Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene alterations constitute potential cancer therapeutic targets. We explore the prevalence of NER gene alterations across cancers and putative therapeutic strategies targeting these vulnerabilities. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated our institutional dataset with mutational data from more than 40,000 patients with cancer to assess the frequency of putative deleterious alterations in four key NER genes. Gene-edited isogenic pairs of wildtype and mutant ERCC2 or ERCC3 cell lines were created and used to assess response to several candidate drugs. RESULTS: We found that putative damaging germline and somatic alterations in NER genes are present with frequencies up to 10% across multiple cancer types. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significantly enhanced sensitivity to the sesquiterpene irofulven in cells harboring specific clinically observed heterozygous mutations in ERCC2 or ERCC3. Sensitivity of NER mutants to irofulven was greater than to a current standard of care agent, cisplatin. Hypomorphic ERCC2/3 mutant cells have impaired ability to repair irofulven induced DNA damage. Transcriptomic profiling of tumor tissues suggested co-dependencies between DNA repair pathways, indicating a potential benefit of combination therapies, which were confirmed by in vitro studies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insights into a synthetic lethal relationship between clinically observed NER gene deficiencies and sensitivity to irofulven and its potential synergistic combination with other drugs.

2.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20233163

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival.1-4 These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH.2,5,6 A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19.7,8 Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=6x10-3) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1, p=5x10-3). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1074-1078, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 137), total cholesterol (TC, n = 161), and triglycerides (TG, n = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance (P < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; P = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes. IMPACT: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1398-1408, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite advances in DNA sequencing technology and expanded medical guidelines, the vast majority of individuals carrying pathogenic variants of common cancer susceptibility genes have yet to be identified. An alternative to population-wide genetic screening of healthy individuals would exploit the trend for genetic testing at the time of cancer diagnosis to guide therapy and prevention, combined with augmented familial diffusion or "cascade" of genomic risk information. METHODS: Using a multiple linear regression model, we derived the time interval to detect an estimated 3.9 million individuals in the United States with a pathogenic variant in 1 of 18 cancer susceptibility genes. We analyzed the impact of the proportion of incident patients sequenced, varying observed frequencies of pathogenic germline variants in patients with cancer, differential rates of diffusion of genetic information in families, and family size. RESULTS: The time to detect inherited cancer predisposing variants in the population is affected by the extent of cascade to first-, second-, and third-degree relatives (FDR, SDR, TDR, respectively), family size, prevalence of mutations in patients with cancer, and the proportion of patients with cancer sequenced. In a representative scenario, assuming a 7% prevalence of pathogenic variants across cancer types, an average family size of 3 per generation, and 15% of incident patients with cancer in the United States undergoing germline testing, the time to detect all 3.9 million individuals with pathogenic variants in 18 cancer susceptibility genes would be 46.2, 22.3, 13.6, and 9.9 years if 10%, 25%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, of all FDR, SDR, and TDR were tested for familial mutations. CONCLUSION: Peridiagnostic and cascade cancer genetic testing offers an alternative strategy to achieve population-wide identification of cancer susceptibility mutations.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(1): 70-79, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 406-414, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urothelial cancers (UCs) have a substantial hereditary component, but, other than their association with Lynch syndrome, the contribution of genetic risk factors to UC pathogenesis has not been systematically defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in patients with UC and identify associated clinical factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 586 patients with UC underwent prospective, matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Seventy-seven genes associated with cancer predisposition were analyzed; allele frequencies were compared with publicly available database. RESULTS: P/LP germline variants were identified in 80 (14%) of 586 individuals with UC. The most common P/LP variants in high- or moderate-penetrance genes were BRCA2 (n = 9; 1.5%), MSH2 (n = 8; 1.4%), BRCA1 (n = 8; 1.4%), CHEK2 (n = 6; 1.0%), ERCC3 (n = 4; 0.7%), and NBN and RAD50 (n = 3; 0.5% each). Sixty-six patients (83%) had germline P/LP variants in DNA-damage repair (DDR) genes, of which 28 (42%) had biallelic inactivation. Patients with P/LP variants were more commonly diagnosed at an early age (22% v 6% in those without variants; P = .01). BRCA2 and MSH2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio, 3.7 [P = .004] and 4.6 [P = .001], respectively). Current clinical guidelines for referral for genetic testing failed to identify 6 (26%) patients with high-penetrance variants. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant P/LP germline variants in DDR genes frequently are present in patients with advanced UC. The presence of DDR germline variants could guide cancer screening for patients and their families and serve as predictive biomarkers of response to targeted or immunotherapies. Family history-based criteria to identify patients with hereditary UC susceptibility are insensitive. Broader germline testing in UC, particularly in those of young ages, should be considered.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894706

