug at end of follow-up, 338 (41.8%) needed treatment modifications (uncontrolled seizures, 229; side effects, 101; poor compliance, 22). Treatment discontinuation for lack of efficacy was associated with younger age, chemotherapy, and center with <20 cases. Treatment discontinuation for side effects was associated with female sex, enzyme-inducing drugs and center with > 20 cases. About one-half of patients with BTRE were on first AED at end of follow-up. Levetiracetam was the most common drug. A non enzyme-inducing AED was followed by a lower risk of drug discontinuation for SE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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