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1.
Data Brief ; 25: 104289, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406905

RESUMO

This article contains data related to the research article entitle "Multi-modal Deep Learning for Fruit Detection Using RGB-D Cameras and their Radiometric Capabilities" [1]. The development of reliable fruit detection and localization systems is essential for future sustainable agronomic management of high-value crops. RGB-D sensors have shown potential for fruit detection and localization since they provide 3D information with color data. However, the lack of substantial datasets is a barrier for exploiting the use of these sensors. This article presents the KFuji RGB-DS database which is composed by 967 multi-modal images of Fuji apples on trees captured using Microsoft Kinect v2 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Each image contains information from 3 different modalities: color (RGB), depth (D) and range corrected IR intensity (S). Ground truth fruit locations were manually annotated, labeling a total of 12,839 apples in all the dataset. The current dataset is publicly available at http://www.grap.udl.cat/publicacions/datasets.html.

2.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 72, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has unveiled specific alterations at different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiologic continuum constituting what has been established as "AD signature". To what extent MRI can detect amyloid-related cerebral changes from structural MRI in cognitively unimpaired individuals is still an area open for exploration. METHOD: Longitudinal 3D-T1 MRI scans were acquired from a subset of the ADNI cohort comprising 403 subjects: 79 controls (Ctrls), 50 preclinical AD (PreAD), and 274 MCI and dementia due to AD (MCI/AD). Amyloid CSF was used as gold-standard measure with established cutoffs (< 192 pg/mL) to establish diagnostic categories. Cognitively unimpaired individuals were defined as Ctrls if were amyloid negative and PreAD otherwise. The MCI/AD group was amyloid positive. Only subjects with the same diagnostic category at baseline and follow-up visits were considered for the study. Longitudinal morphometric analysis was performed using SPM12 to calculate Jacobian determinant maps. Statistical analysis was carried out on these Jacobian maps to identify structural changes that were significantly different between diagnostic categories. A machine learning classifier was applied on Jacobian determinant maps to predict the presence of abnormal amyloid levels in cognitively unimpaired individuals. The performance of this classifier was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and as a function of the follow-up time between MRI scans. We applied a cost function to assess the benefit of using this classifier in the triaging of individuals in a clinical trial-recruitment setting. RESULTS: The optimal follow-up time for classification of Ctrls vs PreAD was Δt > 2.5 years, and hence, only subjects within this temporal span are used for evaluation (15 Ctrls, 10 PreAD). The longitudinal voxel-based classifier achieved an AUC = 0.87 (95%CI 0.72-0.97). The brain regions that showed the highest discriminative power to detect amyloid abnormalities were the medial, inferior, and lateral temporal lobes; precuneus; caudate heads; basal forebrain; and lateral ventricles. CONCLUSIONS: Our work supports that machine learning applied to longitudinal brain volumetric changes can be used to predict, with high precision, the presence of amyloid abnormalities in cognitively unimpaired subjects. Used as a triaging method to identify a fixed number of amyloid-positive individuals, this longitudinal voxel-wise classifier is expected to avoid 55% of unnecessary CSF and/or PET scans and reduce economic cost by 40%.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380776

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution brain morphological information and is used as a biomarker in neurodegenerative diseases. Population studies of brain morphology often seek to identify pathological structural changes related to different diagnostic categories (e.g: controls, mild cognitive impairment or dementia) which normally describe highly heterogeneous groups with a single categorical variable. Instead, multiple biomarkers are used as a proxy for pathology and are more powerful in capturing structural variability. Hence, using the joint modeling of brain morphology and biomarkers, we aim at describing structural changes related to any brain condition by means of few underlying processes. In this regard, we use a multivariate approach based on Projection to Latent Structures in its regression variant (PLSR) to study structural changes related to aging and AD pathology. MRI volumetric and cortical thickness measurements are used for brain morphology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (t-tau, p-tau and amyloid-beta) are used as a proxy for AD pathology. By relating both sets of measurements, PLSR finds a low-dimensional latent space describing AD pathological effects on brain structure. The proposed framework allows to separately model aging effects on brain morphology as a confounder variable orthogonal to the pathological effect. The predictive power of the associated latent spaces (i.e. the capacity of predicting biomarker values) is assessed in a cross-validation framework.

