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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 168: 112510, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877783

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the ability to function as molecular vehicles and could therefore be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells in diseases such as cancer. The composition of EVs determines their function as well as their interactions with cells, which consequently affects the cell uptake efficacy of EVs. In this study, we present two novel label-free approaches for studying EVs; characterization of EV composition by time-gated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TG-SERS) and monitoring the kinetics and amount of cellular uptake of EVs by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in real-time. Using these methods, we characterized the most abundant EVs of human blood, red blood cell (RBC)- and platelet (PLT)-derived EVs and studied their interactions with prostate cancer cells. Complementary studies were performed with nanoparticle tracking analysis for concentration and size determinations of EVs, zeta potential measurements for surface charge analysis, and fluorophore-based confocal imaging and flow cytometry to confirm EV uptake. Our results revealed distinct biochemical features between the studied EVs and demonstrated that PLT-derived EVs were more efficiently internalized by PC-3 cells than RBC-derived EVs. The two novel label-free techniques introduced in this study were found to efficiently complement conventional techniques and paves the way for further use of TG-SERS and SPR in EV studies.

2.
Mol Pharm ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584047

RESUMO

The vitreous humor is the first barrier encountered by intravitreally injected nanoparticles. Lipid-based nanoparticles in the vitreous are studied by evaluating their diffusion with single-particle tracking technology and by characterizing their protein coronae with surface plasmon resonance and high-resolution proteomics. Single-particle tracking results indicate that the vitreal mobility of the formulations is dependent on their charge. Anionic and neutral formulations are mobile, whereas larger (>200 nm) neutral particles have restricted diffusion, and cationic particles are immobilized in the vitreous. PEGylation increases the mobility of cationic and larger neutral formulations but does not affect anionic and smaller neutral particles. Convection has a significant role in the pharmacokinetics of nanoparticles, whereas diffusion drives the transport of antibodies. Surface plasmon resonance studies determine that the vitreal corona of anionic formulations is sparse. Proteomics data reveals 76 differentially abundant proteins, whose enrichment is specific to either the hard or the soft corona. PEGylation does not affect protein enrichment. This suggests that protein-specific rather than formulation-specific factors are drivers of protein adsorption on nanoparticles in the vitreous. In summary, our findings contribute to understanding the pharmacokinetics of nanoparticles in the vitreous and help advance the development of nanoparticle-based treatments for eye diseases.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2472, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051493

RESUMO

Time-Gated Surface-Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TG-SERS) was utilized to assess recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. TG-SERS suppressed the fluorescence signal from the biomolecules in the bacteria and the culture media. Characteristic protein signatures at different time points of the cell cultivation were observed and compared to conventional continuous wave (CW)-Raman with SERS. TG-SERS can distinguish discrete features of proteins such as the secondary structures and is therefore indicative of folding or unfolding of the protein. A novel method utilizing nanofibrillar cellulose as a stabilizing agent for nanoparticles and bacterial cells was used for the first time in order to boost the Raman signal, while simultaneously suppressing background signals. We evaluated the expression of hCNTF, hHspA1, and hHsp27 in complex media using the batch fermentation mode. HCNTF was also cultivated using EnBase in a fed-batch like mode. HspA1 expressed poorly due to aggregation problems within the cell, while hCNTF expressed in batch mode was correctly folded and protein instabilities were identified in the EnBase cultivation. Time-gated Raman spectroscopy showed to be a powerful tool to evaluate protein production and correct folding within living E. coli cells during the cultivation.

4.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(6): 969-978, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101397

