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1.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494819869816, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464561

RESUMO

Aims: Disparity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and risk factor levels between urban and rural regions has been confirmed worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how living in different community types (urban-rural) in childhood and adulthood are related to cardiovascular risk factors and surrogate markers of CVD such as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Methods: The study population comprised 2903 participants (54.1% female, mean age 10.5 years in 1980) of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had been clinically examined in 1980 (age 3-18 years) and had participated in at least one adult follow-up (2001-2011). Results: In adulthood, urban residents had lower systolic blood pressure (-1 mmHg), LDL-cholesterol (-0.05 mmol/l), lower body mass index (-1.0 kg/m2) and glycosylated haemoglobin levels (-0.05 mmol/mol), and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (19.9 v. 23.7%) than their rural counterparts. In addition, participants continuously living in urban areas had significantly lower IMT (-0.01 mm), LVM (1.59 g/m2.7) and pulse wave velocity (-0.22 m/s) and higher carotid artery compliance (0.07%/10 mmHg) compared to persistently rural residents. The differences in surrogate markers of CVD were only partially attenuated when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Participants living in urban communities had a more favourable cardiovascular risk factor profile than rural residents. Furthermore, participants continuously living in urban areas had less subclinical markers related to CVD compared with participants living in rural areas. Urban-rural differences in cardiovascular health might provide important opportunities for optimizing prevention by targeting areas of highest need.

2.
J Lipid Res ; 60(9): 1622-1629, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270131

RESUMO

apoE, a key regulator of plasma lipids, mediates altered functionalities in lipoprotein metabolism and thus affects the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The significance of different apoE polymorphisms remains unclear; although the ε4 allele is clearly associated with increased cholesterol levels (which inform CAD risk), direct studies about apoE polymorphisms on CAD risk and development have yielded controversial results. Furthermore, certain species of ceramides-complex lipids abundant in plasma LDL-are markers of increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Using a high-throughput MS approach, we quantified 30 molecular plasma ceramide species from a cohort of 2,160 apoE-genotyped (rs7412, rs429358) young adults enrolled in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. We then searched this lipidome data set to identify new indications of pathways influenced by apoE polymorphisms and possibly related to CAD risk. This approach revealed a previously unreported association between apoE polymorphism and a consistently documented high-risk CAD marker, Cer(d18:1/16:0). Compared with the apoE ε3/3 reference group, plasma levels of apoE ε4 were elevated and those of apoE ε2 were lowered in all subjects without evidence of apoE-by-sex interactions. apoE associated with seven ceramides that are connected to atherogenically potent macrophages and/or lipoprotein particles; these associations could indicate a plausible linkage between apoE polymorphism and ceramide metabolism, leading to adverse plasma LDL metabolism and atherogenesis. In conclusion, new evidence from plasma ceramides links apoE polymorphism with an increased risk of CAD and extends our understanding of the role of apoE in health and disease.

3.
Eur J Public Health ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity in childhood and adolescence (youth) has been shown to associate with adult metabolic health. What is not known, is whether youth body mass index (BMI) associates with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) in adulthood, and if so, the age when the BMI to MHO association emerges. This study aimed to determine if BMI trajectories from youth to adulthood differed between adults with MHO and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). METHODS: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had measured weight and height up to eight times in individuals from youth (3-18 years in 1980) to adulthood (24-49 years). Adult MHO was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2, normal fasting glucose (<5.6 mmol l-1), triglycerides (<1.695 mmol l-1), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥1.295 mmol l-1 females, ≥1.036 mmol l-1 males), blood pressure (<130/85 mmHg) and no medications for these conditions. BMI trajectories were compared for adults with MHO and MUHO using multilevel mixed models adjusted for age, sex and follow-up time. RESULTS: Mean (SD) follow-up time was 29 (3) years. Five hundred and twenty-four participants were obese in adulthood, 66 (12.6%) had MHO. BMI was similar through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. BMI trajectories diverged at age 33, when individuals with MHO had at least 1.0 kg m-2 lower BMI than those with MUHO, significantly lower at 36 (-2.1 kg m-2, P = 0.001) and 42 years (-1.7 kg m-2; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Adult MHO was characterized by lower adult BMI, not youth BMI. Preventing additional weight gain among adults who are obese may be beneficial for metabolic health.