4.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 38(11): 2556-2568, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908194

RESUMO

Quantification of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin is of key importance in many neurological research studies. Currently, measurements are often still obtained from manual segmentations on brain MR images, which is a laborious procedure. The automatic WMH segmentation methods exist, but a standardized comparison of the performance of such methods is lacking. We organized a scientific challenge, in which developers could evaluate their methods on a standardized multi-center/-scanner image dataset, giving an objective comparison: the WMH Segmentation Challenge. Sixty T1 + FLAIR images from three MR scanners were released with the manual WMH segmentations for training. A test set of 110 images from five MR scanners was used for evaluation. The segmentation methods had to be containerized and submitted to the challenge organizers. Five evaluation metrics were used to rank the methods: 1) Dice similarity coefficient; 2) modified Hausdorff distance (95th percentile); 3) absolute log-transformed volume difference; 4) sensitivity for detecting individual lesions; and 5) F1-score for individual lesions. In addition, the methods were ranked on their inter-scanner robustness; 20 participants submitted their methods for evaluation. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the results. In brief, there is a cluster of four methods that rank significantly better than the other methods, with one clear winner. The inter-scanner robustness ranking shows that not all the methods generalize to unseen scanners. The challenge remains open for future submissions and provides a public platform for method evaluation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835215

RESUMO

Accurate segmentation of infant brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an indispensable foundation for early studying of brain growth patterns and morphological changes in neurodevelopmental disorders. Nevertheless, in the isointense phase (approximately 6-9 months of age), due to inherent myelination and maturation process, WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MR images, making tissue segmentation very challenging. Despite many efforts were devoted to brain segmentation, only few studies have focused on the segmentation of 6-month infant brain images. With the idea of boosting methodological development in the community, iSeg-2017 challenge (http://iseg2017.web.unc.edu) provides a set of 6-month infant subjects with manual labels for training and testing the participating methods. Among the 21 automatic segmentation methods participating in iSeg-2017, we review the 8 top-ranked teams, in terms of Dice ratio, modified Hausdorff distance and average surface distance, and introduce their pipelines, implementations, as well as source codes. We further discuss limitations and possible future directions. We hope the dataset in iSeg-2017 and this review article could provide insights into methodological development for the community.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(4): 1099-1112, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010132

RESUMO

The identification of healthy individuals harboring amyloid pathology represents one important challenge for secondary prevention clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, noninvasive and cost-efficient techniques to detect preclinical AD constitute an unmet need of critical importance. In this manuscript, we apply machine learning to structural MRI (T1 and DTI) of 96 cognitively normal subjects to identify amyloid-positive ones. Models were trained on public ADNI data and validated on an independent local cohort. Used for subject classification in a simulated clinical trial setting, the proposed method is able to save 60% of unnecessary CSF/PET tests and to reduce 47% of the cost of recruitment. This recruitment strategy capitalizes on available MR scans to reduce the overall amount of invasive PET/CSF tests in prevention trials, demonstrating a potential value as a tool for preclinical AD screening. This protocol could foster the development of secondary prevention strategies for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Curva ROC
7.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 17(11): 2201-16, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18854257

RESUMO

This paper discusses the use of Binary Partition Trees (BPTs) for object detection. BPTs are hierarchical region-based representations of images. They define a reduced set of regions that covers the image support and that spans various levels of resolution. They are attractive for object detection as they tremendously reduce the search space. In this paper, several issues related to the use of BPT for object detection are studied. Concerning the tree construction, we analyze the compromise between computational complexity reduction and accuracy. This will lead us to define two parts in the BPT: one providing accuracy and one representing the search space for the object detection task. Then we analyze and objectively compare various similarity measures for the tree construction. We conclude that different similarity criteria should be used for the part providing accuracy in the BPT and for the part defining the search space and specific criteria are proposed for each case. Then we discuss the object detection strategy based on BPT. The notion of node extension is proposed and discussed. Finally, several object detection examples illustrating the generality of the approach and its efficiency are reported.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Técnica de Subtração , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Logísticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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