RESUMO

An update to the original published conflict of interest for author Liying Zhang, PhD. L.Z. received compensation from Future Technology Research LLC (seminar on precision medicine), Roche Diagnostics Asia Pacific, BGI, Illumina (speaking activities at conferences/workshop). L.Z.'s family member has a leadership position and ownership interest of Shanghai Genome Center. This correction has been made.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2116-2125, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer care professionals are confronted with interpreting results from multiplexed gene sequencing of patients at hereditary risk for cancer. Assessments for variant classification now require orthogonal data searches and aggregation of multiple lines of evidence from diverse resources. The clinical genetics community needs a fast algorithm that automates American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) based variant classification and provides uniform results. METHODS: Pathogenicity of Mutation Analyzer (PathoMAN) automates germline genomic variant curation from clinical sequencing based on ACMG guidelines. PathoMAN aggregates multiple tracks of genomic, protein, and disease specific information from public sources. We compared expertly curated variant data from clinical laboratories to assess performance. RESULTS: PathoMAN achieved a high overall concordance of 94.4% for pathogenic and 81.1% for benign variants. We observed negligible discordance (0.3% pathogenic, 0% benign) when contrasted against expert curated variants. Some loss of resolution (5.3% pathogenic, 18.9% benign) and gain of resolution (1.6% pathogenic, 3.8% benign) were also observed. CONCLUSION: Automation of variant curation enables unbiased, fast, efficient delivery of results in both clinical and laboratory research. We highlight the advantages and weaknesses related to the programmable automation of variant classification. PathoMAN will aid in rapid variant classification by generating robust models using a knowledgebase of diverse genetic data ( https://pathoman.mskcc.org).


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Células Germinativas , Neoplasias/genética , Algoritmos , Automação , Biologia Computacional , Variação Genética/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Software
11.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064237

RESUMO

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, p = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, p = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(4): 286-295, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) testing has traditionally been performed in patients with colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated cancer predisposition. The recent success of immunotherapy in high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and/or MMR-D tumors now supports testing for MSI in all advanced solid tumors. The extent to which LS accounts for MSI-H across heterogeneous tumor types is unknown. Here, we establish the prevalence of LS across solid tumors according to MSI status. METHODS: MSI status was determined using targeted next-generation sequencing, with tumors classified as MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, or microsatellite-stable. Matched germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in LS-associated mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). In patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, immunohistochemical staining for MMR-D was assessed. RESULTS: Among 15,045 unique patients (more than 50 cancer types), LS was identified in 16.3% (53 of 326), 1.9% (13 of 699), and 0.3% (37 of 14,020) of patients with MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, and microsatellite-stable tumors, respectively ( P < .001). Among patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, 50% (33 of 66) had tumors other than CRC/EC, including urothelial, prostate, pancreas, adrenocortical, small bowel, sarcoma, mesothelioma, melanoma, gastric, and germ cell tumors. In these patients with non-CRC/EC tumors, 45% (15 of 33) did not meet LS genetic testing criteria on the basis of personal/family history. Immunohistochemical staining of LS-positive MSI-H/I tumors demonstrated MMR-D in 98.2% (56 of 57) of available cases. CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D is predictive of LS across a much broader tumor spectrum than currently appreciated. Given implications for cancer surveillance and prevention measures in affected families, these data support germline genetic assessment for LS for patients with an MSI-H/MMR-D tumor, regardless of cancer type or family cancer history.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Transcriptoma
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068732