RESUMO

We have utilized multiparametric surface plasmon resonance and impendance-based quartz crystal microbalance instruments to study the distribution coefficients of catechol derivatives in cell model membranes. Our findings verify that the octanol-water partitioning coefficient is a poor descriptor of the total lipid affinity for small molecules which show limited lipophilicity in the octanol-water system. Notably, 3-methoxytyramine, the methylated derivative of the neurotransmitter dopamine, showed substantial affinity to the lipids despite its nonlipophilic nature predicted by octanol-water partitioning. The average ratio of distribution coefficients between 3-methoxytyramine and dopamine was 8.0. We also found that the interactions between the catechols and the membranes modeling the cell membrane outer leaflet are very weak, suggesting a mechanism other than the membrane-mediated mechanism of action for the neurotransmitters at the postsynaptic site. The average distribution coefficient for these membranes was one-third of the average value for pure phosphatidylcholine membranes, calculated using all compounds. In the context of our previous work, we further theorize that membrane-bound enzymes can utilize membrane headgroup partitioning to find their substrates. This could explain the differences in enzyme affinity between soluble and membrane-bound isoforms of catechol-O-methyltransferase, an essential enzyme in catechol metabolism.

5.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 1728-1741, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894806

RESUMO

Methodological constraints have limited our ability to study protein corona formation, slowing nanomedicine development and their successful translation into the clinic. We determined hard and soft corona structural properties along with the corresponding proteomic compositions on liposomes in a label-free workflow: surface plasmon resonance and a custom biosensor for in situ structure determination on liposomes and corona separation, and proteomics using sensitive nanoliquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with open-source bioinformatics platforms. Undiluted human plasma under dynamic flow conditions was used for in vivo relevance. Proof-of-concept is presented with a regular liposome formulation and two light-triggered indocyanine green (ICG) liposome formulations in preclinical development. We observed formulation-dependent differences in corona structure (thickness, protein-to-lipid ratio, and surface mass density) and protein enrichment. Liposomal lipids induced the enrichment of stealth-mediating apolipoproteins in the hard coronas regardless of pegylation, and their preferential enrichment in the soft corona of the pegylated liposome formulation with ICG was observed. This suggests that the soft corona of loosely interacting proteins contributes to the stealth properties as a component of the biological identity modulated by nanomaterial surface properties. The workflow addresses significant methodological gaps in biocorona research by providing truly complementary hard and soft corona compositions with corresponding in situ structural parameters for the first time. It has been designed into a convenient and easily reproducible single-experiment format suited for preclinical development of lipid nanomedicines.

6.
ACS Omega ; 4(16): 16878-16890, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646234

RESUMO

The exploitation of curcumin for oral disease treatment is limited by its low solubility, poor bioavailability, and low stability. Surface-functionalized poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promising results to ameliorate selective delivery of drugs to the gastro-intestinal tract. In this study, curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs (C-PLGA NPs) of about 200 nm were surface-coated with chitosan (CS) for gastro-intestinal mucosa adhesion, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for colon targeting or GE11 peptide for tumor colon targeting. Spectrometric and zeta potential analyses confirmed the successful functionalization of the C-PLGA NPs. Real-time label-free assessment of the cell membrane-NP interactions and NP cell uptake were performed by quartz crystal microbalance coupled with supported lipid bilayers and by surface plasmon resonance coupled with living cells. The study showed that CS-coated C-PLGA NPs interact with cells by the electrostatic mechanism, while both WGA- and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs interact and are taken up by cells by specific active mechanisms. In vitro cell uptake studies corroborated the real-time label-free assessment by yielding a curcumin cell uptake of 7.3 ± 0.3, 13.5 ± 1.0, 27.3 ± 4.9, and 26.0 ± 1.3 µg per 104 HT-29 cells for noncoated, CS-, WGA-, and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs, respectively. Finally, preliminary in vivo studies showed that the WGA-coated C-PLGA NPs efficiently accumulate in the colon after oral administration to healthy Balb/c mice. In summary, the WGA- and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs displayed high potential for application as active targeted carriers for anticancer drug delivery to the colon.

