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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five SNPs at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate 2 loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5,662 cases and 9,237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF]=0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=0.83, P=3.62x10-13). rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5,510 cases and 12,817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF=0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.20, P=2.31x10-12). This SNP is 29,426 bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894706

RESUMO

An update to the original published conflict of interest for author Liying Zhang, PhD. L.Z. received compensation from Future Technology Research LLC (seminar on precision medicine), Roche Diagnostics Asia Pacific, BGI, Illumina (speaking activities at conferences/workshop). L.Z.'s family member has a leadership position and ownership interest of Shanghai Genome Center. This correction has been made.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2116-2125, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer care professionals are confronted with interpreting results from multiplexed gene sequencing of patients at hereditary risk for cancer. Assessments for variant classification now require orthogonal data searches and aggregation of multiple lines of evidence from diverse resources. The clinical genetics community needs a fast algorithm that automates American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) based variant classification and provides uniform results. METHODS: Pathogenicity of Mutation Analyzer (PathoMAN) automates germline genomic variant curation from clinical sequencing based on ACMG guidelines. PathoMAN aggregates multiple tracks of genomic, protein, and disease specific information from public sources. We compared expertly curated variant data from clinical laboratories to assess performance. RESULTS: PathoMAN achieved a high overall concordance of 94.4% for pathogenic and 81.1% for benign variants. We observed negligible discordance (0.3% pathogenic, 0% benign) when contrasted against expert curated variants. Some loss of resolution (5.3% pathogenic, 18.9% benign) and gain of resolution (1.6% pathogenic, 3.8% benign) were also observed. CONCLUSION: Automation of variant curation enables unbiased, fast, efficient delivery of results in both clinical and laboratory research. We highlight the advantages and weaknesses related to the programmable automation of variant classification. PathoMAN will aid in rapid variant classification by generating robust models using a knowledgebase of diverse genetic data ( https://pathoman.mskcc.org).

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800283, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) testing has traditionally been performed in patients with colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated cancer predisposition. The recent success of immunotherapy in high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and/or MMR-D tumors now supports testing for MSI in all advanced solid tumors. The extent to which LS accounts for MSI-H across heterogeneous tumor types is unknown. Here, we establish the prevalence of LS across solid tumors according to MSI status. METHODS: MSI status was determined using targeted next-generation sequencing, with tumors classified as MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, or microsatellite-stable. Matched germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in LS-associated mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). In patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, immunohistochemical staining for MMR-D was assessed. RESULTS: Among 15,045 unique patients (more than 50 cancer types), LS was identified in 16.3% (53 of 326), 1.9% (13 of 699), and 0.3% (37 of 14,020) of patients with MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, and microsatellite-stable tumors, respectively ( P < .001). Among patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, 50% (33 of 66) had tumors other than CRC/EC, including urothelial, prostate, pancreas, adrenocortical, small bowel, sarcoma, mesothelioma, melanoma, gastric, and germ cell tumors. In these patients with non-CRC/EC tumors, 45% (15 of 33) did not meet LS genetic testing criteria on the basis of personal/family history. Immunohistochemical staining of LS-positive MSI-H/I tumors demonstrated MMR-D in 98.2% (56 of 57) of available cases. CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D is predictive of LS across a much broader tumor spectrum than currently appreciated. Given implications for cancer surveillance and prevention measures in affected families, these data support germline genetic assessment for LS for patients with an MSI-H/MMR-D tumor, regardless of cancer type or family cancer history.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068732

RESUMO

Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase complex genes predispose to familial paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome (FPG) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Here we describe cancer patients undergoing agnostic germline testing at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and found to harbor germline SDHA mutations. Using targeted sequencing covering the cancer census genes, we identified 10 patients with SDHA germline mutations. Cancer diagnoses for these patients carrying SDHA germline mutations included neuroblastoma (n = 1), breast (n = 1), colon (n = 1), renal (n = 1), melanoma and uterine (n = 1), prostate (n = 1), endometrial (n = 1), bladder (n = 1), and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (n = 2). Immunohistochemical staining and assessment of patient tumors for second hits and loss of heterozygosity in SDHA confirmed GIST as an SDHA-associated tumor and suggests SDHA germline mutations may be a driver in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(9): 1228-1235, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978187

RESUMO

Importance: Identification of patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is important for cancer screening and, in patients with advanced disease, for guiding treatment. The prevalence of cancer-related germline mutations in patients with advanced RCC and the phenotypes associated with some rare mutations are unknown. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of germline mutations in both known RCC predisposition genes and other cancer-associated genes and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with germline mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study conducted from October 1, 2015, to July 31, 2017, 254 of 267 patients with advanced (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III or IV) RCC who were seen in medical oncology or urology clinics agreed to germline sequencing and disclosure of results under an institutional protocol of matched tumor-germline DNA sequencing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with advanced RCC were determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. Results: Of the 254 patients (median age [range], 56 [13-79] years; 179 [70.5%] male; 211 [83.1%] non-Hispanic white), germline mutations were identified in 41 (16.1%); 14 (5.5%) had mutations in syndromic RCC-associated genes (7 in FH, 3 in BAP1, and 1 each in VHL, MET, SDHA, and SDHB). The most frequent mutations were CHEK2 (n = 9) and FH (n = 7). Of genes not previously associated with RCC risk, CHEK2 was overrepresented in patients compared with the general population, with an odds ratio of RCC of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.3-5.8; P = .003). Patients with non-clear cell RCC were significantly more likely to have an RCC-associated gene mutation (9 [11.7%] of 74 vs 3 [1.7%] of 177; P = .001), and 8 (10.0%) had a mutation in a gene that could guide therapy. Of patients with mutations in RCC-associated genes, 5 (35.7%) failed to meet current clinical guidelines for genetic testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Of patients with non-clear cell RCC, more than 20% had a germline mutation, of which half had the potential to direct systemic therapy. Current referral criteria for genetic testing did not identify a substantial portion of patients with mutations, supporting the role of a more inclusive sequencing approach.

8.
Cancer Res ; 78(14): 4086-4096, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735552

RESUMO

A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes.Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4086-96. ©2018 AACR.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(10): 1067-1074, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506128

RESUMO

Background: Identification of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) has important clinical and therapeutic implications in pancreas cancer. We performed comprehensive germline testing (GT) in an unselected prospective cohort of patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms with genotype and phenotype association to facilitate identification of prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and examine potential therapeutic implications. Methods: Six hundred fifteen unselected patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms were prospectively consented for somatic tumor and matched sample profiling for 410-468 genes. GT for PGAs in 76 genes associated with cancer susceptibility was performed in an "identified" manner in 356 (57.9%) patients and in an "anonymized" manner in 259 (42.1%) patients, using an institutional review board-approved protocol. Detailed clinical and pathological features, response to platinum, and overall survival (OS) were collected for the identified cohort. OS was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: PGAs were present in 122 (19.8%) of 615 patients involving 24 different genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, PALB2, and multiple additional genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. Of 122 patients with germline alterations, 41.8% did not meet current guidelines for GT. The difference in median OS was not statistically significant between patients with and without PGA (50.8 months, 95% confidence interval = 34.5 to not reached, two-sided P = .94). Loss of heterozygosity was found in 60.0% of BRCA1/2. Conclusions: PGAs frequently occur in pancreas exocrine neoplasms and involve multiple genes beyond those previously associated with hereditary pancreatic cancer. These PGAs are therapeutically actionable in about 5% to 10% of patients. These data support routinely offering GT in all pancreatic ductal adenocarcimona patients with a broad panel of known hereditary cancer predisposition genes.

11.
Nature ; 548(7667): 297-303, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783718

RESUMO

Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths. Although The Cancer Genome Atlas has sequenced primary tumour types obtained from surgical resections, much less comprehensive molecular analysis is available from clinically acquired metastatic cancers. Here we perform whole-exome and -transcriptome sequencing of 500 adult patients with metastatic solid tumours of diverse lineage and biopsy site. The most prevalent genes somatically altered in metastatic cancer included TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, and RB1. Putative pathogenic germline variants were present in 12.2% of cases of which 75% were related to defects in DNA repair. RNA sequencing complemented DNA sequencing to identify gene fusions, pathway activation, and immune profiling. Our results show that integrative sequence analysis provides a clinically relevant, multi-dimensional view of the complex molecular landscape and microenvironment of metastatic cancers.


Assuntos
Genética Médica , Genômica , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Adulto , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 3: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649662

RESUMO

Understanding the gene-specific risks for development of breast cancer will lead to improved clinical care for those carrying germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. We sought to detail the spectrum of mutations and refine risk estimates for known and proposed breast cancer susceptibility genes. Targeted massively-parallel sequencing was performed to identify mutations and copy number variants in 26 known or proposed breast cancer susceptibility genes in 2134 BRCA1/2-negative women with familial breast cancer (proband with breast cancer and a family history of breast or ovarian cancer) from a largely European-Caucasian multi-institutional cohort. Case-control analysis was performed comparing the frequency of internally classified mutations identified in familial breast cancer women to Exome Aggregation Consortium controls. Mutations were identified in 8.2% of familial breast cancer women, including mutations in high-risk (odds ratio > 5) (1.4%) and moderate-risk genes (2 < odds ratio < 5) (2.9%). The remaining familial breast cancer women had mutations in proposed breast cancer genes (1.7%), Lynch syndrome genes (0.5%), and six cases had two mutations (0.3%). Case-control analysis demonstrated associations with familial breast cancer for ATM, PALB2, and TP53 mutations (odds ratio > 3.0, p < 10-4), BARD1 mutations (odds ratio = 3.2, p = 0.012), and CHEK2 truncating mutations (odds ratio = 1.6, p = 0.041). Our results demonstrate that approximately 4.7% of BRCA1/2 negative familial breast cancer women have mutations in genes statistically associated with breast cancer. We classified PALB2 and TP53 as high-risk, ATM and BARD1 as moderate risk, and CHEK2 truncating mutations as low risk breast cancer predisposition genes. This study demonstrates that large case-control studies are needed to fully evaluate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in moderate-risk and proposed susceptibility genes.

13.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 55(3): 203-209, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers of response to gemcitabine platinum (GP) combination chemotherapy in urothelial carcinoma (UC). METHODS: Saliva or blood was prospectively collected from 216 patients treated with GP for UC of the bladder between 1991 and 2011. Based on reported associations with gemcitabine and cisplatin response or putative mechanisms of gemcitabine or cisplatin/carboplatin activity, we selected SNPs of interest and were able to genotype 59 SNPs (using the SequenomMass ARRAYiPLEX platform) in 261 patients randomly split 2/3 into a training set (n = 174) and 1/3 into a test set (n = 87). Logistic regression was used to test the association between response to GP and SNPs. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 64 years (range: 28 - 85) for the discovery set and 67 years (range: 30 - 84) for the validation set. Males composed 76% and 69%, and white non-Hispanics composed 88% and 91% of the training and test validation sets, respectively. Three SNPs on GALNTL4 (rs7937567, rs12278731, and rs9988868) and one intergenic SNP (rs1321391) were significantly associated with response to GP in the training set and were used to build a SNP score. However, when assessed in the test set, the SNP score was not significantly associated with response. CONCLUSION: Multiple SNPs selected from previous studies failed to predict response to GP in this cohort. Larger studies capable of accounting for population-based allele frequency heterogeneity may be required for replication of genetic alterations important to pharmacogenomics.
.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Carboplatina/farmacocinética , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/farmacocinética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/sangue , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/sangue , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/sangue , Desoxicitidina/farmacocinética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Íntrons , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Farmacogenética , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/patologia
14.
Cancer Discov ; 6(11): 1267-1275, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655433

RESUMO

Known gene mutations account for approximately 50% of the hereditary risk for breast cancer. Moderate and low penetrance variants, discovered by genomic approaches, account for an as-yet-unknown proportion of the remaining heritability. A truncating mutation c.325C>T:p.Arg109* (R109X) in the ATP-dependent helicase ERCC3 was observed recurrently among exomes sequenced in BRCA wild-type, breast cancer-affected individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Modeling of the mutation in ERCC3-deficient or CRISPR/Cas9-edited cell lines showed a consistent pattern of reduced expression of the protein and concomitant hypomorphic functionality when challenged with UVC exposure or treatment with the DNA alkylating agent IlludinS. Overexpressing the mutant protein in ERCC3-deficient cells only partially rescued their DNA repair-deficient phenotype. Comparison of frequency of this recurrent mutation in over 6,500 chromosomes of breast cancer cases and 6,800 Ashkenazi controls showed significant association with breast cancer risk (ORBC = 1.53, ORER+ = 1.73), particularly for the estrogen receptor-positive subset (P < 0.007). SIGNIFICANCE: A functionally significant recurrent ERCC3 mutation increased the risk for breast cancer in a genetic isolate. Mutated cell lines showed lower survival after in vitro exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Thus, similar to tumors arising in the background of homologous repair defects, mutations in nucleotide excision repair genes such as ERCC3 could constitute potential therapeutic targets in a subset of hereditary breast cancers. Cancer Discov; 6(11); 1267-75. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1197.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Feminino , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
15.
N Engl J Med ; 375(5): 443-53, 2016 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27433846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in DNA-repair genes such as BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of lethal prostate cancer. Although the prevalence of germline mutations in DNA-repair genes among men with localized prostate cancer who are unselected for family predisposition is insufficient to warrant routine testing, the frequency of such mutations in patients with metastatic prostate cancer has not been established. METHODS: We recruited 692 men with documented metastatic prostate cancer who were unselected for family history of cancer or age at diagnosis. We isolated germline DNA and used multiplex sequencing assays to assess mutations in 20 DNA-repair genes associated with autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition syndromes. RESULTS: A total of 84 germline DNA-repair gene mutations that were presumed to be deleterious were identified in 82 men (11.8%); mutations were found in 16 genes, including BRCA2 (37 men [5.3%]), ATM (11 [1.6%]), CHEK2 (10 [1.9% of 534 men with data]), BRCA1 (6 [0.9%]), RAD51D (3 [0.4%]), and PALB2 (3 [0.4%]). Mutation frequencies did not differ according to whether a family history of prostate cancer was present or according to age at diagnosis. Overall, the frequency of germline mutations in DNA-repair genes among men with metastatic prostate cancer significantly exceeded the prevalence of 4.6% among 499 men with localized prostate cancer (P<0.001), including men with high-risk disease, and the prevalence of 2.7% in the Exome Aggregation Consortium, which includes 53,105 persons without a known cancer diagnosis (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In our multicenter study, the incidence of germline mutations in genes mediating DNA-repair processes among men with metastatic prostate cancer was 11.8%, which was significantly higher than the incidence among men with localized prostate cancer. The frequencies of germline mutations in DNA-repair genes among men with metastatic disease did not differ significantly according to age at diagnosis or family history of prostate cancer. (Funded by Stand Up To Cancer and others.).


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/genética
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 801-817, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27153395

RESUMO

Sequencing tests assaying panels of genes or whole exomes are widely available for cancer risk evaluation. However, methods for classification of variants resulting from this testing are not well studied. We evaluated the ability of a variant-classification methodology based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines to define the rate of mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in 180 medically relevant genes, including all ACMG-designated reportable cancer and non-cancer-associated genes, in individuals who met guidelines for hereditary cancer risk evaluation. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 404 individuals in 253 families and classified 1,640 variants. Potentially clinically actionable (likely pathogenic [LP] or pathogenic [P]) versus nonactionable (VUS, likely benign, or benign) calls were 95% concordant with locus-specific databases and Clinvar. LP or P mutations were identified in 12 of 25 breast cancer susceptibility genes in 26 families without identified BRCA1/2 mutations (11%). Evaluation of 84 additional genes associated with autosomal-dominant cancer susceptibility identified LP or P mutations in only two additional families (0.8%). However, individuals from 10 of 253 families (3.9%) had incidental LP or P mutations in 32 non-cancer-associated genes, and 9% of individuals were monoallelic carriers of a rare LP or P mutation in 39 genes associated with autosomal-recessive cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, 95% of individuals had at least one VUS. In summary, these data support the clinical utility of ACMG variant-classification guidelines. Additionally, evaluation of extended panels of cancer-associated genes in breast/ovarian cancer families leads to only an incremental clinical benefit but substantially increases the complexity of the results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/normas , Genômica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Exoma , Feminino , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 14(6): 511-517, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27150640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Level 1 evidence has demonstrated increased overall survival with cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive urothelial cancer. Usage remains low, however, in part because neoadjuvant chemotherapy will not be effective for every patient. To identify the patients most likely to benefit, we evaluated germline pharmacogenomic markers for association with neoadjuvant chemotherapy sensitivity in 2 large cohorts of patients with urothelial cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients receiving neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial cancer were eligible. Nine germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially conferring platinum sensitivity were tested for an association with a complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pT0) or elimination of muscle-invasive cancer (

Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10933, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956414

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10(-11)), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10(-8)) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10(-8)), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10(-11)) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10(-7)) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10(-8)) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10(-7)). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Serpinas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(8): 1663-76, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008888

RESUMO

Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82,P-value = 8.5 × 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51,P-value = 4.0 × 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 15, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs). METHODS: We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. RESULTS: Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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