RESUMO

Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase complex genes predispose to familial paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome (FPG) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Here we describe cancer patients undergoing agnostic germline testing at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and found to harbor germline SDHA mutations. Using targeted sequencing covering the cancer census genes, we identified 10 patients with SDHA germline mutations. Cancer diagnoses for these patients carrying SDHA germline mutations included neuroblastoma (n = 1), breast (n = 1), colon (n = 1), renal (n = 1), melanoma and uterine (n = 1), prostate (n = 1), endometrial (n = 1), bladder (n = 1), and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (n = 2). Immunohistochemical staining and assessment of patient tumors for second hits and loss of heterozygosity in SDHA confirmed GIST as an SDHA-associated tumor and suggests SDHA germline mutations may be a driver in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(9): 1228-1235, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978187

RESUMO

Importance: Identification of patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is important for cancer screening and, in patients with advanced disease, for guiding treatment. The prevalence of cancer-related germline mutations in patients with advanced RCC and the phenotypes associated with some rare mutations are unknown. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of germline mutations in both known RCC predisposition genes and other cancer-associated genes and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with germline mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study conducted from October 1, 2015, to July 31, 2017, 254 of 267 patients with advanced (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III or IV) RCC who were seen in medical oncology or urology clinics agreed to germline sequencing and disclosure of results under an institutional protocol of matched tumor-germline DNA sequencing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with advanced RCC were determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. Results: Of the 254 patients (median age [range], 56 [13-79] years; 179 [70.5%] male; 211 [83.1%] non-Hispanic white), germline mutations were identified in 41 (16.1%); 14 (5.5%) had mutations in syndromic RCC-associated genes (7 in FH, 3 in BAP1, and 1 each in VHL, MET, SDHA, and SDHB). The most frequent mutations were CHEK2 (n = 9) and FH (n = 7). Of genes not previously associated with RCC risk, CHEK2 was overrepresented in patients compared with the general population, with an odds ratio of RCC of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.3-5.8; P = .003). Patients with non-clear cell RCC were significantly more likely to have an RCC-associated gene mutation (9 [11.7%] of 74 vs 3 [1.7%] of 177; P = .001), and 8 (10.0%) had a mutation in a gene that could guide therapy. Of patients with mutations in RCC-associated genes, 5 (35.7%) failed to meet current clinical guidelines for genetic testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Of patients with non-clear cell RCC, more than 20% had a germline mutation, of which half had the potential to direct systemic therapy. Current referral criteria for genetic testing did not identify a substantial portion of patients with mutations, supporting the role of a more inclusive sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Res ; 78(14): 4086-4096, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735552

RESUMO

A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes.Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4086-96. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(10): 1067-1074, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506128

RESUMO

Background: Identification of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) has important clinical and therapeutic implications in pancreas cancer. We performed comprehensive germline testing (GT) in an unselected prospective cohort of patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms with genotype and phenotype association to facilitate identification of prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and examine potential therapeutic implications. Methods: Six hundred fifteen unselected patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms were prospectively consented for somatic tumor and matched sample profiling for 410-468 genes. GT for PGAs in 76 genes associated with cancer susceptibility was performed in an "identified" manner in 356 (57.9%) patients and in an "anonymized" manner in 259 (42.1%) patients, using an institutional review board-approved protocol. Detailed clinical and pathological features, response to platinum, and overall survival (OS) were collected for the identified cohort. OS was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: PGAs were present in 122 (19.8%) of 615 patients involving 24 different genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, PALB2, and multiple additional genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. Of 122 patients with germline alterations, 41.8% did not meet current guidelines for GT. The difference in median OS was not statistically significant between patients with and without PGA (50.8 months, 95% confidence interval = 34.5 to not reached, two-sided P = .94). Loss of heterozygosity was found in 60.0% of BRCA1/2. Conclusions: PGAs frequently occur in pancreas exocrine neoplasms and involve multiple genes beyond those previously associated with hereditary pancreatic cancer. These PGAs are therapeutically actionable in about 5% to 10% of patients. These data support routinely offering GT in all pancreatic ductal adenocarcimona patients with a broad panel of known hereditary cancer predisposition genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pâncreas Exócrino/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia
18.
Nature ; 548(7667): 297-303, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783718