4.
Hepatology ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169929

RESUMO

Fatty liver is a preventable cause of liver failure, but early risk factors for adulthood fatty liver are poorly understood. We examined the association of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with adulthood fatty liver and tested adulthood risk factors of fatty liver as possible mediators of this link. The study population comprised 2,042 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Follow-up with repeated clinical examinations was 31 years. Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed using data from parents' socioeconomic position and socioeconomic circumstances in participants' residential neighborhoods, categorized as high versus low socioeconomic disadvantage. Fatty liver was determined by ultrasound during the last follow up (2011) at ages 34-49 years. Childhood and adulthood risk factors, including metabolic biomarkers and life-style variables, were assessed in clinical examinations. 18.9% of the participants had fatty liver in adulthood. High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with an increased risk of fatty liver (risk ratio[95% confidence interval] 1.42[1.18-1.70],P=0.0002). This association was robust to adjustment for age, sex, and childhood risk factors of fatty liver, including high body mass index, elevated insulin, and low birth weight (1.33[1.09-1.62],P=0.005). High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was also associated with the development of risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood. Adulthood risk factors linking childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with fatty liver included waist circumference (proportion mediated of the total effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage 45%), body mass index (40%), systolic blood pressure (29%), insulin (20%), physical activity (15%), triglycerides (14%), and red meat consumption (7%). CONCLUSION: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with multiple risk factors of fatty liver and increased likelihood of fatty liver in adulthood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e011922, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070104

RESUMO

Background Recent studies have revealed sexually dimorphic associations between the carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 locus, intermediates of the metabolic pathway leading from choline to urea, and risk of coronary artery disease ( CAD ) in women. Based on evidence from the literature, the atheroprotective association with carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 could be mediated by the strong genetic effect of this locus on increased circulating glycine levels. Methods and Results We sought to identify additional genetic determinants of circulating glycine levels by carrying out a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data in up to 30 118 subjects of European ancestry. Mendelian randomization and other analytical approaches were used to determine whether glycine-associated variants were associated with CAD and traditional risk factors. Twelve loci were significantly associated with circulating glycine levels, 7 of which were not previously known to be involved in glycine metabolism ( ACADM , PHGDH , COX 18- ADAMTS 3, PSPH , TRIB 1, PTPRD , and ABO ). Glycine-raising alleles at several loci individually exhibited directionally consistent associations with decreased risk of CAD . However, these effects could not be attributed directly to glycine because of associations with other CAD -related traits. By comparison, genetic models that only included the 2 variants directly involved in glycine degradation and for which there were no other pleiotropic associations were not associated with risk of CAD or blood pressure, lipid levels, and obesity-related traits. Conclusions These results provide additional insight into the genetic architecture of glycine metabolism, but do not yield conclusive evidence for a causal relationship between circulating levels of this amino acid and risk of CAD in humans.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192523, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026022

RESUMO

Importance: Severe forms of common chronic oral infections or inflammations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. To date, the role of childhood oral infections in cardiovascular risk is not known because no long-term studies have been conducted. Objective: To investigate whether signs of oral infections in childhood are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: The cohort study (n = 755) was derived from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study in Finland initiated in 1980. Participants underwent clinical oral examinations during childhood, when they were aged 6, 9, or 12 years and a clinical cardiovascular follow-up in adulthood in 2001 at age 27, 30, or 33 years and/or in 2007 at age 33, 36, or 39 years. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline and during the follow-up until the end of 2007. Final statistical analyses were completed on February 19, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Four signs of oral infections (bleeding on probing, periodontal probing pocket depth, caries, and dental fillings) were documented. Cumulative lifetime exposure to 6 cardiovascular risk factors was calculated from dichotomized variables obtained by using the area-under-the-curve method. Subclinical atherosclerosis (ie, carotid artery intima-media thickness [IMT]) was quantified in 2001 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 489). Results: This study included 755 participants, of whom 371 (49.1%) were male; the mean (SD) age at baseline examination was 8.07 (2.00) years. In this cohort, 33 children (4.5%) had no sign of oral infections, whereas 41 (5.6%) had 1 sign, 127 (17.4%) had 2 signs, 278 (38.3%) had 3 signs, and 248 (34.1%) had 4 signs. The cumulative exposure to risk factors increased with the increasing number of oral infections both in childhood and adulthood. In multiple linear regression models, childhood oral infections, including signs of either periodontal disease (R2 = 0.018; P = .01), caries (R2 = 0.022; P = .008), or both (R2 = 0.024; P = .004), were associated with adulthood IMT. The presence of any sign of oral infection in childhood was associated with increased IMT (third tertile vs tertiles 1 and 2) with a relative risk of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.79), whereas the presence of all 4 signs produced a relative risk of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.28-3.00). The associations were more obvious in boys: if periodontal disease were present, the corresponding estimate was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.21-2.36); if caries, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05); and if all 4 signs of oral infections, 2.25 (95% CI, 1.30-3.89). The associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: Oral infections in childhood appear to be associated with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis seen in adulthood.