8.
Biochimie ; 158: 90-101, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590084

RESUMO

ORP2 is a sterol-binding protein with documented functions in lipid and glucose metabolism, Akt signaling, steroidogenesis, cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Here we investigate the interactions of ORP2 with phosphoinositides (PIPs) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), its affinity for cholesterol with a pull-down assay, and its capacity to transfer sterol in vitro. Moreover, we determine the effects of wild-type (wt) ORP2 and a mutant with attenuated PIP binding, ORP2(mHHK), on the subcellular distribution of cholesterol, and analyze the interaction of ORP2 with the related cholesterol transporter ORP1L. ORP2 showed specific affinity for PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(4)P, with suggestive Kd values in the µM range. Also binding of cholesterol by ORP2 was detectable, but a Kd could not be determined. Wt ORP2 was in HeLa cells mainly detected in the cytosol, ER, late endosomes, and occasionally on lipid droplets (LDs), while ORP2(mHHK) displayed an enhanced LD localization. Overexpression of wt ORP2 shifted the D4H cholesterol probe away from endosomes, while ORP2(mHHK) caused endosomal accumulation of the probe. Although ORP2 failed to transfer dehydroergosterol in an in vitro assay where OSBP is active, its knock-down resulted in the accumulation of cholesterol in late endocytic compartments, as detected by both D4H and filipin probes. Interestingly, ORP2 was shown to interact and partially co-localize on late endosomes with ORP1L, a cholesterol transporter/sensor at ER-late endosome junctions. Our data demonstrates that ORP2 binds several phosphoinositides, both PI(4)P and multiply phosphorylated species. ORP2 regulates the subcellular distribution of cholesterol dependent on its PIP-binding capacity. The interaction of ORP2 with ORP1L suggests a concerted action of the two ORPs.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Colesterol/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Endossomos/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositóis/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética
9.
Biomacromolecules ; 19(10): 3983-3993, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207704

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical nanosuspensions are formed when drug crystals are suspended in aqueous media in the presence of stabilizers. This technology offers a convenient way to enhance the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug compounds. The stabilizers exert their action through electrostatic or steric interactions, however, the molecular requirements of stabilizing agents have not been studied extensively. Here, four structurally related amphiphilic Janus-dendrimers were synthesized and screened to determine the roles of different macromolecular domains on the stabilization of drug crystals. Physical interaction and nanomilling experiments have substantiated that Janus-dendrimers with fourth generation hydrophilic dendrons were superior to third generation analogues and Poloxamer 188 in stabilizing indomethacin suspensions. Contact angle and surface plasmon resonance measurements support the hypothesis that Janus-dendrimers bind to indomethacin surfaces via hydrophobic interactions and that the number of hydrophobic alkyl tails determines the adsorption kinetics of the Janus-dendrimers. The results showed that amphiphilic Janus-dendrimers adsorb onto drug particles and thus can be used to provide steric stabilization against aggregation and recrystallization. The modular synthetic route for new amphiphilic Janus-dendrimers offers, thus, for the first time a versatile platform for stable general-use stabilizing agents of drug suspensions.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Indometacina/química , Poloxâmero/química , Tensoativos/química , Água/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Suspensões
10.
Mol Ther ; 26(9): 2315-2325, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005865

RESUMO

The approval of the first oncolytic virus for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and the compiling evidence that the use of oncolytic viruses can enhance cancer immunotherapies targeted against various immune checkpoint proteins has attracted great interest in the field of cancer virotherapy. We have developed a novel platform for clinically relevant enveloped viruses that can direct the virus-induced immune response against tumor antigens. By physically attaching tumor-specific peptides onto the viral envelope of vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), we were able to induce a strong T cell-specific immune response toward these tumor antigens. These therapeutic peptides could be attached onto the viral envelope by using a cell-penetrating peptide sequence derived from human immunodeficiency virus Tat N-terminally fused to the tumor-specific peptides or, alternatively, therapeutic peptides could be conjugated with cholesterol for the attachment of the peptides onto the viral envelope. We used two mouse models of melanoma termed B16.OVA and B16-F10 for testing the efficacy of OVA SIINFEKL-peptide-coated viruses and gp100-Trp2-peptide-coated viruses, respectively, and show that by coating the viral envelope with therapeutic peptides, the anti-tumor immunity and the number of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment can be significantly enhanced.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Camundongos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos , Peptídeos/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/metabolismo , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
11.
Biotechnol Prog ; 34(6): 1533-1542, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882305

RESUMO

The application of Raman spectroscopy as a monitoring technique for bioprocesses is severely limited by a large background signal originating from fluorescing compounds in the culture media. Here, we compare time-gated Raman (TG-Raman)-, continuous wave NIR-process Raman (NIR-Raman), and continuous wave micro-Raman (micro-Raman) approaches in combination with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for their potential to overcome this limit. For that purpose, we monitored metabolite concentrations of Escherichia coli bioreactor cultivations in cell-free supernatant samples. We investigated concentration transients of glucose, acetate, AMP, and cAMP at alternating substrate availability, from deficiency to excess. Raman and SERS signals were compared to off-line metabolite analysis of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleotides. Results demonstrate that SERS, in almost all cases, led to a higher number of identifiable signals and better resolved spectra. Spectra derived from the TG-Raman were comparable to those of micro-Raman resulting in well-discernable Raman peaks, which allowed for the identification of a higher number of compounds. In contrast, NIR-Raman provided a superior performance for the quantitative evaluation of analytes, both with and without SERS nanoparticles when using multivariate data analysis. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:1533-1542, 2018.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Análise Multivariada
12.
Langmuir ; 34(27): 8081-8091, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894192

RESUMO

Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have been used extensively as an effective model of biological membranes, in the context of in vitro biophysics research, and the membranes of liposomes, in the context of the development of nanoscale drug delivery devices. Despite numerous surface-sensitive techniques having been applied to their study, the comprehensive optical characterization of SLBs using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has not been conducted. In this study, Fresnel multilayer analysis is utilized to effectively calculate layer parameters (thickness and refractive indices) with the aid of dual-wavelength and dispersion coefficient analysis, in which the linear change in the refractive index as a function of wavelength is assumed. Using complementary information from impedance-based quartz crystal microbalance experiments, biophysical properties, for example, area-per-lipid-molecule and the quantity of lipid-associated water molecules, are calculated for different lipid types and mixtures, one of which is representative of a raft-forming lipid mixture. It is proposed that the hydration layer beneath the bilayer is, in fact, an integral part of the measured optical signal. Also, the traditional Jung model analysis and the ratio of SPR responses are investigated in terms of assessing the structure of the lipid layer that is formed.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Biofísica , Lipossomos
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(21): 17646-17661, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737834

RESUMO

An innovative pH-switchable colloidal system that can be exploited for site-selective anticancer drug delivery has been generated by liposome decoration with a new novel synthetic non-peptidic oligo-arginine cell-penetration enhancer (CPE) and a quenching PEGylated counterpart that detaches from the vesicle surface under the acidic conditions of tumors. The CPE module ( Arg4- DAG) is formed by four arginine units conjugated to a first-generation (G1) 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA)/2,2-bis(aminomethyl)propionic acid (bis-AMPA) polyester dendron terminating with 1,2-distearoyl-3-azidopropane for liposome bilayer insertion. The zeta potential of the Arg4- DAG-decorated liposomes increased up to +32 mV as the Arg4- DAG/lipids molar ratio increased. The Arg4- DAG liposome shielding at pH 7.4 was provided by methoxy-PEG5 kDa-polymethacryloyl sulfadimethoxine (mPEG5 kDa-SDM8) with 7.1 apparent p Ka. Zeta potential, surface plasmon resonance and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering analyses showed that at pH 7.4 mPEG5 kDa-SDM8 associates with polycationic Arg4- DAG-decorated liposomes yielding liposomes with neutral zeta potential. At pH 6.5, which mimics the tumor environment, mPEG5 kDa-SDM8 detaches from the liposome surface yielding Arg4- DAG exposure. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed a 30-fold higher HeLa cancer cell association of the Arg4- DAG-decorated liposomes compared to non-decorated liposomes. At pH 7.4, the mPEG5 kDa-SDM8-coated liposomes undergo low cell association while remarkable cell association occurred at pH 6.5, which allowed for the controlled intracellular delivery of model macromolecules and small molecules loaded in the liposome under tumor conditions.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Antineoplásicos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeos
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(28): 3440-3443, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445781