RESUMO

Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths. Although The Cancer Genome Atlas has sequenced primary tumour types obtained from surgical resections, much less comprehensive molecular analysis is available from clinically acquired metastatic cancers. Here we perform whole-exome and -transcriptome sequencing of 500 adult patients with metastatic solid tumours of diverse lineage and biopsy site. The most prevalent genes somatically altered in metastatic cancer included TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, and RB1. Putative pathogenic germline variants were present in 12.2% of cases of which 75% were related to defects in DNA repair. RNA sequencing complemented DNA sequencing to identify gene fusions, pathway activation, and immune profiling. Our results show that integrative sequence analysis provides a clinically relevant, multi-dimensional view of the complex molecular landscape and microenvironment of metastatic cancers.


Assuntos
Genética Médica , Genômica , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Adulto , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 3: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649662

RESUMO

Understanding the gene-specific risks for development of breast cancer will lead to improved clinical care for those carrying germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. We sought to detail the spectrum of mutations and refine risk estimates for known and proposed breast cancer susceptibility genes. Targeted massively-parallel sequencing was performed to identify mutations and copy number variants in 26 known or proposed breast cancer susceptibility genes in 2134 BRCA1/2-negative women with familial breast cancer (proband with breast cancer and a family history of breast or ovarian cancer) from a largely European-Caucasian multi-institutional cohort. Case-control analysis was performed comparing the frequency of internally classified mutations identified in familial breast cancer women to Exome Aggregation Consortium controls. Mutations were identified in 8.2% of familial breast cancer women, including mutations in high-risk (odds ratio > 5) (1.4%) and moderate-risk genes (2 < odds ratio < 5) (2.9%). The remaining familial breast cancer women had mutations in proposed breast cancer genes (1.7%), Lynch syndrome genes (0.5%), and six cases had two mutations (0.3%). Case-control analysis demonstrated associations with familial breast cancer for ATM, PALB2, and TP53 mutations (odds ratio > 3.0, p < 10-4), BARD1 mutations (odds ratio = 3.2, p = 0.012), and CHEK2 truncating mutations (odds ratio = 1.6, p = 0.041). Our results demonstrate that approximately 4.7% of BRCA1/2 negative familial breast cancer women have mutations in genes statistically associated with breast cancer. We classified PALB2 and TP53 as high-risk, ATM and BARD1 as moderate risk, and CHEK2 truncating mutations as low risk breast cancer predisposition genes. This study demonstrates that large case-control studies are needed to fully evaluate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in moderate-risk and proposed susceptibility genes.

20.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 55(3): 203-209, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers of response to gemcitabine platinum (GP) combination chemotherapy in urothelial carcinoma (UC). METHODS: Saliva or blood was prospectively collected from 216 patients treated with GP for UC of the bladder between 1991 and 2011. Based on reported associations with gemcitabine and cisplatin response or putative mechanisms of gemcitabine or cisplatin/carboplatin activity, we selected SNPs of interest and were able to genotype 59 SNPs (using the SequenomMass ARRAYiPLEX platform) in 261 patients randomly split 2/3 into a training set (n = 174) and 1/3 into a test set (n = 87). Logistic regression was used to test the association between response to GP and SNPs. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 64 years (range: 28 - 85) for the discovery set and 67 years (range: 30 - 84) for the validation set. Males composed 76% and 69%, and white non-Hispanics composed 88% and 91% of the training and test validation sets, respectively. Three SNPs on GALNTL4 (rs7937567, rs12278731, and rs9988868) and one intergenic SNP (rs1321391) were significantly associated with response to GP in the training set and were used to build a SNP score. However, when assessed in the test set, the SNP score was not significantly associated with response. CONCLUSION: Multiple SNPs selected from previous studies failed to predict response to GP in this cohort. Larger studies capable of accounting for population-based allele frequency heterogeneity may be required for replication of genetic alterations important to pharmacogenomics.
.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Carboplatina/farmacocinética , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/farmacocinética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/sangue , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/sangue , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/sangue , Desoxicitidina/farmacocinética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Íntrons , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Farmacogenética , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA