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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9611, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270342

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different serological markers of hepatitis A, B and C viruses and Treponema pallidum among the adult population of Argentina. To achieve this, adults who attended health services for premarital exams (which are mandatory and includes screening for syphilis) were recruited. A cross-sectional study was designed with a cluster sampling strategy. Couples who attended selected health services for premarital screening between 2013 and 2014 in Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Mendoza and Santa Fe provinces were included. A total of 3833 individuals were recruited. Anti-HAV prevalence was 63.9%, anti-HCV 0.3%, anti-HBc (without HBsAg) 1.9%, HBsAg 0.3%, and T pallidum 0.8%. Anti-HAV was higher among older participants, foreigners and those from the lower strata. HBV increased with age and was higher among foreigners and those with lower formal educational level. Anti-HCV frequency increased with age. Premarital screening of viral hepatitis could constitute an instance of diagnosis, vaccination and inclusion in care of those in need. Results from this study will allow the national hepatitis programs to design public policies in order to diminish the impact of these infections on the population.

2.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(8): 1429-1430, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229330
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 16: 18519, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24093951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to estimate primary resistance in an urban setting in a developing country characterized by high antiretroviral (ARV) coverage over the diagnosed population and also by an important proportion of undiagnosed individuals, in order to determine whether any change in primary resistance occurred in the past five years. DESIGN: We carried out a multi-site resistance surveillance study according to WHO HIV resistance guidelines, using a weighted sampling technique based on annual HIV case reports per site. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 197 drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed between March 2010 and August 2011 at 20 HIV voluntary counselling and testing centres in Buenos Aires. Clinical records of enrolled patients at the time of diagnosis were compiled. Viral load and CD4 counts were performed on all samples. The pol gene was sequenced and the resistance profile determined. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by neighbour-joining (NJ) trees and bootscanning analysis. RESULTS: We found that 12 (7.9%) of the 152 successfully sequenced samples harboured primary resistance mutations, of which K103N and G190A were the most prevalent. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance mutations were largely the most prevalent (5.9%), accounting for 75% of all primary resistance and exhibiting a significant increase (p=0.0072) in prevalence during the past 10 years as compared to our previous study performed in 1997-2000 and in 2003-2005. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and protease inhibitor primary resistance were low and similar to the one previously reported. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of primary NNRTI resistance in Buenos Aires appear to be increasing in the context of a sustained ARV coverage and a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
4.
Salud colect ; 8(3): 229-246, sep.-dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-662959

RESUMO

Este artículo desarrolla los fundamentos metodológicos del diseño de análisis integrado a partir de su empleo para el estudio de situaciones de vulnerabilidad entre usuarios de drogas a nivel regional. Se integraron datos de trece estudios transversales realizados en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay entre 1998 y 2004. Una revisión crítica del concepto de matriz de datos, que distingue cuatro componentes estructurales, permitió: definir las unidades de análisis abarcando las distintas poblaciones originales; identificar un núcleo común de variables (características sociodemográficas, uso de drogas, prácticas sexuales, serologías de infecciones de transmisión sexual y sanguínea) con sus respectivos valores; examinar los indicadores, las dimensiones y procedimientos empleados para la medición de las variables; y establecer su compatibilidad mediante un análisis comparativo y temático de los instrumentos. Se obtuvo una nueva matriz de 3.534 casos. La colaboración multidisciplinaria entre equipos e instituciones de los tres países hizo posible maximizar las fuentes disponibles para el análisis de características locales y de la región en su conjunto.


This paper develops the methodological principles of pooled analysis design, using it to study situations of vulnerability among drug users at a regional level. Data from thirteen cross-sectional studies carried out in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay between 1998 and 2004 were integrated. A critical review of the concept of data matrix which identifies four structural components, allowed us to: define the units of analysis spanning the different original populations; identify a core of common variables (social and demographic characteristics, drug use, sexual practices, serology of blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases) with their respective values; examine the indicators, dimensions and procedures used to measure the variables; and establish their compatibility with a thematic and comparative analysis of data collection tools. The main result was a new data matrix with 3,534 cases. Multidisciplinary collaboration between teams and institutions from the three countries made it possible to maximize the available sources in order to analyze characteristics of the local contexts and of the overall regional.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estatística como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai/epidemiologia
5.
Salud colect ; 8(3): 229-246, sep.-dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-129003

RESUMO

Este artículo desarrolla los fundamentos metodológicos del diseño de análisis integrado a partir de su empleo para el estudio de situaciones de vulnerabilidad entre usuarios de drogas a nivel regional. Se integraron datos de trece estudios transversales realizados en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay entre 1998 y 2004. Una revisión crítica del concepto de matriz de datos, que distingue cuatro componentes estructurales, permitió: definir las unidades de análisis abarcando las distintas poblaciones originales; identificar un núcleo común de variables (características sociodemográficas, uso de drogas, prácticas sexuales, serologías de infecciones de transmisión sexual y sanguínea) con sus respectivos valores; examinar los indicadores, las dimensiones y procedimientos empleados para la medición de las variables; y establecer su compatibilidad mediante un análisis comparativo y temático de los instrumentos. Se obtuvo una nueva matriz de 3.534 casos. La colaboración multidisciplinaria entre equipos e instituciones de los tres países hizo posible maximizar las fuentes disponibles para el análisis de características locales y de la región en su conjunto.(AU)


This paper develops the methodological principles of pooled analysis design, using it to study situations of vulnerability among drug users at a regional level. Data from thirteen cross-sectional studies carried out in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay between 1998 and 2004 were integrated. A critical review of the concept of data matrix which identifies four structural components, allowed us to: define the units of analysis spanning the different original populations; identify a core of common variables (social and demographic characteristics, drug use, sexual practices, serology of blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases) with their respective values; examine the indicators, dimensions and procedures used to measure the variables; and establish their compatibility with a thematic and comparative analysis of data collection tools. The main result was a new data matrix with 3,534 cases. Multidisciplinary collaboration between teams and institutions from the three countries made it possible to maximize the available sources in order to analyze characteristics of the local contexts and of the overall regional.(AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estatística como Assunto , Uruguai/epidemiologia
9.
Salud Colect ; 8(3): 229-46, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23681457

RESUMO

This paper develops the methodological principles of pooled analysis design, using it to study situations of vulnerability among drug users at a regional level. Data from thirteen cross-sectional studies carried out in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay between 1998 and 2004 were integrated. A critical review of the concept of data matrix which identifies four structural components, allowed us to: define the units of analysis spanning the different original populations; identify a core of common variables (social and demographic characteristics, drug use, sexual practices, serology of blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases) with their respective values; examine the indicators, dimensions and procedures used to measure the variables; and establish their compatibility with a thematic and comparative analysis of data collection tools. The main result was a new data matrix with 3,534 cases. Multidisciplinary collaboration between teams and institutions from the three countries made it possible to maximize the available sources in order to analyze characteristics of the local contexts and of the overall regional.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estatística como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-612967

RESUMO

By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the countrylevel are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did notachieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assuredHIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.


Hacia fines del 2010, América Latina y el Caribe lograron una cobertura de tratamiento antirretroviral de 63%. Se recomienda la ejecución de medidas para controlar la farmacorresistencia del VIH a nivel de país para potenciar al máximo la eficacia y la sostenibilidad de los programas de tratamiento antirretroviral. Desde el 2006, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud ha apoyado la aplicación de la estrategia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para la prevención y la evaluación de la farmacorresistenciadel VIH mediante actividades regionales de formación de capacidad y de cooperación técnica directa en 30 países de América Latina y el Caribe. En 2010, 85 centros en 19 países notificaron indicadores de alerta temprana y suministraron información acerca del alcance de los posibles impulsores de la farmacorresistencia enlos centros de tratamiento antirretroviral. En el 2009, 41,9% de los centros no lograron la meta de la OMS de 100% de prescripción de medicamentos de primera línea apropiados; 6,3% todavía tenían tasas elevadas (> 20%) de pérdida de seguimiento y 16,2% tenían una baja retención de pacientes (< 70%) en tratamiento con antirretrovirales deprimera línea en el primer año de tratamiento. Se registraron desabastecimientos de medicamentos antirretrovirales en 22,7% de los centros. Haiti, Guyana y la zona mesoamericana están planificando y ejecutando estudios de vigilancia de la farmacorresistencia del VIH o estudios del umbral de la OMS. Las nuevas herramientas para la vigilancia de la farmacorresistencia del VIH en las epidemias concentradas permitiránuna mejor vigilancia. La ampliación de la red de laboratorios de farmacorresistenciadel VIH acreditados por la OMS en América Latina es fundamental para el fortalecimientode la capacidad de los laboratorios regionales, a fin de de efectuar una vigilancia de la farmacorresistencia del VIH de calidad garantizada...


Assuntos
Humanos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , HIV-1 , Vigilância da População , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Saúde Global , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 30(6): 657-62, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22358418

RESUMO

By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the country level are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did not achieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assured HIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigilância da População , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 1(4): 14-19, sept. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-597388

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la pasta base de cocaína (PBC) es una forma fumable de cocaína de creciente utilización entre los jóvenes. OBJETIVO: describir el patrón de consumo de drogas, las seroprevalencias de VIH, hepatitis B (VHB), hepatitis C (VHC), sífilis y otrosproblemas de salud en usuarios de PBC en un centro asistencial de Argentina. MÉTODO: se incluyeron voluntarios mayores de 18 años, asistidos en el Centro Nacional de Reeducación Social (CENARESO)en el período 2006-2007, que consumieron PBC en los 6 meses anteriores a la entrevista y que nunca utilizaron drogas inyectables. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado, se tomó una muestra de sangre para serología de VIH, VHB, VHC y sífilis, y se analizó una sub-muestra de radiografías de tórax. RESULTADOS: más de la mitad de los 146 voluntarios manifestó haber fumado PBC varias veces por semana. Los participantes eran también consumidores frecuentes de cocaína en polvo (64%), cannabis (80,8%) y tranquilizantes (44,5%). Los principales problemas de salud auto-percibidos como consecuencia del consumo de PBC fueron las lesiones orales y la pérdida de peso. El 4,3% de los voluntarios resultó VIH-positivo. Las prevalencias de infección por sífilis, VHB y VHC fueron 2,7%, 5,5%, y 5,5%, respectivamente. El 16% estaba coinfectado con uno o más de los agentes estudiados. DISCUSIÓN: la prevalencia de infecciones, unida a otros problemas de salud de los usuarios de PBC, indica la necesidad de nuevas investigaciones a fin de diseñar intervenciones preventivas y terapéuticas apropiadas


INTRODUCTION: cocaine paste is a smokable form of cocaine increasingly used among young people. OBJECTIVE:to describe patterns of drugs, seroprevalences of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), syphilis and other health problems among coca paste users assisted at a drug treatment center in Argentina. METHOD: volunteers, eighteen-year-old and olderassisted at the National Center for Social Re-education (CENARESO)during 2006-2007, who had consumed coca paste over the past 6 months previous to the interview and had never injected drugs, were selected. A structured questionnaire wasused and blood was drawn to test HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. A sub-sample of thorax X-rays was analyzed. RESULTS: morethan half of the 146 volunteers had smoked coca paste severaltimes a week. The use of other drugs was frequently associated: sniffed cocaine 64%, cannabis 80,8%, and tranquilizers 44,5. Oral lesions and lost of weight were referred as health problems stemming from coca paste use. Out of the 146 volunteers, 4.3%resulted HIV-positive. Prevalences of infection for syphilis, HBV, and HCV were 2,7%, 5,5% and 5,5%, respectively. 16% wasco-infected with one or more infectious agents. DISCUSSION: the prevalence of infections detected, along with other clinical problems found among this coca paste users, show the need for further research, in order to design proper preventive and therapeutic interventions


Assuntos
Humanos , Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Demografia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Capacitação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Vírus da Hepatite B , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Recursos para a Pesquisa , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
14.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(66): 136-142, nov. 2009. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-560956

RESUMO

La Coordinación Sida, desde su creación ha basado su gestión en la construcción de un modelo participativo con un horizonte estratégico político en todas sus acciones. El fortalecimiento de las capacidades autónomas del equipo así como la de los efectores, ha sido la estrategia principal en la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH (TV) dentro del sistema público de salud en la CABA. El propósito del presente artículo es describir esta trayectoria, tomando tres ejes principales: un modelo de gestión basado en el acompañamiento de los equipos, los aportes de la vigilancia epidemiológica y la investigación aplicada. El análisis de estas líneas de trabajo permitió identificar aciertos y obstáculos que permiten fortalecer las estrategias implementadas para reducir la tasa de TV.


Since its creation, Coordinación Sida has based its management on the creation of a participative model with a political strategic horizon in all of its actions. Strengthening the has been the main strategy aimed at preventing HIV vertical transmission within the public healthcare system in the City of Buenos Aires. The objective of this article is describing Coordinación Sida's background with special emphasis on three axes: a management model based on team follow-up, its contribution to epidemiological surveillance and applied research. The analysis of these work lines allowed to identify both success and obstacles, both of them allow to strengthen the strategies applied for reducing the vertical transmission rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle
15.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(66): 136-142, nov. 2009. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-124372

RESUMO

La Coordinación Sida, desde su creación ha basado su gestión en la construcción de un modelo participativo con un horizonte estratégico político en todas sus acciones. El fortalecimiento de las capacidades autónomas del equipo así como la de los efectores, ha sido la estrategia principal en la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH (TV) dentro del sistema público de salud en la CABA. El propósito del presente artículo es describir esta trayectoria, tomando tres ejes principales: un modelo de gestión basado en el acompañamiento de los equipos, los aportes de la vigilancia epidemiológica y la investigación aplicada. El análisis de estas líneas de trabajo permitió identificar aciertos y obstáculos que permiten fortalecer las estrategias implementadas para reducir la tasa de TV.(AU)


Since its creation, Coordinación Sida has based its management on the creation of a participative model with a political strategic horizon in all of its actions. Strengthening the has been the main strategy aimed at preventing HIV vertical transmission within the public healthcare system in the City of Buenos Aires. The objective of this article is describing Coordinación Sidas background with special emphasis on three axes: a management model based on team follow-up, its contribution to epidemiological surveillance and applied research. The analysis of these work lines allowed to identify both success and obstacles, both of them allow to strengthen the strategies applied for reducing the vertical transmission rate.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Notificação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Serviços de Saúde/22060 , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
16.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(65): 106-111, sept. 2009. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-534098

RESUMO

La epidemia de VIH en Argentina sigue siendo concentrada - es decir, con una prevalencia en la población general menor al 1% y superior al 5% en alguna población específica - y predominantemente urbana. En este artículo presentamos un análisis de los datos epidemiológicos de la población de residentes de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), diagnosticados durante el período 2003-2008 y notificados a la Coordinación Sida del Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad. Los resultados muestran que la vía sexual sigue siendo la forma principal de transmisión, con predominio del grupo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) en la población masculina. La universalización del testeo en embarazadas y una mayor accesibilidad de las mujeres a los servicios de salud podrían haber impactado en el llamado proceso de feminización de la epidemia. El mayor porcentaje de diagnósticos tardíos en la población masculina se observa particularmente en mayores de 50 años y con menor nivel de instrucción, lo que plantea la necesidad de fortalecer las estrategias preventivas y de accesibilidad al testeo en esta población.


Argentina HIV epidemic is a contained and urban epidemic, with a relative slow and stable prevalence. In this paper we analyzed the epidemic profile about Buenos Aires residents for which diagnosis of HIV infection was made between 2003 an 2008 and were notified to the AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health. Most infections were adquired by sexual transmissions with predominance of men who have sex eith men in the masculine popultaion. Universal HIV testing in pregnancy and facilitate access of women to health services could explain the process of feminization of the epidemy. Predominance of delayed diagnosis in the male population, elder than fifty and with lowest instruction level, suggests the need of enhacing preventive strategies and access to testing in this setting.


Assuntos
Humanos , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde em Grupos Específicos , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Testes de Gravidez , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(65): 106-111, sept. 2009. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-124917

RESUMO

La epidemia de VIH en Argentina sigue siendo concentrada - es decir, con una prevalencia en la población general menor al 1% y superior al 5% en alguna población específica - y predominantemente urbana. En este artículo presentamos un análisis de los datos epidemiológicos de la población de residentes de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), diagnosticados durante el período 2003-2008 y notificados a la Coordinación Sida del Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad. Los resultados muestran que la vía sexual sigue siendo la forma principal de transmisión, con predominio del grupo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) en la población masculina. La universalización del testeo en embarazadas y una mayor accesibilidad de las mujeres a los servicios de salud podrían haber impactado en el llamado proceso de feminización de la epidemia. El mayor porcentaje de diagnósticos tardíos en la población masculina se observa particularmente en mayores de 50 años y con menor nivel de instrucción, lo que plantea la necesidad de fortalecer las estrategias preventivas y de accesibilidad al testeo en esta población.(AU)


Argentina HIV epidemic is a contained and urban epidemic, with a relative slow and stable prevalence. In this paper we analyzed the epidemic profile about Buenos Aires residents for which diagnosis of HIV infection was made between 2003 an 2008 and were notified to the AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health. Most infections were adquired by sexual transmissions with predominance of men who have sex eith men in the masculine popultaion. Universal HIV testing in pregnancy and facilitate access of women to health services could explain the process of feminization of the epidemy. Predominance of delayed diagnosis in the male population, elder than fifty and with lowest instruction level, suggests the need of enhacing preventive strategies and access to testing in this setting.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etiologia , Testes de Gravidez , Homossexualidade Masculina , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde em Grupos Específicos
18.
Int J Drug Policy ; 18(2): 99-106, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17689352

RESUMO

The paper reviews the main findings from substance misuse research carried out over the last two decades in South America looking at the main initiatives aimed at reducing drug related harm and curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases. The current challenges faced by harm reduction in the region are analysed from the perspective of the history of coca and its different uses in South America. Except in Brazil and Argentina, the implementation of initiatives to reduce drug related harm in South America has been very cautious. The paper aims to link the analysis of harms associated with the use of illicit substances, with the often paradoxically harmful effects of supply-side drug policies in the world's largest coca/cocaine producing area. Despite the undeniable success of many initiatives, the broader context of harm maximization through structural violence and entrenched corruption acts as a major disincentive for the comprehensive adoption of sound public health policies.


Assuntos
Coca , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Cocaína/economia , Crime , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Redução do Dano , Política de Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Pobreza , América do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 22(4): 741-50, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16612428

RESUMO

This article discusses the changes in injecting drug use from 1998 to 2003 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Rapid Situation Assessment and Response methodology was used to obtain the information. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were triangulated: 140 current IDUs and 35 sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) were surveyed; 17 in-depth interviews with the surveyed IDUs and 2 focus groups were held, as well as ethnographic observations. The way in which risk and care practices among injecting drug users changed and the influence of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on this process are described. In recent years, the frequency of injection practices and sharing of injecting equipment has decreased, while injecting drug use is a more hidden practice in a context of increasing impact of the disease in the injecting drug use social networks and changes in the price and quality of drugs. Knowledge about these changes helps build harm reduction activities oriented to IDUs in their particular social context.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos
20.
Cad. saúde pública ; 22(4): 741-750, abr. 2006. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-424971

RESUMO

Este artículo refleja los cambios en el uso inyectable de drogas producidos entre 1998 y 2003 en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Para obtener la información se empleó la metodología de Evaluación y Respuesta Rápida, triangulando técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Durante 2003-2004 se realizaron encuestas a 140 usuarios de drogas inyectables (UDIs) actuales y a 35 parejas sexuales de UDIs. De este universo, 17 UDIs fueron entrevistados en profundidad; se formaron dos grupos de discusión y observaciones etnográficas. Se describe el modo en que cambiaron las prácticas de cuidado y riesgo en el uso inyectable y la influencia de la epidemia de VIH/SIDA en este proceso. En los últimos años disminuyó la frecuencia de uso y del uso compartido de material de inyección, se incrementó el ocultamiento del uso inyectable; en un contexto de fuerte impacto de la enfermedad en el entorno cercano a los UDIs y de un cambio en la relación precio-calidad de las drogas. Conocer estos cambios permite intervenir más adecuadamente en la reducción de los daños asociados al uso inyectable de drogas en el contexto particular en que estas prácticas se desarrollan.


Assuntos
Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Redução do Dano , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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