RESUMO

The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has water soluble (S-COMT) and membrane associated (MB-COMT), bitopic, isoforms. Of these MB-COMT is a drug target in relation to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Using a combination of computational and experimental protocols, we have determined the substrate selection mechanism specific to MB-COMT. We show: (1) substrates with preferred affinity for MB-COMT over S-COMT orient in the membrane in a fashion conducive to catalysis from the membrane surface and (2) binding of COMT to its cofactor ADOMET induces conformational change that drives the catalytic surface of the protein to the membrane surface, where the substrates and Mg2+ ions, required for catalysis, are found. Bioinformatics analysis reveals evidence of this mechanism in other proteins, including several existing drug targets. The development of new COMT inhibitors with preferential affinity for MB-COMT over S-COMT is now possible and insight of broader relevance, into the function of bitopic enzymes, is provided.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Biologia Computacional , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
15.
J Lipid Res ; 59(4): 670-683, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438987

RESUMO

LCAT is an enzyme responsible for the formation of cholesteryl esters from unesterified cholesterol (UC) and phospholipid (PL) molecules in HDL particles. However, it is poorly understood how LCAT interacts with lipoproteins and how apoA-I activates it. Here we have studied the interactions between LCAT and lipids through molecular simulations. In addition, we studied the binding of LCAT to apoA-I-derived peptides, and their effect on LCAT lipid association-utilizing experiments. Results show that LCAT anchors itself to lipoprotein surfaces by utilizing nonpolar amino acids located in the membrane-binding domain and the active site tunnel opening. Meanwhile, the membrane-anchoring hydrophobic amino acids attract cholesterol molecules next to them. The results also highlight the role of the lid-loop in the lipid binding and conformation of LCAT with respect to the lipid surface. The apoA-I-derived peptides from the LCAT-activating region bind to LCAT and promote its lipid surface interactions, although some of these peptides do not bind lipids individually. The transfer free-energy of PL from the lipid bilayer into the active site is consistent with the activation energy of LCAT. Furthermore, the entry of UC molecules into the active site becomes highly favorable by the acylation of SER181.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/química , Lipídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase/química , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo
16.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 7(2): 228-240, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491413

RESUMO

When nanocarriers are administered into the blood circulation, a complex biomolecular layer known as the "protein corona" associates with their surface. Although the drivers of corona formation are not known, it is widely accepted that this layer mediates biological interactions of the nanocarrier with its surroundings. Label-free optical methods can be used to study protein corona formation without interfering with its dynamics. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept for a multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (MP-SPR) technique in monitoring the formation of a protein corona on surface-immobilized liposomes subjected to flowing 100 % human serum. We observed the formation of formulation-dependent "hard" and "soft" coronas with distinct refractive indices, layer thicknesses, and surface mass densities. MP-SPR was also employed to determine the affinity (K D ) of a complement system molecule (C3b) with cationic liposomes with and without polyethylene glycol. Tendency to create a thick corona correlated with a higher affinity of opsonin C3b for the surface. The label-free platform provides a fast and robust preclinical tool for tuning nanocarrier surface architecture and composition to control protein corona formation.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/química , Coroa de Proteína/química , Soro/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Endotoxinas/análise , Humanos , Proteínas Opsonizantes/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
17.
Adv Biosyst ; 1(5)2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911169

RESUMO

All cells expel a variety of nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, with composition reflecting the cells' biological state. Cancer pathology is dramatically mediated by EV trafficking via key proteins, lipids, metabolites, and microRNAs. Recent proteomics evidence suggests that tumor-associated exosomes exhibit distinct expression of certain membrane proteins, rendering those proteins as attractive targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application. Yet, it is not currently feasible to distinguish circulating EVs in complex biofluids according to their tissue of origin or state of disease. Here we demonstrate peptide binding to tumor-associated EVs via overexpressed membrane protein. We find that SKOV-3 ovarian tumor cells and their released EVs express α3ß1 integrin, which can be targeted by our in-house cyclic nonapeptide, LXY30. After measuring bulk SKOV-3 EV association with LXY30 by flow cytometry, Raman spectral analysis of laser-trapped single exosomes with LXY30-dialkyne conjugate enabled us to differentiate cancer-associated exosomes from non-cancer exosomes. Furthermore, we introduce the foundation for a highly specific detection platform for tumor-EVs in solution with biosensor surface-immobilized LXY30. LXY30 not only exhibits high specificity and affinity to α3ß1 integrin-expressing EVs, but also reduces EV uptake into SKOV-3 parent cells, demonstrating the possibility for therapeutic application.

18.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 121(43): 23974-23987, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214656

RESUMO

The soluble oligomeric form of the amyloid beta (Aß) peptide is the major causative agent in the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously developed a pyrroline-nitroxyl fluorene compound (SLF) that blocks the toxicity of Aß. Here we introduce the multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (MP-SPR) approach to quantify SLF binding and effect on the self-association of the peptide via a label-free, real-time approach. Kinetic analysis of SLF binding to Aß and measurements of layer thickness alterations inform on the mechanism underlying the ability of SLF to inhibit Aß toxicity and its progression towards larger oligomeric assemblies. Depending on the oligomeric state of Aß, distinct binding affinities for SLF are revealed. The Aß monomer and dimer uniquely possess sub-nanomolar affinity for SLF via a non-specific mode of binding. SLF binding is weaker in oligomeric Aß, which displays an affinity for SLF on the order of 100 µM. To complement these experiments we carried out molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to explore how SLF interacts with the Aß peptide. The MP-SPR results together with in silico modeling provide affinity data for the SLF-Aß interaction and allow us to develop a new general method for examining protein aggregation.

19.
Small ; 12(45): 6289-6300, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690329

RESUMO

The surface plasmon resonance technique in combination with whole cell sensing is used for the first time for real-time label-free monitoring of nanoparticle cell uptake. The uptake kinetics of several types of nanoparticles relevant to drug delivery applications into HeLa cells is determined. The cell uptake of the nanoparticles is confirmed by confocal microscopy. The cell uptake of silica nanoparticles and polyethylenimine-plasmid DNA polyplexes is studied as a function of temperature, and the uptake energies are determined by Arrhenius plots. The phase transition temperature of the HeLa cell membrane is detected when monitoring cell uptake of silica nanoparticles at different temperatures. The HeLa cell uptake of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles is energy-independent at temperatures slightly higher than the phase transition temperature of the HeLa cell membrane, while the uptake of polyethylenimine-DNA polyplexes is energy-dependent and linear as a function of temperature with an activation energy of Ea = 62 ± 7 kJ mol-1 = 15 ± 2 kcal mol-1 . The HeLa cell uptake of red blood cell derived extracellular vesicles is also studied as a function of the extracellular vesicle concentration. The results show a concentration dependent behavior reaching a saturation level of the extracellular vesicle uptake by HeLa cells.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinética , Dióxido de Silício , Temperatura
20.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160705, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27547955

RESUMO

Drug delivery into the brain is impeded by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) that filters out the vast majority of drugs after systemic administration. In this work, we assessed the transport, uptake and cytotoxicity of promising drug nanocarriers, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), in in vitro models of the BBB. RBE4 rat brain endothelial cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, strain II, were used as BBB models. We studied spherical and rod-shaped MSNs with the following modifications: bare MSNs and MSNs coated with a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene imine) (PEG-PEI) block copolymer. In transport studies, MSNs showed low permeability, whereas the results of the cellular uptake studies suggest robust uptake of PEG-PEI-coated MSNs. None of the MSNs showed significant toxic effects in the cell viability studies. While the shape effect was detectable but small, especially in the real-time surface plasmon resonance measurements, coating with PEG-PEI copolymers clearly facilitated the uptake of MSNs. Finally, we evaluated the in vivo detectability of one of the best candidates, i.e. the copolymer-coated rod-shaped MSNs, by two-photon in vivo imaging in the brain vasculature. The particles were clearly detectable after intravenous injection and caused no damage to the BBB. Thus, when properly designed, the uptake of MSNs could potentially be utilized for the delivery of drugs into the brain via transcellular transport.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoimina/análogos & derivados , Dióxido de Silício/química , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Injeções Intravenosas , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Modelos Biológicos , Imagem Molecular , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Polietilenoimina/química , Ratos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
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