8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 247-254, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002463

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzyme activity is a potential inflammatory biomarker for cardiovascular disease. We examined the tracking, or persistence, of sPLA2 enzyme activity levels from childhood to adulthood, and identify potentially modifiable factors affecting tracking. Method: Prospective cohort of 1735 children (45% females) who had serum sPLA2 enzyme activity levels and other cardiovascular disease risk factors measured in 1980 that were followed-up in 2001. Results: sPLA2 activity tracked from childhood to adulthood for males (r = 0.39) and females (r = 0.45). Those who decreased body mass index relative to their peers were more likely to resolve elevated childhood sPLA2 levels than have persistent elevated sPLA2 levels in childhood and adulthood. Those who consumed less fruit, and gained more body mass index relative to their peers, began smoking or were a persistent smoker between childhood and adulthood were more likely to develop incident elevated sPLA2 levels than those with persistent not elevated sPLA2 levels. Conclusions: Childhood sPLA2 enzyme activity levels associate with adult sPLA2 levels 21 years later. Healthful changes in modifiable risk factors that occur between childhood and adulthood might prevent children from developing elevated sPLA2 levels in adulthood.


Resumo Objetivo: A atividade da enzima fosfolipase A2 secretória (sPLA2) é um possível biomarcador inflamatório de doença cardiovascular. Examinamos o monitoramento, ou a persistência, dos níveis de atividade da enzima sPLA2 da infância à vida adulta e identificamos fatores possivelmente modificáveis que afetam o monitoramento. Método: Coorte prospectiva de 1.735 crianças (45% do sexo feminino) cujos níveis de atividade da enzima sPLA2 no soro e outros fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular foram medidos em 1980 e acompanhados até 2011. Resultados: Atividade da enzima sPLA2 monitorada da infância à vida adulta para indivíduos do sexo masculino (r = 0,39) e sexo feminino (r = 0,45). Aqueles que diminuíram seus índices de massa corporal com relação a seus pares foram mais propensos à redução dos níveis elevados de sPLA2 na infância do que a manter níveis persistentemente elevados de sPLA2 na infância e vida adulta. Aqueles que consumiram menos frutas e ganharam mais índice de massa corporal com relação a seus pares, que começaram a fumar ou foram fumantes persistentes entre a infância e vida adulta foram mais propensos a desenvolver níveis de sPLA2 elevados do que aqueles com níveis de sPLA2 não elevados persistentes. Conclusões: Os níveis de atividade da enzima sPLA2 na infância estão associados aos níveis de sPLA2 na vida adulta, 21 anos mais tarde. As mudanças saudáveis nos fatores de risco modificáveis que ocorrem entre a infância e a vida adulta podem evitar que as crianças desenvolvam níveis elevados de sPLA2 na vida adulta.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889897

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite substantial interest in the development of health behaviors, there is limited research that has examined the longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and smoking trajectories from youth to adulthood in a Finnish population. This study aimed to identify trajectories of smoking and PA for males and females, and study the relationship between these trajectories from youth to adulthood. Methods: Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify trajectories of smoking and PA separately for males and females among 3355 Finnish adults (52.1% females). Participants' smoking and PA were assessed five to eight times over a 31-year period (3⁻18 years old at the baseline, 34⁻49 years at last follow-up). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the trajectories of smoking and PA. Results: Five smoking trajectories and four to five PA trajectories were identified for males and females. Of the PA trajectory groups, the persistently active group were least likely to follow the trajectories of regular smoking and the inactive and low active groups were least likely to follow non-smoking trajectory group. Likewise, inactive (women only) and low active groups were less likely to belong to the non-smokers group. Conclusions: The study suggests that those who are persistently active or increasingly active have substantially reduced probabilities of being in the highest-risk smoking categories.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Atividade Motora
10.
Echocardiography ; 36(5): 854-861, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905083

RESUMO

Decreased left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is associated with increased all-cause mortality and risk for a heart failure. The determinants of LV diastolic function have been mainly studied in elderly populations; however, the origin of LV heart failure may relate to the lifestyle factors acquired during the life course. Therefore, we examined biochemical, physiological, and lifestyle determinants of LV diastolic function in 34-49-year-old participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (Young Finns Study). In 2011, clinical examination and echocardiography were performed for 1928 participants (880 men and 1048 women; aged 34-49 years). LV diastolic function was primarily defined using E/é-ratio (population mean 4.8, range 2.1-9.0). In a multivariate model, systolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), female sex (P < 0.005), age (P < 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.024), smoking (P = 0.028), serum alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.032) were directly associated with E/é-ratio, while an inverse association was found for height (P < 0.005). Additionally, a higher E/é-ratio was found in participants with concentric hypertrophy compared to normal cardiac geometry (P < 0.005). Other indicators of the LV diastolic function including E/A-ratio and left atrial volume index showed similarly strong associations with systolic blood pressure and age. In conclusion, we identified systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and smoking as modifiable determinants of the LV diastolic function in the 34-49-year-old participants of the Young Finns Study.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2403-2411, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715377

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Passive smoke exposure has been linked to the risk of osteoporosis in adults. OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent effects of childhood passive smoke exposure on adult bone health. DESIGN/SETTING: Longitudinal, the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1422 individuals followed for 28 years since baseline in 1980 (age 3 to 18 years). Exposure to passive smoking was determined in childhood. In adulthood, peripheral bone traits were assessed with peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) at the tibia and radius, and calcaneal mineral density was estimated with quantitative ultrasound. Fracture data were gathered by questionnaires. RESULTS: Parental smoking in childhood was associated with lower pQCT-derived bone sum index in adulthood (ß± SE, -0.064 ± 0.023 per smoking parent; P = 0.004) in multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, active smoking, body mass index, serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, physical activity, and parental socioeconomic position. Similarly, parental smoking was associated with lower heel ultrasound estimated bone mineral density in adulthood (ß± SE, -0.097 ± 0.041 per smoking parent; P = 0.02). Parental smoking was also associated with the incidence of low-energy fractures (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.62). Individuals with elevated cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) in childhood had lower bone sum index with pQCT (ß± SE, -0.206 ± 0.057; P = 0.0003). Children whose parents smoked and had high cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) had significantly lower pQCT-derived bone sum index compared with those with smoking parents but had low cotinine levels (<3 ng/mL) (ß± SE, -0.192 ± 0.072; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Children of parents who smoke have evidence of impaired bone health in adulthood.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2067-2074, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629189

RESUMO

CONTEXT: To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the role of youth calcium intake in the development of impaired glucose metabolism, especially those with long-term high calcium intake. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether youth and long-term (between youth and adulthood) dietary calcium intake is associated with adult impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes (T2D). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a 31-year prospective cohort study (n = 1134; age, 3 to 18 years at baseline). EXPOSURES: Dietary calcium intake was assessed at baseline (1980) and adult follow-up visits (2001, 2007, and 2011). Long-term (mean between youth and adulthood) dietary calcium intake was calculated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adult impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and T2D. RESULTS: We found no evidence for nonlinear associations between calcium intake and IFG or T2D among females and males (all P for nonlinearity > 0.05). Higher youth and long-term dietary calcium intake was not associated with the risk of IFG or T2D among females or males after adjustment for confounders, including youth and adult body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Youth or long-term dietary calcium intake is not associated with adult risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism or T2D.

13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(5): 882-890, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531290

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) has been suggested to protect against old-age cognitive deficits. However, the independent role of childhood/youth PA for adulthood cognitive performance is unknown. This study investigated the association between PA from childhood to adulthood and midlife cognitive performance. METHODS: This study is a part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Since 1980, a population-based cohort of 3596 children (age, 3-18 yr) have been followed up in 3- to 9-yr intervals. PA has been queried in all study phases. Cumulative PA was determined in childhood (age, 6-12 yr), adolescence (age, 12-18 yr), young adulthood (age, 18-24 yr), and adulthood (age, 24-37 yr). Cognitive performance was assessed using computerized neuropsychological test, CANTAB® (N = 2026; age, 34-49 yr) in 2011. RESULTS: High PA in childhood (ß = 0.119; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.055-0.182) and adolescence (ß = 0.125; 95% CI, 0.063-0.188) were associated with better reaction time in midlife independent of PA in other age frames. Additionally, an independent association of high PA in young adulthood with better visual processing and sustained attention in midlife was observed among men (ß = 0.101; 95% CI, 0.001-0.200). There were no associations for other cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative exposure to PA from childhood to adulthood was found to be associated with better midlife reaction time. Furthermore, cumulative PA exposure in young adulthood and adulthood was associated with better visual processing and sustained attention in men. All associations were independent of participants PA level in other measured age frames. Therefore, a physically active lifestyle should be adopted already in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood and continued into midlife to ensure the plausible benefits of PA on midlife cognitive performance.

14.
Hypertension ; 73(2): 335-341, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580683

RESUMO

Childhood blood pressure (BP) levels predict adult subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the best childhood BP component for prediction has not been determined. This study comprised 5925 participants aged 3 to 18 years from 6 cohorts who were followed into adulthood (mean follow-up 25.8±6.2 years). Childhood BP was measured by using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer in all cohorts. Study-specific carotid intima-media thickness ≥90th percentile was used to define subclinical atherosclerosis. Per SD change in the predictor, childhood systolic BP (SBP; age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 1.24 [1.13-1.37]), mean arterial pressure (1.10 [1.07-1.13]), and pulse pressure (1.15 [1.05-1.27]) were associated with increased adulthood intima-media thickness. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for SBP ( C value [95% CI], 0.677 [0.657-0.704]) showed significantly improved prediction compared with diastolic BP (0.669 [0.646-0.693], P=0.006) or mean arterial pressure (0.674 [0.653-0.699], P=0.01). Pulse pressure provided a C value that was not different from SBP (0.676 [0.653-0.699], P=0.16). Combining different BP components did not improve prediction over SBP measurement alone. Based on the associations with adult carotid intima-media thickness, cut points for elevated SBP were 105 mm Hg for 3- to 6-year-old boys, 108 mm Hg for 3- to 6-year-old girls, 108 mm Hg for 7- to 12-year-old boys, 106 mm Hg for 7- to 12-year-old girls, 123 mm Hg for 13- to 18-year-old boys, and 115 mm Hg for 13- to 18-year-old girls. Our analyses suggest that several childhood BP measurement components are related to adulthood carotid intima-media thickness. Of these, SBP provided the best predictive ability.

15.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2034, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405505

RESUMO

Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of "sociability" measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20-50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the "social" genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.

16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Coronary heart disease begins in childhood and warrants prevention strategies such as dietary modification. The objective was to determine the effect of the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) dietary intervention on food consumption and nutrient intake over 20-year intervention period. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The STRIP is a prospective, randomized trial conducted between 1990 and 2011. Enrolled 6-month-old infants (n = 1062) were randomized to an intervention group (n = 540) receiving dietary counseling biannually from age 7 months to 20 years or control group (n = 522) not receiving any intervention. Food and nutrient intake was assessed annually using 4-day food records. A food-based diet score was calculated. RESULTS: The intervention led to (1) higher consumption of low-fat unsweetened dairy (ß = 177.76, 95% CI 157.36-198.16 g/day), vegetable-oil based fats (ß = 6.00, 5.37-6.63 g/day), fish (ß = 2.45, 1.44-3.45 g/day), fiber-rich grain products (ß = 5.53, 3.17-7.89 g/day), fruits/berries (ß = 9.93, 4.44-15.43 g/day), vegetables (ß = 11.95, 7.74-16.16 g/day); (2) lower consumption of desserts (ß = - 4.10, 95% CI - 6.50 to - 1.70 g/day); (3) lower intake of sucrose (ß = - 1.61, 95% CI - 2.88 to - 0.35 g/day), and higher intake of fiber (ß = 0.83, 0.55-1.11 g/day), folate (ß = 11.14, 95% CI 8.23-14.05 µg/day), vitamin D (ß = 0.52, 0.39-0.64 µg/day), C (ß = 8.08, 4.79-11.38 mg/day), E (ß = 0.93, 0.81-1.05 mg/day), iron (ß = 0.31, 0.18-0.44 mg/day), zinc (ß = 0.29, 0.17-0.40 mg/day), magnesium (ß = 12.17, 9.02-15.33 mg/day), sodium (ß = 55.00, 24.40-85.60 mg/day), potassium (ß = 157.11, 107.24-206.98 mg/day). No effect was found on nut/seed, red/processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverage, salty snack consumption, or vitamin A and calcium intake. Intervention effect was more pronounced in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The STRIP intervention improved children's diet quality over 20 years, indicating that beneficial dietary changes can be introduced and sustained in youth.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underweight in early adulthood increases risk for schizophrenia, but the effect of early childhood underweight on psychosis risk is not well known. METHODS: We studied whether underweight or overweight in childhood and adolescence increases risk for non-affective psychosis or other psychiatric disorders in a population-based cohort study 'Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns'. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories were recorded in the years 1980, 1983 and 1986 (in 3-18 years of age), before the first hospitalization due to a psychiatric disorder. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal weight or overweight, using the BMI classification for children and adolescents. We formed DSM-IV based diagnostic groups of non-affective psychosis (n = 69, including a schizophrenia subgroup, n = 41) and affective disorders (i.e. mood and anxiety disorders, n = 112) based on the Care Register for Health Care. Groups were compared with subjects with no psychiatric diagnoses (n = 3310). Sex, age, low birthweight and mother's mental disorders were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Underweight, but not overweight, independently predicted later development of non-affective psychosis. The risk of psychosis was over two-fold (relative risk (RR) [95% CI] 2.31 [1.2-4.4]) and of schizophrenia nearly 2.5-fold (RR 2.44 [1.03-5.8]) after underweight in childhood/adolescence. Underweight or overweight in childhood and adolescence was not associated with mood or anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis of non-affective psychosis as a neurodevelopmental disorder with somatic manifestations throughout childhood and adolescence.

18.
Atherosclerosis ; 280: 92-98, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: The study population included 2063 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, born during the period 1962-1977, with risk factor data available from baseline (1980) when participants were aged 3-18 years, and had risk factor data collected again in adulthood (2011) when aged 34-49 years. RESULTS: Adult CHD risk factor profile was similar for those who resided in eastern or western Finland in childhood. Over life-course from 1980 to 2011, those subjects with childhood residency in eastern Finland had, on average, higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.0009) blood pressures, total (p = 0.01) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.04), apoB (p = 0.02), and serum glucose (p < 0.0001) than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample of adult Finns aged 34-49 years had a similar CHD risk factor profile irrespective of whether they resided in eastern or western Finland during their childhood. However, when considering participants risk factor profiles over a 31-year period, those who resided in eastern Finland in childhood were associated with a less favorable CHD risk factor profile than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. The observed differences suggest that future CHD mortality might remain higher in eastern Finland compared with western Finland.

20.
Liver Int ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to determine how childhood body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health, along with change in BMI between childhood and adulthood, determine the risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Data from 2,020 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline, followed up 31 years later, was examined to assess the utility of four childhood metabolic phenotypes (metabolic groups I: normal BMI, no metabolic disturbances; II: normal BMI, one or more metabolic disturbances; III: overweight/obese, no metabolic disturbances; IV: overweight/obese, one or more metabolic disturbances) and four life-course adiposity phenotypes (adiposity group 1: normal child and adult BMI; 2, high child, normal adult BMI; 3, normal child BMI, high adult BMI; 4, high child and adult BMI) in predicting adult NAFLD. RESULTS: The risk for adult NAFLD was similar across all four groups after adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors and adult BMI. Risk of adult NAFLD was not increased among individuals overweight/obese in childhood but non-obese in adulthood. In contrast, overweight or obese adults, irrespective of their youth BMI status, had ~8-10 fold increased risk (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Childhood overweight/obesity, not metabolic health, is associated with increased risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the increased risk associated with childhood overweight/obesity can be largely removed by obtaining a normal body mass index by adulthood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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